Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hoya, hoyo is (spanish.) a very large closed depression. used in puerto rico for doline, in cuba for polje [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for hle (Keyword) returned 3045 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 3031 to 3045 of 3045
Bericht ber die Probegrabung (2011) in der Pendling-Brenhhle bei Kufstein (Nordtirol; 1266/21), 2012, Frischauf C. , Mazelis E. , Rabeder G.
A recent excavation in the Pendling cave (Rauberloch) has yielded identifiable remains of brown bears and cave bears. A radiometric dating attempt of a fossilized cave bear bone (Astragalus) failed due to the lack of collagen.

Zur Erforschungsgeschichte der Palotraun (Dachstein), 2012, Trimmel, H.
A paper in the 2010 issue of this journal focuses the discussion about the genesis of the Palotraun passage in Dachstein-Mammut- Cave to the opinions of Hermann Bock and Walter Biese and after World War II to the papers of Trimmel and Arnberger. According to the author this but insufficiently reflects the state of research of that time. This article intends to be a completion of the viewpoints published in 2010 as well as a contribution to Austrias history of speleology. Historically we can assume that Hermann Bocks Eforation hypothesis is not at the beginning but rather at the end of an already almost finished discussion. The scientific dispute about it during the time between the two world wars was carried on not only by works of Biese but also by Otto Lehmann. Furthermore, Austrian geomorphologists added new aspects to the dis - cussion. Speleogenetic discussions and studies after 1945 were no longer dedicated primarily to the Palotraun passage but tried a new approach by comparing vaulted forms in different karstic rocks and by giving more thought to sediments in terms of cave development. The Austrian Bundeshhlen - kommission (federal cave commission) with its yearly meetings beginning in 1947 became a major platform for discussion. It finally encouraged the development of an extended basis to judge speleogenetic processes especially in the Eastern Alps by doing extensive investigations and targeted observations.

Hhlendunkel und Wissbegierde - Eine Kulturgeschichte der Hhlenforschung in Europa von der Antike bis zur Romantik, 2012, Mattes, J.
On the basis of the constructivist culture theory the traditional research interests of the history of science were renewed in the 1990ies. The article bases upon an oral presentation at the Austrian Society for the History of Science. In contrast to the dominating micro historic studies in the history of speleology, the paper provides an overview of the human activity in caves from ancient world to the beginning of the 19th century. This includes not only the scientific study of caves, but also sightseeing tours, the investigation and opening of caves undertaken by scientific laymen. The focus doesnt lie on single explorers and their attainments, but concentrates on the changes in the perception and interpretation of the underground cavities as well as on the practice of the visitors and explorers. The results show an intimate correlation between the scientific and cultural discourses to the interior of the earth. The people in the antiquity and Middle Ages interpreted caves as sexualized areas, which refer to social taboos. Simultaneously caves were used for protection and as a place for religious meditations. During the Baroque period they became the location of bizarre objects, admiring promenades and aristocratic celebrations. In the Romantic period the netherworld was seen as an area of inwardness and edification. Geologists and paleontologists discovered them as archives of natural history; artists recognized caves as areas of spiritual revelation, where ancient myths were updated.

Die Verbindung von Oberer Brandgrabenhhle und Hirlatzhhle, 2012, Buchegger G. , Wimmer G.
Since the exploration of the Nordsiphon in Hirlatzhhle (1546/7) in 1963 a link to Obere Brandgrabenhhle (1546/6) has been assumed. In order to find this link there have been numerous dives in both caves with hitherto greater successes in Hirlatzhhle. On December 27th 2011, i.e. exactly the 48th anniversary of the exploration of the Nordsiphon, Gerhard Wimmer succeeded in covering the distance mainly under water starting from Brandgrabenhhle. This adds to a present total length of Hirlatzhhle of 100.418 m.

Hhlenfotografie: Robert Seebacher, 2012, Anonym

Der Hhlenname Ofen, 2012, Hasitschka, J.
Since the Middle Ages washed out kolks in canyons, cave entrances, rock recesses or overhanging rock walls mainly situated in the Northern Calcareous Alps have been called fen. They have in common that they look like an ancient vaulted oven to the hollow mould of which they are compared. It is difficult to track topographic-etymologic traces because the concrete names like in Ziegelofenhhle (brickoven cave) are mixed with abstract, figurative meanings like in Gamsofen (chamois oven). The term Ofen got one further meaning by introducing the speleological term Backofentypus (oven type cave). About 130 Austrian caves with the name of Ofen are analyzed topographically and etymologically, from lime kilns (Kalkfen) in the Prealps up to the mountain peaks of Salz- or Rotofen. The question why the name Ofen in modern language is rarely used or even no longer understood is finally dealt with.

Urs Widmer - Ein Nachruf von seinen Hhlenfreunden, 2012, Billeter, S.

Jahresberichte 2011 der hhlenkundlichen Organisationen sterreichs, 2012, Auct. Var.

Hypogenic origin of Provalata Cave, Republic of Macedonia: a distinct case of successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis, 2013, Temovski Marjan, Audra Philippe, Mihevc Andrej, Spangenberg Jorge E. , Polyak Victor, Mcintosh William, Bigot Jeanyves.

Provalata Cave (Republic of Macedonia) is a small but remarkable hypogenic cave, developed in Cambrian marbles by successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The cave has a thick partly corroded calcite crust, abundant gypsum deposits, with cupolas, ceiling and wall channels, feeders and replacement pockets as some of the most characteristic morphological features. Distribution of morphology and deposits suggest a hypogenic origin in two distinct speleogenetic phases: the first by thermal CO2 rich waters, the second by sulfuric acid dissolution, which were separated by complete infilling of cave passages with pyroclastic-derived clays. In the first phase of speleogenesis, cave passages were formed by dissolution along fractures due to cooling of rising carbonated thermal waters. These phreatic morphologies were later covered with a thick calcite crust deposited in a shallow phreatic environment. In Early Pleistocene the cave was completely filled with clays due to deposition of pyroclastic rocks in a lacustrine environment in the nearby Mariovo Basin. Mariovo Lake sediments were later incised by the Buturica River, which cut down into Cambrian marbles, creating its superimposed valley. Incision lowered the water table and allowed removal of the clay deposits in Provalata Cave. The second phase of speleogenesis started after introduction of H2S associated with rising thermal waters. Oxidation produced sulfuric acid, which rapidly dissolved first calcite crust, then marble host rock. Condensation-corrosion by sulfuric vapors replaced carbonate rock with gypsum producing replacement pockets as well as second generation of pockets and cupolas. The contact of sulfuric acid with the clay deposits formed alunite, jarosite, and natroalunite. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave maximum ages of 1.6 Ma (alunite) and 1.46 Ma (jarosite) for this last stage of speleogenesis, thus making it the second 40Ar/39Ar dating of a sulfuric cave in Europe (after Kraushöhle in Austria), and the first dated cave in the Republic of Macedonia.



The 4.4 km-long Hermannshöhle is one of the largest caves in the Lower Austroalpine Unit. The cave is unusual in two respects: its dense network of corridors is arranged in a three-dimensional maze and the most outstanding macro- and micromorphologic features were caused by paragenesis. The aim of this study was to enlighten the origin of this cave using morphological and sedimentological observations as well as U/Th dating of speleothems. First results show that the palaeo-environment of the Hermannshöhle was drastically different from today. Highly corrosive water sourced from nearby non-karstic gneisses and schists gave rise to well-developed contact karst features. A distinct system of paragenetic canyons developed following pulses of clastic sediment input creating the unique maze character of the cave. Preliminary U/Th results suggest that speleothems from the middle level of the cave are already older than ca. 600 ka.

Hypogene Höhlengenese: Aufsteigendes Grundwasser und Erdwärme als Antrieb der Entstehung labyrinthischer Höhlen in der Nördlichen Frankenalb und in anderen Teilen Bayerns, 2013, Glaser, Stefan

Die klassische Erklärung für die Entstehung von „epigenetischen“ bzw. „meteorischen“ Karsthöhlen ist, dass Niederschlagswasser versickert und im Karstgestein durch in der Atmosphäre oder im Boden erworbenes CO2 Hohlräume erweitert. Langfristig entstehen so unterirdische Gewässernetze mit Sammelsträngen, durch die das Wasser letztlich über Karstquellen wieder an die Oberfläche gelangt. Angetrieben wird der Prozess hauptsächlich von der Schwerkraft, unter deren Einfluss das Wasser fließt. Beim Besuch mancher Höhlen fällt es jedoch schwer, die Beobachtungen vor Ort in Einklang mit einer solchen Höhlenentstehung zu bringen. Insbesondere in der Nördlichen Frankenalb finden sich mehrere sehr labyrinthische Höhlen, die weder in den Raumformen noch in den Sedimenten oder in ihrer Gesamtanlage Spuren von ehemals fließendem Wasser erkennen lassen. Auch auf alternative Entstehungsmechanismen, die für atypische Höhlen in anderen Gebieten angenommen werden, gibt es in der Frankenalb keine Hinweise. Weder ist das Gebiet bekannt für hydrothermale Aktivität, noch für H2S oder CO2-Austritte aus dem Erdinneren. Der einzige in dem Gebiet bekannte Basaltgang liegt weit entfernt von den großen Höhlen. Wenn während dessen Entstehung ein erhöhter geothermischer Gradient und vulkanisches CO2 auftraten, so wären Auswirkungen hiervon vor allem im Nahbereich um den Basaltkörper zu erwarten


Germany currently features 20 caves in sulfate rocks (gypsum and anhydrite) longer than 200 m. Most of them occur either in the Werra-Anhydrite or in the Hauptanhydrite of the evaporitic Zechstein series (Upper Permian). One occurs in the Jurassic Münder Mergel and two in the Triassic Grundgips. The longest, the Wimmelburger Schlotten, is 2.8 km long with a floor area of 24,000 m2. All caves, except four, occur in the South Harz, where the Zechstein outcrop fringes the uplifted and tilted Variscian Harz. These caves can be divided into three general classes: (i) epigenic caves with lateral, turbulent water flow, and (ii) shallow or (iii) deep phreatic caves with slow convective density-driven dissolution. The latter were discovered during historic copper-shale mining and called “Schlotten” by the miners; most of them are not accessible any more. Shallow phreatic caves occur in several areas, most notably in the Nature Preserve of the Hainholz/Beierstein at Düna/Osterode/Lower Saxony. Here, we sampled all water bodies in May 1973 and monitored 31 stations between Nov. 23rd, 1974, and April 24th, 1976, with a total 933 samples, allowing us to characterize the provenance of these waters. These monitoring results were published only partially (PCO2 data, see Kempe, 1992). Here, I use the data set to show that the Jettenhöhle (the largest cave in the Hainholz) has been created by upward moving, carbonate-bearing, groundwater of high PCO2. Even though the cave has now only small cave ponds and essentially is a dry cave above the ground water level, it is a hypogene cave because of the upward movement “of the cave-forming agent” (sensu Klimchouk, 2012). Likewise, the Schlotten are created by water rising from the underlying carbonate aquifer, but under a deep phreatic setting


Germany exhibits a very diverse geological history. Thus, a large number of stratigraphically, petrographically and tectonically different carbonate and sulfate rocks exist that have been subject to karstification. Here, I discuss first the possible “agents” (sensu Klimchouk) of hypogene karstification. Three principally different processes are identified: water rising because of buoyancy (either thermally or concentration induced), in-situ oxidation of siderite, or rising gases (CO2, CH4 or H2S). Next, a rough overview of German caves and karst is presented. If applying the most pertinent epigene versus hypogene morphological characteristics, it becomes evident that hypogene caves occur in many different areas, often side-by-side with clearly epigene caves. For many areas, the agents of hypogene speleogenesis must remain unclear. This applies for most caves in the Paleozoic limestones of the Rhenish Schist Massif. Only the Iberg/Harz caves seem to be a clear case, with the world-wide highest concentrations of siderite weathering-induced caves occur. The large cavities discovered recently in the Blauhöhlen System and some of the deep pit caves in the Swabian Alb may have their explanation in volcanic CO2, having emanated from some of the 355 pipes of the Swabian volcanic field. Most striking is the high concentration of hypogene caves in the Franconian Alb. Many of them occur in a small area while other areas are devoid of larger caves. Here the tectonic situation suggests that fractures could have taped reservoirs of either sulfide or methane from below. The finding of goethitic crusts in the Bismarckgrotte may indicate that rising anaerobic gases could have been involved

Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: Examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily, 2015,

Caves formed by rising sulfuric waters have been described from all over the world in a wide variety of climate  settings, from arid regions to mid-latitude and alpine areas. H2S is generally formed at depth by reduction of  sulfates in the presence of hydrocarbons and is transported in solution through the deep aquifers. In tectonically  disturbed areas major fractures eventually allow these H2S-bearing fluids to rise to the surface where oxidation  processes can become active producing sulfuric acid. This extremely strong acid reacts with the carbonate  bedrock creating caves, some of which are among the largest and most spectacular in the world. Production of  sulfuric acid mostly occurs at or close to the water table but also in subaerial conditions in moisture films and  droplets in the cave environment. These caves are generated at or immediately above the water table, where  condensation–corrosion processes are dominant, creating a set of characteristic meso- and micromorphologies.  Due to their close connection to the base level, these caves can also precisely record past hydrological and  geomorphological settings. Certain authigenic cave minerals, produced during the sulfuric acid speleogenesis  (SAS) phase, allow determination of the exact timing of speleogenesis. This paper deals with the morphological,  geochemical and mineralogical description of four very typical sulfuric acid water table caves in Europe: the  Grotte du Chat in the southern French Alps, the Acqua Fitusa Cave in Sicily (Italy), and the Bad Deutsch Altenburg  and Kraushöhle caves in Austria

Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria), 2015,

A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater  (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously  thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological  features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide  clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to  sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave  formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area  known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, mesoand  micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone,  marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The  existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free  convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle  morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley  incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system,  but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the  phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of  carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in  limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in  limestone and dolomite

Results 3031 to 3045 of 3045
You probably didn't submit anything to search for