Karst and Cave RSS news feed Like us on Facebook! follow us on Twitter!
Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That river is a natural water course through which runoff reaches the sea [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for quaternary (Keyword) returned 341 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 316 to 330 of 341
Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, Filho William Sallun, Almeida Luis Henrique Sapiensa, Boggiani Paulo Cesar, Karmann Ivo

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Landscape evolution in the Tacchi area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy) based on karst and fluvial morphology and age of cave sediments, 2012, De Waele, J. , Ferrarese F. , Granger, D. Sauro, F.

 

The east-central part of Sardinia (Italy) is characterised by Jurassic
dolomitic mesas (Tacchi, or «table mountains») that overlie a Palaeozoic
basement mainly composed of metavolcanics and phyllites. These mountains
are the remnants of a continuous carbonate cover, dissected by
faults and river erosion, and are now completely isolated hydrological
systems. Most of these rivers have cut valleys more than 200 metres deep
into the Palaeozoic basement rocks, whose slopes are often characterised
by landslides, suggesting their recent oversteepening. Some valleys, on
the contrary, have not reached the base of the carbonate sequence and
appear to be suspended above the deeper incisions, apparently disconnected
by them. Several subhorizontal surfaces can be distinguished on
the table mountains, related to local base level stillstands. Also water
table caves, scattered along the flanks of the mountains over an altitudinal
range of about 200 m, show several stillstands in base level lowering.
 
26Al and 10Be burial dating of sediments in four caves located at different
elevations on the flanks of the suspended Taquisara Valley show
an Upper Pliocene or Lower Pleistocene age. Thus, this valley appears to
be of Late Tertiary age. The deeper valleys, such as Riu Pardu, that dissect
the Tacchi mountains completely, cutting deeply into the basement
rocks, are much younger, as their unstable slopes suggest. Knickpoint retreat
in Riu Pardu and estimated valley erosion rates suggest the capture
of Riu Pardu by Rio Pelau to have occurred in the last 100 ky.

Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, William Sallun Filho, Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida, Paulo Cesar Boggiani, Ivo Karmann

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Hydrogeology of the Gokpinar karst springs, Sivas, Turkey, 2012, Kacaroğ, Lu F.

Gökpınar karst springs are located 8 km to the south of the Gürün district centre, Sivas, Turkey. The springs have two main outlets (Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2) and outflow from Jurassic-Cretaceous Yüceyurt formation (limestone). The total discharge of the springs ranges between 4.5 and 7.8 m3/s.The study area is formed of allocthonous and autocthonous lithological units whose ages range from Upper Devonian to Quaternary. These lithologies are mostly formed of limestones. Yüceyurt formation (limestone), from which Gökpınar karst springs outflow, constitute the main aquifer in the study area and is karstified. The unit has a well developed karst system comprising karren, dolines, ponors, underground channels and caves. The recession (discharge) analysis of the Gökpınar springs was carried out and the storage capacitiesand discharge (recession) coefficients of the Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2 springs were calculated as 141×10^6 m3 and 98×10^6 m3, and 2.71×10^-3 day-1 and 2.98×10^-3 day-1, respectively. The storage capacities and discharge (recession) coefficients obtained suggest that the karst aquifer (Yüceyurt limestone) has large storage capacity, and drainage occurs very slow. The major cations in the study area waters are Ca2+ and Mg2+, and anion is HCO3-. The waters are calcium bicarbonate type. Some of the water chemistry parameters of the Gökpınar springs range as follows: T=10.8–11.1°C, pH=7.65–7.95,EC=270–310 μS/cm, TDS=170–200 mg/L, Ca2+=40.0–54.0 mg/L,Mg2+=4.5–10.0 mg/L, HCO3-=144.0–158.0 mg/L. Temperature, EC, TDS, and Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations of the Gökpınar springs did not show significant variations during the study period.


Hydrogeology of the Gokpinar karst springs, Sivas, Turkey , 2012, Kaaroğ, Lu Fikret

Gökpınar karst springs are located 8 km to the south of the Gürün district centre, Sivas, Turkey. The springs have two main outlets (Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2) and outflow from Jurassic-Cretaceous Yüceyurt formation (limestone). The total discharge of the springs ranges between 4.5 and 7.8 m3/s.The study area is formed of allocthonous and autocthonous lithological units whose ages range from Upper Devonian to Quaternary. These lithologies are mostly formed of limestones. Yüceyurt formation (limestone), from which Gökpınar karst springs outflow, constitute the main aquifer in the study area and is karstified. The unit has a well developed karst system comprising karren, dolines, ponors, underground channels and caves. The recession (discharge) analysis of the Gökpınar springs was carried out and the storage capacitiesand discharge (recession) coefficients of the Gökpınar-1 and Gökpınar-2 springs were calculated as 141×10^6 m3 and 98×10^6 m3, and 2.71×10^-3 day-1 and 2.98×10^-3 day-1, respectively. The storage capacities and discharge (recession) coefficients obtained suggest that the karst aquifer (Yüceyurt limestone) has large storage capacity, and drainage occurs very slow. The major cations in the study area waters are Ca2+ and Mg2+, and anion is HCO3-. The waters are calcium bicarbonate type. Some of the water chemistry parameters of the Gökpınar springs range as follows: T=10.8–11.1°C, pH=7.65–7.95,EC=270–310 μS/cm, TDS=170–200 mg/L, Ca2+=40.0–54.0 mg/L,Mg2+=4.5–10.0 mg/L, HCO3-=144.0–158.0 mg/L. Temperature, EC, TDS, and Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations of the Gökpınar springs did not show significant variations during the study period.


Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012, Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Yeh T. C. J.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.


Differences in karst processes between northern and southern China, 2012, Hao Y. , Cao B. , Zhang P. , Wang Q. , Li Z. , Jim Yeh T. C.

The east–west trending Tsinling Mountains in central China were uplifted at the end of the Middle Jurassic [176–161 million years ago (Ma)] in Yanshanian, thus effectively and geographically defining the northern climate as cold and dry, and the southern climate as warm and humid. Influenced by paleoenvironmental variation, the karst process shows differences between northern and southern China. Using the systems approach, the authors integrated the geologic history, climate, and hydrological conditions to analyze the causes of the karst differences in northern and southern China, as well as in the Tibetan Plateau. Carbonate rock deposition began in the Mesoproterozoic Era (1,600–1,000 Ma) in north China, and in the Sinian Sub-Era (825–570 Ma) in south China. In north China, the rock formation ended in the Mid-Ordovician (466 Ma), while in South China the deposition continued to the Triassic (250–200 Ma). Tibetan Plateau was deposited in the Late Permian (257–250 Ma). The different depositional environment caused different lithologies: the limestones are largely micritic in the north, but are massive and sparry in the south. The modern karst features were formed mainly in the Tertiary (53–2.6 Ma) and the Quaternary. In the Quaternary, the Tibetan Plateau arose sharply, which formed the monsoon system of East Asia, and loess started to deposit in north China, which partly delayed or prevented karstification in north China, and differentiated the karst features from those in south China. Thus, the karst process in north China is mainly hypogene, while the south is epigene in the Quaternary.


Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave in the Crimea, a huge bone accumulation of Late Pleistocene fauna, 2013, Ridush . , Stefaniak K. , Socha P. , Proskurnyak Y. , Marciszak A. , Vremir M. , Nadachowski A.

The Crimean Mountains are well known from the abundance of Middle and Late Palaeolithic sites and palaeontological remains recovered from cultural layers in caves and rockshelters. The fossil-bearing deposits of Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave, located at the elevation of 1000 m on the Chatyrdag Plateau, yielded a very diverse and numerous vertebrate remains that widen the knowledge of Late Pleistocene faunal diversity in the Crimea. The assemblage comprised in total almost 50 species of vertebrates. Studies included geomorphological, geological and stratigraphic analyses as well AMS 14C dating. Faunal remains were present in ten palaeontological sites. The main bone accumulation (section Ba2) was deposited during Middle Valdai or Vytachiv (MIS 3) interstadial, and including a long time gap, to the end of the Pleistocene and the Holocene. Comparison of the Emine-Bair-Khosar fauna with vertebrate faunas of other Crimean sites showed a remarkable stability in the faunal composition and frequency during the whole MIS 3 interstadial. Steppe and other open-country species dominated in the compared assemblages, while boreal-tundra species were far less numerous. Inhabitants of forests, including red deer and some rodents, were stable members of fossil assemblages.


Development of a deep karst system within a transpressional structure of the Dolomites in north-east Italy, 2013, Sauro Francesco, Zampieri Dario, Filipponi Marco

The Piani Eterni karst system is one of the longest and deepest caves of Italy situated in the southern sector of the Dolomiti mountain range. The area where the cave was formed displays peculiar structural settings confined in a tectonic transpressive corridor between two regional thrusts (Belluno and Valsugana). During Miocene uplift of the range the inheritance of Mesozoic structures led to the formation of a deep and wide upward-branching flower (or palm tree) structure cutting the carbonate sequence and exposing the surrounding surface to karst processes after erosion. The relative lowering of the hydrologic base level, due both to the uplift of the area and then to the carving of deep glacial valleys in the Quaternary, allowed the formation of paleo-phreatic conduits at subsequently deeper levels, interconnected by vadose shafts and canyons.

This work gives a detailed tectonic interpretation of the transpressive structure and picks out the tectonic features most favorable to the karst development. A detailed statistical analysis of the distribution and orientation of the karst conduits was performed using 31 km of 3D surveys showing that the development of the cave was strictly guided by a few favorable surfaces of stratigraphic and tectonic origin. These features are known in the literature as inception horizons and tectonic inception features, respectively. Cave levels are usually related to lithologic favorable conditions associated with standings of the paleo-water table. Here we suggest that some tectonic surface geometries could have led to the opening of voids in the active tectonic phase leading to the formation of the original proto-conduit network. Different types of tectonic inception features identified in the cave were described in terms of geometry and kinematics. Tensional fractures, as well as fault plane undulations and flexural slip surfaces between beds, are described as the most favorable tectonic surfaces for the development of the conduits. Finally, we discuss why transpressional settings and related flower structures in soluble rocks can enhance the karst process allowing the formation of huge and deep karst systems.


Cave aerosols: distribution and contribution to speleothem geochemistry, 2013, Dredge J. , Fairchild I. J. , Harrison R. M. , Fernandezcortes A. , Sanchezmoral S. , Jurado V. , Gunn J. , Smith A. , Spö, Tl Ch. , Mattey D. , Wynn P. M. , Grassineau N.

There is developing interest in cave aerosols due to the increasing awareness of their impacts on the cave environment and speleothem; this paper provides the first attempt to synthesize the issues. Processes of cave aerosol introduction, transport, deposition, distribution and incorporation are explored, and reviewed from existing literature. Key issues of specific aerosol processes of distribution and production as well as cave location and morphology effects are highlighted through the presentation of preliminary monitoring data. This study identifies the strong relationship between cave ventilation, cave aerosols and their consequent spatial distribution. The contribution of cave aerosol deposition to speleothem geochemistry is modelled and evaluated using a mass balance framework. As an example, speleothem trace element data from Obir Cave (Austria) are compared with aerosol inputs to evaluate their significance. The mass balance study demonstrates that generally, under normal continuous growth and environmental conditions aerosol deposition will be of only minor importance. However, it highlights specific scenarios in which aerosol contributions will be significant: speleothem hiatuses (or slow growth), high aerosol deposition, and secondary microbiological feedback.


Late Quaternary Caviomorph Rodents (Rodentia: Hystricognathi) from Ceara State, Northern Brazil, 2013, De Oliviera P. V. , Ribeiro A. M. , Kerber L. , Lessa G. , Viana M. S.

In this paper we report the first remains of caviomorph rodents from the karst of the Parque Nacional de Ubajara, Ceara´ State, northeastern Brazil, collected with precise stratigraphic and radiometric control. The material is derived from levels with thermoluminescence dating of about 8,000 years BP, corresponding to the early Holocene. In these levels, we found remains of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820, cf. Dasyprocta Illiger, 1811 and Thrichomys Trouessart, 1880. The data here reported contribute to the knowledge of Brazilian Quaternary rodents and show the potential of the studied area for fossils.


Colonization of subterranean habitats by spiders in Central Europe, 2013, Rů, ič, Ka V. , milauer P. , Mlejnek R.

Using data from the Czech Republic, we studied the distribution of spiders in soils, crevice systems, scree and caves, i.e. subterranean habitats at depths spanning from 10 cm to 100 m. In total, we found 161 species. The number of species declines with increasing habitat depth, with a major drop in species richness at the depth of 10 meters. Thirteen species exhibit morphological adaptations to life in subterranean habitats. At depths greater than 10 meters, spider assemblages are almost exclusively composed of troglomorphic species. We propose a hypothesis of evolution of troglomorphisms at spiders during Quaternary climatic cycles.


Speleogenesis of an exhumed hydrothermal sulphuric acid karst in Cambrian carbonates (Mount San Giovanni, Sardinia), 2013, Dewaele Jo, Forti Paolo, Naseddu Angelo

In the past few years the systematic study of caves intercepted by mine workings in southwest Sardinia has permitted us to observe morphologies due to rare speleogenetic and minerogenetic processes related to ancient hydrothermal activity. These relic morphologies are slowly being overprinted by recent speleogenetic processes that tend to obscure the hypogene origin of these caves. A combined geomorphological and mineralogical investigation has permitted a fairly detailed reconstruction of the various phases of evolution of these caves. Cave formation had already started in Cambrian times, but culminated in the Carboniferous, when most of the large voids still accessible today were formed. A key role in carbonate dissolution was played by sulphuric acid formed by the oxidation of the polymetallic ores present in the rocks since the Cambrian. During the Quaternary a variety of minerals formed inside the caves: calcite and aragonite, that yielded sequences of palaeo-environmental interest, and also barite, phosgenite, hydrozincite, hemimorphite and many others. These minerals are in part due to a phreatic thermal hypogenic cave forming phase, and in part to later epigene overprinting in an oxidizing environment rich in polymetallic ores. Massive gypsum deposits, elsewhere typical of this kind of caves, are entirely absent due to dissolution during both the phreatic cave formation and the later epigenic stage


Speleogenesis of an exhumed hydrothermal sulphuric acid karst in Cambrian carbonates (Mount San Giovanni, Sardinia), 2013, De Waele Jo, Forti P. , Naseddu A.

n the past few years the systematic study of caves intercepted by mine workings in southwest Sardinia has permitted us to observe morphologies due to rare speleogenetic and minerogenetic processes related to ancient hydrothermal activity. These relic morphologies are slowly being overprinted by recent speleogenetic processes that tend to obscure the hypogene origin of these caves. A combined geomorphological and mineralogical investigation has permitted a fairly detailed reconstruction of the various phases of evolution of these caves. Cave formation had already started in Cambrian times, but culminated in the Carboniferous, when most of the large voids still accessible today were formed. A key role in carbonate dissolution was played by sulphuric acid formed by the oxidation of the polymetallic ores present in the rocks since the Cambrian. During the Quaternary a variety of minerals formed inside the caves: calcite and aragonite, that yielded sequences of palaeo-environmental interest, and also barite, phosgenite, hydrozincite, hemimorphite and many others. These minerals are in part due to a phreatic thermal hypogenic cave forming phase, and in part to later epigene overprinting in an oxidizing environment rich in polymetallic ores. Massive gypsum deposits, elsewhere typical of this kind of caves, are entirely absent due to dissolution during both the phreatic cave formation and the later epigenic stage.


THE SCIENT IFIC RELEVANCE OF MINE, QUARRY, AND MINED CAVES OF ROMANIA: A REVIEW, 2013, Onac, Bogdan P.

Evidences show humans must have entered caves in Romania prior to 65,000 years ago. Their interest in mining activities came, however, much later, with the first documented signs pre-dating the arrival of Romans in Dacia (present-day Romania), in the 2nd century BC. Although writings about minerals in Romanian caves date back to the 18th and 19th century, the first scientific texts on minerals found in caves discovered during mining and quarrying activities only appeared after 1850s. From a mineralogical point of view, two distinct categories are recognizable: 1) caves displaying speleothems of monotonous carbonate mineralogy and 2) caves with unusual mineral paragenesis. The latter group could further be subdivided into: i) cavities located near or within nonmetalliferous or polymetallic ore fields, ii) skarn-hosted caves, and iii) caves in which H2Srich thermo-mineral waters discharge. The study of these caves resulted in the discovery of minerals, either new for science (ardealite) or to the cave environment (anhydrite, burbankite, foggite, ikaite, konyaite, etc.). However, the scientific relevance of mine, quarry, and mined caves is not restricted to mineralogy but also encompasses anthropology, archeology, Quaternary geology, biospeleology, karst science (speleothems, speleogenesis, etc.), and tourism.


Results 316 to 330 of 341
You probably didn't submit anything to search for