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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That non-point source is 1. any source, other than a point source, which discharges pollutants into air or water [22]. 2. source originating over broad areas, such as areas of fertilizer and pesticide application and leaking sewer systems, rather than from discrete points [22].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for behavior (Keyword) returned 92 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 92
Buoyancy-driven dissolution enhancement in rock fractures, 2000,
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Dijk, P. E. , Berkowitz, B.

The structures of geological formations, as well as flow and chemical transport patterns within them, are profoundly affected by chemical dissolution and precipitation processes (i.e., the interactions among flow, chemical transport, buoyancy, and dissolution and precipitation reactions). These processes are intrinsically hard to measure, and therefore are not well understood. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is applied to study the dynamic behavior of coupled flow and dissolution in natural rock fractures. Our findings reveal that flow and transport in evolving fractures are far more unpredictable than commonly assumed, due to complex interactions among fracture morphology, flow, dissolution, and buoyancy. This can explain physical processes causing catastrophic collapse and subsurface structural instabilities, such as sinkholes and land subsidence.


Introduction of wavelet analyses to rainfall/runoffs relationship for a karstic basin: The case of Licq-Atherey karstic system (France), 2001,
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Labat D. , Ababou R. , Mangin A. ,
Karstic systems are highly heterogeneous geological formations characterized by a multiscale temporal and spatial hydrologic behavior with more or less localized temporal and spatial structures. Classical correlation and spectral analyses cannot take into account these properties. Therefore, it is proposed to introduce a new kind of transformation: the wavelet transform. Here we focus particularly on the use of wavelets to study temporal behavior of local precipitation and watershed runoffs from a part of the karstic system. In the first part of the paper, a brief mathematical overview of the continuous Morlet wavelet transform and of the multiresolution analysis is presented. An analogy with spectral analyses allows the introduction of concepts such as wavelet spectrum and cross-spectrum. In the second part, classical methods (spectral and correlation analyses) and wavelet transforms are applied and compared for daily rainfall rates and runoffs measured on a French karstic watershed (Pyrenees) over a period of 30 years. Different characteristic time scales of the rainfall and runoff processes are determined, These time scales are typically on the order of a few days for floods, but they also include significant half-year and one-year components and multi-annual components. The multiresolution cross-analysis also provides a new interpretation of the impulse response of the system. To conclude, wavelet transforms provide a valuable amount of information, which may be now taken into account in both temporal and spatially distributed karst modeling of precipitation and runoff

Geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene speleothemsfrom central Texas: Implications for regional paleoclimate, 2001,
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Musgrove Marylynn, Banner Jay L. , Mack Larry E. , Combs Deanna M. , James Eric W. , Cheng Hai, Edwards R. Lawrence,
A detailed chronology for four stalagmites from three central Texas caves separated by as much as 130 km provides a 71 000-yr record of temporal changes in hydrology and climate. Mass spectrometric 238U-230Th and 235U-231Pa analyses have yielded 53 ages. The accuracy of the ages and the closed- system behavior of the speleothems are indicated by interlaboratory comparisons, concordance of 230Th and 231Pa ages, and the result that all ages are in correct stratigraphic order. Over the past 71 000 yr, the stalagmites have similar growth histories with alternating periods of relatively rapid and slow growth. The growth rates vary over more than two orders of magnitude, and there were three periods of rapid growth: 71-60 ka, 39-33 ka, and 24-12 ka. These growth-rate shifts correspond in part with global glacial-interglacial climatic shifts. Paleontological evidence indicates that around the Last Glacial Maximum (20 ka), climate in central Texas was cooler and wetter than at present. This wetter interval corresponds with the most recent period of increased growth rates in the speleothems, which is consistent with conditions necessary for speleothem growth. The temporal shift in wetness has been proposed to result from a southward deflection of the jet steam due to the presence of a continental ice sheet in central North America. This mechanism also may have governed the two earlier intervals of fast growth in the speleothems (and inferred wetter climate). Ice volumes were lower and temperatures in central North America were higher during these two earlier glacial intervals than during the Last Glacial Maximum, however. The potential effects of temporal variations in precession of Earth's orbit on regional effective moisture may provide an additional mechanism for increased effective moisture coincident with the observed intervals of increased speleothem growth. The stalagmites all exhibit a large drop in growth rate between 15 and 12 ka, and they show very slow growth up to the present, consistent with drier climate during the Holocene. These results illustrate that speleothem growth rates can reflect the regional response of a hydrologic system to regional and global climate variability

Modeling flow in phreatic and epiphreatic karst conduits in the Holloch cave (Muotatal, Switzerland), 2001,
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Jeannin P. Y. ,
The Holloch cave is a site where the hydrodynamic behavior of a karst conduit network can be observed with a high degree of precision. Observed heads. discharge rates, conduit sizes, and conduit lengths have been compiled into a simple hydrodynamic model in order to check their consistency. It was possible to calibrate and satisfactorily fit the observed data. Model results show the following: (1) Flow models which are able to simulate turbulent flow in variably saturated conduit networks can adequately model conduit flow-dominated karst systems. (2) Karst systems may be strongly nonlinear, especially because of the presence of epiphreatic conduits. (3) Under certain circumstances, storage in the epiphreatic conduits and in the fissured limestone matrix can be neglected. (4) The typical effective hydraulic conductivity of karst conduits ranges between 1 and 10 m s(-1), and the Louis Formula is adequate to calculate head losses in those conduits. (5) Indirect measurements of flow velocity using scallop size indicate values of similar to 30-40% of the maximal annual discharge, and velocity derived from pebble size indicates values of similar to 150% of the maximal annual discharge

Inverse modeling of the hydrological and the hydrochemical behavior of hydrosystems: Characterization of karst system functioning, 2001,
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Pinault J. L. , Plagnes V. , Aquilina L. , Bakalowicz M. ,
Inverse modeling of mass transfer characterizes the dynamic processes affecting the function of karst systems and can be used to identify karst properties. An inverse model is proposed to calculate unit hydrographs as well as impulse response of fluxes from rainfall-runoff or rainfall-flux data, the purpose of which is hydrograph separation. Contrary to what hydrologists have been doing for years, hydrograph separation is carried out by using transfer functions in their entirety, which enables accurate separation of fluxes, as was explained in the companion paper [Pinault et al., this issue]. The unit hydrograph as well as impulse response of fluxes is decomposed into a quick and a slow component, and, consequently, the effective rainfall is decomposed into two parts, one contributing to the quick flow (or flux) and the other contributing to the slow flow generation. This approach is applied to seven French karstic aquifers located on the Larzac plateau in the Grands Causses area (in the south of France). Both hydrodynamical and hydrogeochemical data have been recorded from these springs over several hydrological cycles. For modeling purposes, karst properties can be represented by the impulse responses of flow and flux of dissolved species. The heterogeneity of aquifers is translated to time-modulated flow and transport at the outlet. Monitoring these fluxes enables the evaluation of slow and quick components in the hydrograph. The quick component refers to the 'flush flow' effect and results from fast infiltration in the karst conduit network when connection is established between the infiltration and phreatic zones, inducing an increase in water head. This component reflects flood events where flow behavior is nonlinear and is described by a very short transfer function, which increases and decreases according to water head. The slow component consists of slow and fast infiltration, underground runoff, storage in annex-to-drain systems, and discharge from the saturated zone. These components can be further subdivided by measuring chemical responses at the karst outlet. Using Such natural tracers enables the slow component of the unit hydrograph to be separated into preevent water, i.e., water of the reservoir and event water, i.e., water whose origin can be related to a particular rainfall event. These measurements can be used to determine the rate of water renewal. Since the preevent water hydrograph is produced by stored water when pushed by a rainfall event and the event water hydrograph reflects rainwater transfer, separating the two components can yield insights into the characteristics of karst aquifers, the modes of infiltration, and the mechanisms involved in karstification, as well as the degree of organization of the aquifer

Exploration techniques for karst groundwater resources., 2001,
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Bakalowicz M.
Porous and fissure aquifers display statistical homogeneity of their physical and hydraulic characteristics on a scale ranging from tens to several hundreds of meters. Such homogeneity is a product of the relatively small spatial variability of these characteristics and creates conditions of general hydraulic continuity throughout the entire saturated zone. Their groundwater resources can be explored by a simple approach, i.e. defining the aquifer geometry from geological data, and determining local hydraulic parameters from pumping tests; finally, the local data are extended to characterise the entire aquifer through regionalizing techniques. However, within the infiltration and saturated zones of carbonate aquifers, karst processes create a peculiar void heterogeneity : voids may reach several meters in diameter and several kilometers in length. These voids are organized in a hierarchic network from the input surface often to a single spring: this is the conduit or drainage network. Therefore the network should be fully characterized prior to assessing the groundwater resources of a karst aquifer and its possible storage capacity, i.e. the network's transmissive or drainage function and its links with storage components (its storage function). Traditionally, speleological exploration is considered the best technique for directly characterizing a drainage network. Unfortunately, this usually gives an incorrect view of the karst aquifer because only a few parts (or none at all) are known when there is no access to the saturated zone. The classical hydrogeological approach is thus unsuitable for assessing karst aquifers. In this context, karst hydrogeologists must adopt the classical approach of physicians and biologists examining living bodies, by characterizing a karst aquifer, its resources and storage by accurate description of the void organization and an analysis of its overall behavior (or functioning) and that of its different parts or organs. With such an approach, a karst aquifer is considered as a living organism composed of different types of organs interlinked by functional relationships. Unlike physicians, hydrogeologists generally have to discover the extent of the body they wish to study (the karst system as a drainage unit, its limits and the boundary conditions). Therefore, as in the field of medicine^ techniques are used for describing the aquifer in bi- or tri-dimensional space (geology, geophysics) and for characterizing its functioning (hydrodynamics, natural tracing, hydrological balance). Moreover, data from these techniques are interpreted in order to propose a diagnosis, i.e. for building a conceptual model of the studied aquifer. In the next step, as in medicine, the conceptual model can be assessed with localized tests, such as artificial tracing and diver exploration for borehole positioning and pumping tests. Methods for interpreting tracing and pumping tests must obviously be adapted to the specific nature of karst, i.e. they cannot be based on classical models whose basic assumptions are never verified in the karstic medium. Finally, karst hydrogeologists have to set up and implement a complex set of techniques for describing the extent and limits of a karst system, exploring its drainage pattern, and analyzing its behaviour. All geoscience disciplines are ultimately required for the comprehensive exploration of groundwater resources in karst aquifers.

Geological and geotechnical context of cover collapse and subsidence in mid-continent US clay-mantled karst, 2002,
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Cooley T,
This paper presents a synthesis of geologic and geotechnical concepts to present a unified model of conditions controlling The development of cover-collapse sinkholes and associated ground subsidence. Appropriate engineering response to the hazards associated with collapse and subsidence requires a full understanding of the underlying mechanisms that produce such effects. The geotechnical characteristics of the overlying clay mantle and occurrence of the associated cover-collapse features are not random, but rather are directly tied to the underlying water flow routes and their development through time. The clay mantle and underlying epikarst are two components of a single system, each of the components influencing the other. This paper brings together these two aspects in terms of the author's personal experience and observations as a geologist, geotechnical engineer, hydrogeologist, and caver. A summary of the basic model follows. Much of the clay mantle and pinnacled upper surface of the epikarst form while surface drainage still prevails. At this stage, the karst underdrains are insufficiently developed to transport soils, although some subsidence into cutters occurs because of dissolutional rock removal. Soil arches and macropore flow routes associated with cutters have developed by this stage. As competent deep conduits extend into the area by headward linking, the cutters with the most favorable drains are linked to the conduits first and act as attractors for the development of a tributary, laterally integrated drainage system in the epikarst. Once the most efficient cutter drains become competent to transport soils, the depressed top-of-rock and ground surfaces characteristic of dolines develop. A given doline underdrain is likely to have multiple tributary drains from adjacent cutters, which vary in soil transport competence. Soil stiffness in the clay mantle over the limestone varies as a result of the pattern of stresses imposed as the underlying rock surface is lowered by dissolution and later as soil piping locally removes soils. In the absence of karst, these soils would have developed a laterally uniform, stiff to very stiff consistency. Where soil near the soil-bedrock interface is locally removed, however, the weight of the materials overlying this void is transferred to abutment zones on the pinnacles by soil arches. Local soil loading in the abutment areas of these arches would increase at least on the-order of 50% in the case of an isolated cavity. In some cases, multiple closely spaced cutters whose soil arches have narrow, laterally constrained abutment zones bearing on the intervening pinnacles may produce substantially higher soil abutment stresses. If the clays in the abutment zones do not fail, they would respond to this increase in stress by consolidating: stiffening and decreasing in volume. The cutters spanned by the soil arches accumulate raveled soils that are 'under-consolidated', the soft zones noted between pinnacles by Sowers. A simple integral of stresses analysis makes it obvious, however that no continuous soft zone exists. It is the transfer of load to the pinnacles through the stiffened abutment soils that allows these locally soft areas to exist. Soil stiffness profiles from borings substantiate this pattern. Cover-collapse features develop where soil transport through cutter drains is sufficient to remove the soils from beneath these arched areas. Two types of collapse have been observed: type I collapses have an upward-stoping open void whose rubble pile is removed by transport as fast as it is generated, producing a deep, steep-sided final collapses. In some cases, multiple voids in clusters can form with narrow abutments separating them. Large collapses may involve a progressive failure of several members of a cluster, including intervening pillars. Type 2 features are soil-filled voids limited in their rate of upward growth by the rate of soil removal, have little open void space, and migrate to the ground surface as a column of soft soils, finally producing a shallow depression. The type 2 features have geotechnical significance because of their effect on settlement under imposed loads. A single underdrain system may service both types of features, the behavior of particular voids being dependent on the relative efficiencies of their drains. This behavior can also change with time because backfilling of the underdrains with soil or flushing out of the soil filling can occur with changes in hydrologic or erosional regimes

Modeling the hydraulical behavior of a fissured-karstic aquifer in exploitation conditions, 2002,
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Debieche Th, Guglielmi Y, Mudry J,
A 5-year daily measurement of the dynamic level in a borehole was plotted versus cumulative yield since the beginning of exploitation. Eighty percent of the experimental curve is explained by a linear function (h = aQ(c) h(0)) by intervals. Only floods, which follow heavy storms and non-pumping cannot be taken into account. The slopes of the straight lines are spread around two constant values of the slope: a(r) = .35 x 10(-3) m m(-3), which characterizes the part which is controlled by recharge, and a(p) = -0.14 x 10(-3) m m(-3), which characterizes the draining part of the aquifer fractures. This linear fitting demonstrates that the borehole -aquifer system can be considered as an equivalent continuous medium, where the linear relationship between dynamic head and pumped yield are defined by the values of ar and a, Thus the hydraulic behavior of the aquifer differs according to the pumping rate: equivalent continuous medium for a low rate, dual permeability for a high one. This work demonstrates that the long-term behavior of an exploited fissured aquifer can be described by a simple model, if the duration of the aquifer test is long enough (1-3 months). It also shows that the production phase must include repetitive head measurements in order to refine the exploitation yield and the management conditions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Flow behavior in a dual fracture network., 2002,
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Jourde H. , Cornaton F. , Pistre S. , Bidaux P.

Particle transport in a karst aquifer: natural and artificial tracer experiments with bacteria, bacteriophages and microspheres, 2002,
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Auckenthaler A, Raso G, Huggenberger P,
Fast changes in spring water quality in karst areas are a major concern for production of drinking water and require detailed knowledge of the complex interaction between karst aquifer, transport behavior of microorganisms and water treatment We have conducted artificial and natural particle transport experiments at a karst spring with bacteria, bacteriophages, microspheres, and pathogens Transport of the investigated microorganisms, turbid matter and chemical pullutants as well as increase in discharge are strongly related to precipitation and the heterogeneity of the aquifer The indicator bacteria E cob revealed a significant correlation to verotoxin-producing E cob and Cryptosporidium spp We conclude that artificial particle tracers can help identify 'hot spots' for microbial recharge and that system parameters in spring water such as turbidity, UV-extinction and increase in discharge can be key parameters for efficient raw water management

Toward a better understanding of fissure growth in karst formations: Investigations from genesis to maturation and the influence of fracture-matrix interactions., 2002,
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Cheung, Wendy Wai Wan

There has been interest in quantitative modeling of early karstification with the objectives of estimating time-scales of conduit growth and understanding the nature of cave patterns. In particular, the initiation phase has been studied in great detail because it is the slowest phase in the development of caverns. In this study aperture variability in a two-dimensional framework and fracture matrix interaction are studied to better understand their role in time estimations of aperture growth. The initial phase of karst development is studied from its nascent stage as a fissure into the early stages of turbulence. In uniform fissures in rapidly dissolving minerals, the concentration reaches the solubility limit within a short distance along the flow path. However, the variability in the aperture field inherently provides instabilities to the system and growth is propagated along these perturbations. Flow is focused into preferential channels which are enlarged at a faster rate than surrounding regions of slow flow. As a result, a positive feedback mechanism takes place and creates growth in a highly selective manner. Only in large domains (>25 correlation lengths), can the instabilities create competition for flow at the solution front as well and lead to significant branching. It is this branching which creates the non-monotonic behavior in breakthrough times (defined as the point in which turbulent flow is first encountered). It has been observed that the non-monotonic behavior is scale dependent. Smaller domains do not exhibit this behavior because there are only a few correlation lengths between
the fingertip and the lateral domain boundaries. Aperture variability significantly impacts dissolution patterns in a two-dimensional framework. While aperture variability speeds up growth, the inclusion of the porous bedrock can inhibit growth. The porous matrix serving as a large low - conductive reservoir can significantly influence the development of the fracture by slowing down dissolution growth through matrix diffusion. In a one dimensional model, this issue is further explored. Although the focus of the study is on modeling of early karstification, there are many common themes between this problem and other reactive transport problems that this model can be made suitable for exploring.


Could Mammoth Cave be reduced to a single equation?, 2003,
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Groves C. G. , Meiman J.

Since the evolution of any cave system is largely deterministic, in theory the processes responsible for this development could be described mathematically. In a practical sense, we will never have such a model to realistically describe the evolution of the Mammoth Cave System in detail. However, the search itself can provide a framework within which to understand what processes are important. This can guide the design of rate process studies that would eventually be coupled to provide a comprehensive understanding of the cave's evolution. Data gaps, as well, are identified during this process.
The geometry of a cave system depends on the individual growth rates of sequential sets of passage cross-sections. The growth of each of these cross-sections is determined by a set of coupled processes, the rates of which are related to well-defined variables. Major processes include limestone dissolution and precipitation (dependent on water and rock chemistry, flow characteristics, wetted passage perimeter, and temperature), sediment entrainment, deposition, and abrasion (dependent on flow velocity distributions and properties of the sediment supply), and breakdown processes (dependent on fracture characteristics). Our ability to model the complete picture depends on our grasp of these individual behaviors, as well as their interactions.
A long-term study of the behaviors of two single active passage cross-sections is underway in the Right and Left forks of Hawkins River of Mammoth Cave, where continuous water quality data are being obtained through two 145 m deep wells. Experiments are currently underway to determine storm- and seasonal-scale changes in limestone dissolution rates. Planned studies will explore sediment dynamics and the impact of sediment masking on dissolution rates, as well as potential impacts of sediment abrasion on passage growth. Complete understanding of a single cave slice is an important step to understanding cave evolution in general.


Composite transfer functions for karst aquifers, 2003,
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Icjukic V. , Jukic D. ,
Linear transfer functions have been extensively used in hydrological studies. Generally, we support this conclusion: rainfall-runoff models based on the convolution between rainfall rates and a nonparametric transfer function (NTF) are not successful at simulating karst spring discharges during long recession periods. The tails of identified transfer functions have irregular shapes and they are not accurate physical representation of the transport through a karst system. Irregularities are the result of unavoidable errors in input and output time series and simplifications made by considering the system as linear and time invariant. This paper deals with a new form of the transfer functions for karst aquifers, the so-called composite transfer function (CTF). The CTF simulates discharges by two transfer functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow hydrograph component modeling. NTF is responsible for the quick flow component. The slow flow component is modeled by a parametric transfer function that is an instantaneous unit hydrograph mathematically formulated and defined from a conceptual model. By using the CTF, the irregular shape of the tail of the identified transfer function can be avoided, and the simulation of long recession periods as well as the simulation of a complete hydrograph becomes more successful. The NTF, the Nash model, the Zoch model and other similar conceptual models can be considered separately as simplified forms of the CTF. The rainfall-runoff model based on the convolution between rainfall rates and the CTF was tested on the Jadro Spring in Croatia. The results of the application are compared with the results obtained by applying NTFs independently. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Surface cover infiltration index: a suggested method to assess infiltration capacity for intrinsic vulnerability in karstic areas in absence of quantitative data, 2004,
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Ekmekci Mehmet, Tezcan Levent
Karst is a hydrogeological environment of importance not only for its water resources potential but also for its scenic and economic potential, thereby increasing the intensity of human impact. The uniqueness of karst in this regard stems from its high sensitivity and vulnerability to imposed pressures and its distinctive response to these pressures. Therefore, a clear definition and formulation of the concept of intrinsic vulnerability is essential for the design of vulnerability and/or management criteria of the karstic system as a resource. In this regard, the recharge rate, the amount of water passing through the unsaturated zone into the aquifer, is among the principal attributes of the intrinsic vulnerability. Where data and measurements are available for even large areas, recharge can be evaluated quantitatively on the basis of field measurements and the water balance equation. However, particularly for countries suffering from lack of essential data for a quantitative evaluation of the net recharge rate, the recharge can be estimated using some derived parameters such as the so called Surface Cover Infiltration Index proposed in this paper. The DRASTIC method which is modified by using SCI, soil thickness and precipitation, allows the unique hydrological behavior of karst to be considered by redistributing of the intrinsic vulnerability values on the basis of hydrologic connections between neighboring cells. Following a detailed description of the SCI index and the modification of DRASTIC method for karst aquifers, a case study carried out to demonstrate this method is presented in this paper whose objective is to discuss and thus elaborate the suggested methodology. The Olimpos National Park area was selected because the great variation in lithology, landuse and topography. It was found that the relative vulnerability may vary particularly in the neighborhood of the highly vulnerable cells covered by carbonate rocks. The methodology was applied using ARC-GIS software. All spatial features used in computations were classified by the appropriate functions built into the software.

South China karst aquifer storm-scale hydrochemistry, 2004,
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Liu Z. H. , Groves C. , Yuan D. X. , Meiman J. ,
The peak cluster and peak forest karst regions of Southeast Asia form one of the earth's most extensive karst regions. Although there exists a rich, descriptive tradition of geomorphic work performed there, little quantitative study has been made of carbonate hydrochemistry and related aquifer/landscape behavior and evolution. In this paper, high-resolution measurements of ground water carbonate chemistry and flow were made and analyzed at two adjacent locations within the subtropical peak cluster karst of the Guilin Karst Experimental Site in Guangxi Province, China. While waters from a large, perennial spring represent the exit for the 2 km(2) catchment's conduit flow, a nearby well (within 5 m) measures water in the conduit-adjacent, fractured media. Results indicate that within peak cluster karst aquifer flow systems, spatially heterogeneous flow conditions can exist with respect to timing, magnitude, and, in some cases, direction of responses, as different controls can operate in the different flow system components. Stormscale chemical responses are controlled by dilution from rapid infiltration of rain water, CO2 gas sources and sinks, and water-carbonate rock interactions. At this particular location, there is also an influence from high pH recharge, apparently buffered by atmospheric limestone dust. An example of the varying controls on storm-scale responses within the flow system is that within the fractured medium, variations in the ground water calcite saturation index, a key parameter influencing rates of aquifer/landscape evolution, are small and controlled by CO 2 gas, while in the conduit they are more significant and dominated instead by dilution with rain water

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