Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrologic budget is the quantitative accounting of all water volumes and their changes over time for a given basin or province [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for poljes (Keyword) returned 54 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 54 of 54
Karst geomorphology of carbonatic conglomerates in the Folded Molasse zone of the Northern Alps (Austria/Germany), 2011, Goeppert N. , Goldscheider N. , Scholz H.

The Folded Molasse zone of the Northern Alps consists of clastic sedimentary rocks that are usually not considered to be karstifiable. However, large areas within this zone are composed of carbonatic conglomerates. Numerous karst landforms have recently been discovered but are not recorded on official maps and in the literature. Therefore, a research programme was initiated at the Hochgrat site (Austria/ Germany) that included geomorphological mapping and characterisation of the karst phenomena. Both fracture-controlled and hydrodynamically-controlled karren were observed on conglomerate outcrops. The predominant karst landforms, dolines, are typically circular, funnel shaped, most often 2 to 9 m in diameter, 1 to 6 m deep, and frequently act as swallow holes. Poljes that are atypically small (~1 ha) occur in either glacial cirques or syncline depressions, are flat floored and lined with sediment and soil, and drain underground via swallow holes. Short caves, springs with marked discharge variations and estavelles are further evidence for karst development. Karstic landforms are widespread in carbonatic conglomerate terrains, but their dimensions are smaller than in typical limestone karst. The practical implications of these findings are also briefly mentioned in this paper.


Dinaric Karst: Geography and Geology, 2012, Zupan Hajna, Nadja

The Dinaric karst is geographically and geologically the carbonate part of the Dinaric Mountains on the Balkan Peninsula between the Adriatic Sea and the Pannonian Basin. The Dinaric karst is a “classical” karst for many reasons: the term karst (kras) was derived from its northwest part (Kras plateau); from the region originate such international terms as polje, uvala, doline, kamenitza, and ponor; and it is also the landscape where karstology and speleology as sciences were born. The most characteristic relief forms are high karst plateaus and numerous poljes elongated in a northwest–southeast direction (“Dinaric” direction), leveled surfaces, dolines, large and deep caves, sinking rivers, and abundant springs. According to different geological, hydrological, climate, and geomorphic characteristics, the Dinaric karst can be divided into three belts parallel to the Adriatic Sea: low coastal Adriatic karst, high mountain karst, and low continental inland karst. The Dinaric karst is known also as a limestone desert, a bare rocky landscape that results from climate conditions and especially because of intense land use in past centuries.


Karst, 2012, Jones William K. , White William B.

The word karst is a Germanized form of the name of a carbonate plateau that is situated above the Adriatic Sea immediately to the east of Trieste, Italy. The term has been generalized as a label for any similar region. The distribution of karst landscapes over the Earth’s surface to a large extent follows the distribution of carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and gypsum rocks, and together these make up about 15% of the Earth’s land area. Karst regions are characterized by a unique set of landforms including closed depressions, deranged drainage, sculptured bedrock surface, and residual hills. Karst regions also differ from other geomorphic regions by the presence of cave systems in the subsurface. In general, surface karst features are more pronounced in regions where the caves have direct hydrologic connections to the land immediately overlying the caves and the surface and subsurface features develop more or less simultaneously.


Karst of Sicily and its Conservation, 2012, Di Maggio C. , Madonia G. , Parise M. , Vattano M.

In Sicily, karst is well developed and exhibits different types of landscapes due to the wide distribution of soluble rocks in different geological and environmental settings. Karst affects both carbonate rocks, outcropping in the northwest and central sectors of the Apennine chain and in the foreland area, and evaporite rocks, mainly gypsum, that characterize the central and the southern parts of the island. The carbonate and gypsum karsts show a great variety of surface landforms, such as karren, dolines, poljes, blind valleys, and fluvio-karst canyons, as well as cave systems. Karst areas in Sicily represent extraordinary environments for the study of solution forms. In addition, they are of great environmental value because they contain a variety of habitats that hold species of biogeographic significance. Unfortunately, karst areas are increasingly threatened by human activity, mainly in the form of grazing and other agricultural practices, wildfires, quarrying, urbanization, building of rural homes, and infrastructure development. The value of karst features has been recognized by the Sicilian Regional Government since 1981 when it enacted laws to create several nature reserves to preserve the peculiar karst landscapes, including caves. At present, the state of conservation of karst areas in Sicily may be considered to be at an acceptable level, yet numerous issues and difficulties need to be overcome for the effective protection and enhancement of karstlands.


Classification of closed depressions in carbonate karst, 2013, Kranjc, A.

Closed depressions are the most characteristic features of karst having dolines among them. Some of the terms, such as doline, uvala, and polje, originate from the Dinaric karst, internationally introduced by J. Cvijic´ in 1893. Karst depressions belong to mezo- and macroforms (from decameter to kilometer scale). The basic feature is the doline, which can be further divided due to its genesis into more main types: solution (the real karst doline), collapse, dropout, buried, cap rock, and suffosion doline. The larger depressions, by dimension and form somewhere between a doline and a polje, are the uvala, but genetically they are closer to the doline. Polje (meaning a plain or field in Slavic languages) is the biggest closed epression, its bottom covering several hundreds of square kilometers. Closed depressions, solution dolines and poljes especially, are regarded as indicators of a fully developed karst (holokarst by Cvijic


Surface morphology of gypsum karst, 2013, Gutierrez F. , Cooper A. H.

This chapter reviews gypsum karst landforms with special emphasis on the features that are distinctive from those of carbonate karst. The differences between gypsum and carbonate karst landscapes are largely related to the higher solubility of the gypsum, its lower mechanical strength, more ductile rheology, and the higher extent of interstratal dissolution processes, commonly associated with the presence of other salts at depth. The landforms reviewed include subsidence morphostructures caused by interstratal karstification (large depressions, monoclines, folds, basins and domes, karst grabens, and breccia pipes), fluvial terraces affected by synsedimentary subsidence, sinkholes, poljes, karren, tumuli, and polygons, as well as landslides controlled by gypsum dissolution


Poljes, Ponors and Their Catchments, 2013, Bonacci, O.

Poljes can be defined as depressions in limestone karst. They commonly occur as large-scale landforms in tectonically active karst areas. Their origin is generally polygenetic. A distinctive subtype of polje, the ‘turlough’, occurs in many formerly glaciated or glacial-margin terrains. Poljes exhibit complex hydrological and hydrogeological features and characteristics, such as permanent and temporary springs and rivers, losing and sinking rivers, and swallow holes and estavelles. From the hydrologic–hydrogeologic perspective, a polje is to be considered as part of a wider system. It cannot be treated as an independent system, but only as a subsystem in the process of surface and groundwater flow through the karst massif. Poljes are regularly flooded in the cold and wet periods of the year. Ponors or swallow holes represent fissures in the karst massif through which the water sinks underground. The determination of the catchment area for a karst polje is an unreliable procedure due to unknown morphology of underground karst features. Anthropogenic influences on the hydrological–hydrogeological regime of the poljes can be considered under the following four categories: (1) water storage; (2) increase in the capacity of outlet structures; (3) surface hydrotechnical aspects; and (4) other works. 


AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND DELINEATION OFKARST TERRAIN DEPRESSIONSAND ITSAPPLICATION IN GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALySIS, 2013, PardoigÚzquiza E. , DurÁn J. J. , Dowd P. A.

Digital elevation models (DEM) are digital representations of topography that are especially suitable for numerical terrain analysis in earth sciences and engineering. One of the main quantitative uses of DEM is the automatic delineation of flow networks and watersheds in hydrology and geomorphology. In these applications (using both low­resolution and precision DEM) depressions hinder the inference of pathways and a lot of work has been done in designing algorithms that remove them so as to generate depression­free digital elevation models with no interruptions to flow. There are, however, geomorphological environments, such as karst terrains, in which depressions are singular elements, on scales ranging from centimetres to kilo­metres, which are of intrinsic interest. The detection of these depressions is of significant interest in geomorphologic map­ping because the development of large depressions is normal in karst terrains: potholes, blind valleys, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The smallest depressions that can be detected depend on the spatial resolution (pixel size) of the DEM. For example, depressions from centimetres to a few metres, such as some types of karren, cannot be detected if the raster digital eleva­tion model has a spatial resolution greater than, say, 5 m (i.e., square 5m pixel). In this work we describe a method for the au­tomatic detection and delineation of terrain depressions. First, we apply a very efficient algorithm to remove pits from the DEM. The terrain depressions are then obtained by subtract­ing the depression­free DEM from the original DEM. The final product is a digital map of depressions that facilitates the cal culation of morphometric features such as the geometry of the depressions, the mean depth of the depressions, the density of depressions across the study area and the relationship between depressions and other variables such as altitude. The method is illustrated by applying it to data from the Sierra de las Nieves karst massif in the province of Málaga in Southern Spain. This is a carbonate aquifer that is drained by three main springs and in which the depressions play an important role in the recharge of the aquifer. A doline density map, produced from a map of 324 detected dolines/uvalas, identifies three main recharge areas of the three springs. Other morphometric results related to the size and direction of the dolines are also presented. Finally the dolines can be incorporated into a geomorphology map.


Turkish karst aquifers, 2015, Gunay G. , Guner N. , Tork K.

One third of Turkey’s surface is underlain by carbonate rocks that have been subdivided into four karst regions. The carbonate rock units are about 200 km wide along the Taurus Mountains that attain elevations of 2500 m. Karst features of western Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean seas demonstrate the tectonic, lithological and climatic controls on the occurrence, movement, and chemical characteristics of groundwater. In Turkey all karstic feature, such as lapies, caves, sinkholes, uvalas, poljes, ground river valleys developed in all karstic areas. Karstification is related not only to the thickness and to purity of limestone, climate and height but also to tectonic movements. Water resources of karst terrains of Turkey are relatively rich and as such are very important for the economic development of the country. High mountain chains, very often associated with the karst terrains, are responsible for some important and beneficial characteristics of these water resources. Four karst regions are: (1) Taurus karst region, (2) southeast Anatolia karst region, (3) central Anatolia karst region, and (4) northwest Anatolia and Thrace karst regions.


Results 46 to 54 of 54
You probably didn't submit anything to search for