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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lower confining bed is an impermeable bed underlying an aquifer [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for indiana (Keyword) returned 56 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 56 of 56
Delineating the karstic flow system in the upper Lost River drainage basin, south central Indiana: using sulphate and delta S-34(SO4) as tracers, 2003,
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Lee E. S. , Krothe N. C. ,
A karstic flow system in the upper Lost River drainage basin in south central Indiana, USA, was investigated using SO4 concentration and delta(34)S(SO4) as tracers. The flow system was characterized as vadose flow and phreatic diffuse flow. Vadose-flow samples were collected from 7 epikarstic outlets after storm events. Phreatic diffuse flow samples were collected from the Orangeville Rise, the major emergence point for the drainage basin, during the base flow periods. Discharge from the Orangeville Rise was constant during the base flow periods but showed large variations in flow rate (0.3-11.7 m(3)/S), SO4 concentration (11-220 mg/l), and delta(34)S(SO4), ( 5.2 to 15.0parts per thousand) after storm events, due to the mixing of rain, vadose flow, and phreatic diffuse flow in the conduits that feed the Orangeville Rise. Sulphate concentrations and delta(34)S(SO4), were unique in vadose flow (S-SO4: 13-24 mg/l; delta(34)S(SO4),: 1.9 to 3.8parts per thousand) and phreatic diffuse flow (SO4: 220 mg/l; delta(34)S(SO4),: 15.0parts per thousand). Mean SO4 concentration of rainwater in the study area was measured as 1.8 mg/l. Using a 3-component mixing model for water in the karstic conduits, the mixing ratios of rain (16.5%), vadose flow (58.5%), and phreatic diffuse flow (25.0%) components were calculated in the Orangeville Rise discharge. These mixing ratios attained using SO4 concentration as a tracer indicated the important role of the vadose zone as a water storage area in karst aquifers. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

Carbon 13 of TDIC to quantify the role of the unsaturated zone: the example of the Vaucluse karst systems (Southeastern France), 2003,
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Emblanch C, Zuppi Gm, Mudry J, Blavoux B, Batiot C,
The total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) and C-13(TDIC) have been used as chemical and isotopic tracers to evaluate the contribution of different water components discharging at the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst spring near Avignon. At the same time they have been used to separate its flood hydrograph. Waters flowing from unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) show similar concentration in TDIC. In UZ and SZ water rock interactions do not obey to the same kinetic. The mixing rate between water coming from the UZ characterised by a short residence time and water from the SZ with a longer residence time has been evaluated in the spring discharge. In a hydrodynamic system, which is rather complex as it is open to the soil CO2 in UZ and closed to the same CO2 in the SZ, C-13(TDIC) has excellent characteristics as an environmental tracer. In order to better describe the inwardness of mass movements within the aquifer, the apparent contrasting information obtained using two different isotopes (O-18 of water molecules and C-13 of TDIC) must be combined. O-18 informs whether the hydrodynamic system acts as piston flow (PF) or follows a well mixing model (WMM). Conversely, C-13 gives more complete information on the UZ contributes to the total discharge. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2004,
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Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quick-flow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm

Estimation of denitrification potential in a karst aquifer using the N-15 and O-18 isotopes of NO3-, 2005,
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Einsiedl F, Maloszewski P, Stichler W,
A confined aquifer in the Malm Karst of the Franconian Alb, South Germany was investigated in order to understand the role of the vadose zone in denitrifiaction processes. The concentrations of chemical tracers Sr2 and Cl- and concentrations of stable isotope O-18 were measured in spring water and precipitation during storm events. Based on these measurements a conceptual model for runoff was constructed. The results indicate that pre-event water, already stored in the system at the beginning of the event, flows downslope on vertical and lateral preferential flow paths. Chemical tracers used in a mixing model for hydrograph separation have shown that the pre-event water contribution is up to 30%. Applying this information to a conceptual runoff generation model, the values of delta(15)N and delta(18)O in nitrate could be calculated. Field observations showed the occurence of significant microbial denitrification processes above the soil/ bedrock interface before nitrate percolates through to the deeper horizon of the vadose zone. The source of nitrate could be determined and denitrification processes were calculated. Assuming that the nitrate reduction follows a Rayleigh process one could approximate a nitrate input concentration of about 170 mg/l and a residual nitrate concentration of only about 15%. The results of the chemical and isotopic tracers postulate fertilizers as nitrate source with some influence of atmospheric nitrate. The combined application of hydrograph separation and determination of isotope values in delta(15)N and delta(18)O of nitrate lead to an improved understanding of microbial processes (nitrification, denitrification) in dynamic systems

Flow system dynamics and water storage of a fissured-porous karst aquifer characterized by artificial and environmental tracers, 2005,
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Einsiedl F,
Concentration breakthrough curves obtained from a tracer test and time series of environmental tracers were analyzed to characterize slow and preferential water flow in a karst aquifer of the Franconian Alb, Germany. Tritium (H-3) and chemical tracers (uranine, bromide, strontium) were measured during low flow conditions and a storm runoff event. The mean transit time of water along the conduits was determined using bromide. Environmental tracer data collected between 1969 and 2003 were modeled to estimate the mean transit time of H-3 in the fissured-porous karst system (diffuse flow). The modelling approach was also used to estimate the water volume of the karst system and the conduits. The results suggest that the total water volume in the fissured-porous karst aquifer is in the range of 57 X 10(6) m(3) and approximately 6% of the total water volume is stored in the soil zone and the epikarst. The water storage capacity of the conduits seems to be of minor importance. A mean transit time of bromide in the range of 14 h was calculated for the conduit flow. The fissures and the porous rock matrix have a calculated water saturated porosity of 5.5% and a mean transit time of approximately 62 years was calculated. Thus the porous rock matrix represents the major dilution and storage zone for pollutants in the karst system. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Spatial and temporal changes in the structure of groundwater nitrate concentration time series (1935-1999) as demonstrated by autoregressive modelling, 2005,
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Jones A. L. , Smart P. L. ,
Autoregressive modelling is used to investigate the internal structure of long-term (1935-1999) records of nitrate concentration for five karst springs in the Mendip Hills. There is a significant short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation at three of the five springs due to the availability of sufficient nitrate within the soil store to maintain concentrations in winter recharge for several months. The absence of short term (1-2 months) positive autocorrelation in the other two springs is due to the marked contrast in land use between the limestone and swallet parts of the catchment, rapid concentrated recharge from the latter causing short term switching in the dominant water source at the spring and thus fluctuating nitrate concentrations. Significant negative autocorrelation is evident at lags varying from 4 to 7 months through to 14-22 months for individual springs, with positive autocorrelation at 19-20 months at one site. This variable timing is explained by moderation of the exhaustion effect in the soil by groundwater storage, which gives longer residence times in large catchments and those with a dominance of diffuse flow. The lags derived from autoregressive modelling may therefore provide an indication of average groundwater residence times. Significant differences in the structure of the autocorrelation function for successive 10-year periods are evident at Cheddar Spring, and are explained by the effect the ploughing up of grasslands during the Second World War and increased fertiliser usage on available nitrogen in the soil store. This effect is moderated by the influence of summer temperatures on rates of mineralization, and of both summer and winter rainfall on the timing and magnitude of nitrate leaching. The pattern of nitrate leaching also appears to have been perturbed by the 1976 drought. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Geochemical and Stable Isotope Evidence for Precipitation and Groundwater Sourcing of Recharge at the Green Valley Site, Vigo County, Indiana, 2005,
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Melchiorre Erik, Dale Deborah, Mills James, Chapman Brandon,

Dictyostelid cellular slime molds from caves., 2006,
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Landolt J. C. , Stephenson S. L. , Slay M. E.
Dictyostelid cellular slime molds associated with caves in Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Missouri, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, Puerto Rico, and San Salvador in the Bahamas were investigated during the period of 1990-2005. Samples of soil material collected from more than 100 caves were examined using standard methods for isolating dictyostelids. At least 17 species were recovered, along with a number of isolates that could not be identified completely. Four cosmopolitan species (Dictyostelium sphaerocephalum, D. mucoroides, D. giganteum ac/Polysphondylium violaceumj and one species (D. rosariumj with a more restricted distribution were each recorded from more than 25 different caves, but three other species were present in more than 20 caves. The data generated in the present study were supplemented with all known published and unpublished records of dictyostelids from caves in an effort to summarize what is known about their occurrence in this habitat.

A redescription of Ceratophysella lucifuga (Packard) (Collembola, Hypogastruridae) from North American caves, 2007,
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Skar?y?ski D.
The problematic species Ceratophysella lucifuga (Packard) is redescribed based on topotypes from Wyandotte Cave and specimens from two other caves of the south-central Indiana karst area. This species is characterized by lack of body pigmentation, slightly reduced ocelli, absence of an eversible sac between antennal segments IIIIV, presence of long lateral sensilla in antennal III-organ, postantennal organ with somewhat subdivided posterior lobes, well developed furca and the absence of setae a92 on abdominal tergum V. C. lucifuga is similar to other cavernicolous species of the ceratophysellan lineage grouped in genera Ceratophysella Bo rner and Typhlogastrura Bonet, especially C. proserpinae (Yosii) and C. troglodites (Yosii) from Japan, C. pecki Christiansen and Bellinger from USA and C. kapoviensis Babenko from Russia.

Solution Caves in Regions of Moderate Relief, 2012,
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Palmer, Arthur N.

Caves in regions of moderate relief are widely regarded as the standard to which all others are compared. Tectonic stability is their most significant characteristic. The presence of moderate relief implies that uplift of the land is slow and erosional processes are able to keep pace. As a result, rivers easily erode to their local base levels, and base-level control is reflected in cave passages. The relation between caves and regional geomorphic history is stronger than in any other setting. Examples are given from the Illinois Basin (Kentucky and Indiana), the Ozark Plateau (Missouri), and the Appalachians.


The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States, 2015,
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Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and main-tains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.


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