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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That DNAPL is abbreviation for dense nonaqueous phase liquid. liquids falling into this category have specific gravities greater than water (the specific gravity for water is usually taken to be one), are relatively immiscible with water, and tend to migrate downwards through the vadose and phreatic zones in a relatively unimpeded manner. see also lnapl; immiscible; napl.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for upland (Keyword) returned 58 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 58 of 58
Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005,
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Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.

Contents:

Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)


Reversibility of forest conversion impacts on water budgets in tropical karst terrain, 2006,
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Chandler Dg,
A conceptual model of the control of tropical land use and vegetative cover on bedrock recharge is developed for highly permeable geologic substrates. A case study of water budgets is then developed from field data and simple modeling for upland sites with three different vegetative covers (cropland, intensively grazed pasture and forest regrowth) in Leyte, Philippines. Water budget model results show that annual precipitation is divided primarily between evapotranspiration and overland flow for the pasture, but apportioned more to evapotranspiration and inputs to bedrock storage for the crop and forest sites. Modeled evapotranspiration from the forest (1906 mm) was not sufficiently greater than that for either the crop (1661 mm) or pasture (1476 mm) sites to offset the greater overland flow from those sites. The differences in overland flow are related to depth profiles of soil bulk density, which decreased between crop and forest and increased between crop and pasture, and drainable porosity, which increased between crop and forest and decreased between crop and pasture. Dry season streamflow is assumed to be primarily base flow and dependent on wet season bedrock recharge, which was dramatically lower for the pasture (106 mm) than for the crop (1134 mm) or forest covers (1320 mm), for 2946 mm of rainfall. The results support the premise that for landscapes with adequate storage in bedrock fractures, forest regrowth can increase recharge to perched aquifers, and hence dry season baseflow, relative to cropping and that dramatic reductions in overland flow and increases in dry season baseflow may be achieved by reforestation of compacted pastures. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

CARVING UP THE PRE-ILLINOIAN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS: TRANSVERSE SPELEOGENESIS AND EMERGENT BEDROCK MEANDERS IN THE OZARKS, 2007,
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Elfrink, N.

New data fail to support the prevailing theory that meandering bedrock valleys inherit their sinuosity from ancient alluvial rivers. In the Ozarks, observations indicate that bedrock meanders emerge during incision as a result of erosion by emergent groundwater and surface flow. Crustal tilting pressurizes deep aquifers that feed a huge base flow to large springs. Because of their large size and persistence in time, these artesian conduits have the potential to create new base levels of erosion. Transverse speleogenesis causes groundwater flow lines and surface streams to converge toward the springs, thereby further increasing the rate of landscape lowering and creating bedrock meanders. Groundwater outflow accelerates stream piracy, creates asymmetric drainage patterns and cuts channels across structural upwarps. By contrast, the antecedent meander theory favors long-term drainage stability that cannot explain the incredible diversity of the freshwater fauna found in the Central Highlands. Widely disjunct species of highland fish that thrive only in clear, high-gradient streams indicate that the Ouachitas, the Ozarks and the Eastern Highlands were once a continuous upland connected by a “land bridge” in southern Illinois. This connection allowed ancestral species to become widespread enough to be affected by a vicariant event, usually attributed to onset of glaciation. However, a 400-km eastward shift in Gulf of Mexico sedimentation indicates this vicariant event may have occurred in the middle Pleistocene, when it is proposed that the Mississippi River dissected the Central Highlands, separating the Interior Highlands from the Eastern Highlands.


Karst of the Czestochowa Upland and of the Eastern Sudetes : palaeoenvironments and protection, 2009,
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Preface

Karst phenomena consist mainly in dissolving of rock by water, with subsequent formation of underground voids. Studies on karst and caves are of extremely nterdisciplinary character; they are within the scope of interest of all the disciplines of earth sciences. Since caves provide permanent habitats or temporary shelter to many organisms including Palaeolithic man, they are of interest to biologists and archaeologists.

Because of its glacial history and geological structure, southern Poland offers a good opportunity to study all the karst-related phenomena. It holds two main, geographically remote karst areas of much different landscape: the Kraków- Częstochowa Upland and the Eastern Sudetes. Their caves are filled with sediments which document various phases of karst development in Poland, including Pleistocene glaciations, as well as changes in palaeoenvironments and faunal evolution. Many contain traces of occupancy by Palaeolithic man; the archaeological record found in some of them extends to modern times. The special significance of caves and karst areas – often the only places where traces of fossil environments and human occupancy are preserved – in Poland was recognised more than 150 years ago. Modern speleological studies in karst areas of Poland started in the 1940s with the wide ranging research of Kazimierz Kowalski - the inventory of caves and review of earlier studies (Kowalski K. 1951 & 1954 – Jaskinie Polski, Vol. 1-3). They triggered comprehensive and interdisciplinary cave studies by representatives of various disciplines. Much progress was made during the last twenty years. Numerous new caves were explored and studied with modern methods; cave sediments containing numerous faunal remains and artifacts were discovered, and earlier information on environmental changes and history of human occupancy could be verified. Despite the long-term and extensive research and exploration, either the studies in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland nor those in the Eastern Sudetes were ever summarised. The data, though abundant, are scattered among many sources, mostly associated with particular scientific disciplines. This volume is an attempt at a comprehensive summary of the information on karst and karst-related phenomena in these two regions.

Since the 1950s many scientists have contributed enormously to the knowledge of various aspects of karst-related phenomena in Poland. Some of these pioneers of interdisciplinary karst studies have departed recently: Waldemar Chmielewski (archaeologist), Jerzy Głazek (geologist, speleologist), Kazimierz Kowalski (pa-laeontologist, speleologist), Stefan Kozłowski (geologist), Marian Pulina (geomorphologist, speleologist) and Teresa Wiszniowska (palaeontologist, speleologist). Thanks to their great passion and commitment, the interest in caves and karst of the Kraków-Częstochowa-Upland and Eastern Sudetes in the last fifty years has considerably increased.



Hypogene Speleogenesis and Karst Hydrogeology of Artesian Basins, 2009,
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The volume contains papers presented during the International Conference held May 13 through 17, 2009 in Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

The PDF file contains cover, title and contents pages. Download and save this file to your disk and use hyperlinked titles of papers in the content list to download PDF files of individual papers. 

CONTENTS

PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS
Alexander Klimchouk

HYPOGENE CAVE PATTERNS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SPELEOGENESIS: HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENS
Philippe Audra, Ludovic Mocochain, Jean-Yves Bigot, and Jean-Claude Nobécourt

HYPOGENE CAVES IN DEFORMED (FOLD BELT) STRATA: OBSERVATIONS FROM EASTERN AUSTRALIA AND CENTRAL EUROPE
R.A.L. Osborne

IDENTIFYING PALEO WATER-ROCK INTERACTION DURING HYDROTHERMAL KARSTIFICATION: A STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH
Yuri Dublyansky and Christoph Spötl

MICROORGANISMS AS SPELEOGENETIC AGENTS: GEOCHEMICAL DIVERSITY BUT GEOMICROBIAL UNITY
P.J.Boston, M.N. Spilde, D.E. Northup, M.D. Curry, L.A. Melim, and L. Rosales-Lagarde

SIDERITE WEATHERING AS A REACTION CAUSING HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE IBERG/HARZ/GERMANY Stephan Kempe

SIMULATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUTION CONDUITS IN HYPOGENE SETTINGS
C. Rehrl, S. Birk, and A.B. Klimchouk

EVOLUTION OF CAVES IN POROUS LIMESTONE BY MIXING CORROSION: A MODEL APPROACH
Wolfgang Dreybrodt, Douchko Romanov, and Georg Kaufmann

SPELEOGENESIS OF MEDITERRANEAN KARSTS: A MODELLING APPROACH BASED ON REALISTIC FRACTURE NETWORKS
Antoine Lafare, Hervé Jourde, Véronique Leonardi, Séverin Pistre, and Nathalie Dörfliger

GIANT COLLAPSE STRUCTURES FORMED BY HYPOGENIC KARSTIFICATION: THE OBRUKS OF THE CENTRAL ANATOLIA, TURKEY
C. Serdar Bayari, N. Nur Ozyurt, and Emrah Pekkans

ON THE ROLE OF HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN SHAPING THE COASTAL ENDOKARST OF SOUTHERN MALLORCA (WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN)
Joaquín Ginés, Angel Ginés, Joan J. Fornós, Antoni Merino and Francesc Gràcia

HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE APENNINES (ITALY)
Sandro Galdenzi

STEGBACHGRABEN, A MINERALIZED HYPOGENE CAVE IN THE GROSSARL VALLEY, AUSTRIA
Yuri Dublyansky, Christoph Spötl, and Christoph Steinbauer

HYPOGENE CAVES IN AUSTRIA
Lukas Plan, Christoph Spötl, Rudolf Pavuza, Yuri Dublyansky

KRAUSHÖHLE: THE FIRST SULPHURIC ACID CAVE IN THE EASTERN ALPS (STYRIA, AUSTRIA) (Abstract only)
Lukas Plan, Jo De Waele, Philippe Audra, Antonio Rossi, and Christoph Spötl

HYDROTHERMAL ORIGIN OF ZADLAŠKA JAMA, AN ANCIENT ALPINE CAVE IN THE JULIAN ALPS, SLOVENIA
Martin Knez and Tadej Slabe

ACTIVE HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS AND THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS AROUND THE EDGES OF ANTICLINAL RIDGES
Amos Frumkin

SEISMIC-SAG STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN TERTIARY CARBONATE ROCKS BENEATH SOUTHEASTERN FLORIDA, USA: EVIDENCE FOR HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENESIS?
Kevin J. Cunningham and Cameron Walker

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE PIEDMONT CRIMEA RANGE
A.B. Klimchouk, E.I. Tymokhina and G.N. Amelichev

STYLES OF HYPOGENE CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN ANCIENT CARBONATE AREAS OVERLYING NON-PERMEABLE ROCKS IN BRAZIL AND THE INFLUENCE OF COMPETING MECHANISMS AND LATER MODIFYING PROCESSES
Augusto S. Auler

MORPHOLOGY AND GENESIS OF THE MAIN ORE BODY AT NANISIVIK ZINC/LEAD MINE, BAFFIN ISLAND, CANADA: AN OUTSTANDING EXAMPLE OF PARAGENETIC DISSOLUTION OF CARBONATE BEDROCKS WITH PENE-CONTEMPORANEOUS PRECIPITATION OF SULFIDES AND GANGUE MINERALS IN A HYPOGENE SETTING
Derek Ford

THE INFLUENCE OF HYPOGENE AND EPIGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE VAZANTE KARST MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL
Cristian Bittencourt, Augusto Sarreiro Auler, José Manoel dos Reis Neto, Vanio de Bessa and Marcus Vinícios Andrade Silva

HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKÓW-CZĘSTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) ? EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF
Andrzej Tyc

EVIDENCE FROM CERNA VALLEY CAVES (SW ROMANIA) FOR SULFURIC ACID SPELEOGENESIS: A MINERALOGICAL AND STABLE ISOTOPE STUDY
Bogdan P. Onac, Jonathan Sumrall, Jonathan Wynn, Tudor Tamas, Veronica Dărmiceanu and Cristina Cizmaş

THE POSSIBILITY OF REVERSE FLOW PIRACY IN CAVES OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN BELT (Abstract only)
Ira D. Sasowsky

KARSTOGENESIS AT THE PRUT RIVER VALLEY (WESTERN UKRAINE, PRUT AREA)
Viacheslav Andreychouk and Bogdan Ridush

ZOLOUSHKA CAVE: HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS OR REVERSE WATER THROUGHFLOW?
V. Eirzhyk (Abstract only)

EPIGENE AND HYPOGENE CAVES IN THE NEOGENE GYPSUM OF THE PONIDZIE AREA (NIECKA NIDZIAŃSKA REGION), POLAND
Jan Urban, Viacheslav Andreychouk, and Andrzej Kasza

PETRALONA CAVE: MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON ITS SPELEOGENESIS
Georgios Lazaridis

HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN MAINLAND NORWAY AND SVALBARD?
Stein-Erik Lauritzen

VILLA LUZ PARK CAVES: SPELEOGENESIS BASED ON CURRENT STRATIGRAPHIC AND MORPHOLOGIC EVIDENCE (Abstract only)
Laura Rosales-Lagarde, Penelope J. Boston, Andrew Campbell, and Mike Pullin

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN SAUDI ARABIA (LAYLA LAKE SINKHOLES, AIN HEETH CAVE)
Stephan Kempe, Heiko Dirks, and Ingo Bauer

HYPOGENE KARSTIFICATION IN JORDAN (BERGISH/AL-DAHER CAVE, UWAIYED CAVE, BEER AL-MALABEH SINKHOLE)
Stephan Kempe, Ahmad Al-Malabeh, and Horst-Volker Henschel

ASSESSING THE RELIABILITY OF 2D RESISTIVITY IMAGING TO MAP A DEEP AQUIFER IN CARBONATE ROCKS IN THE IRAQI KURDISTAN REGION
Bakhtiar K. Aziz and Ezzaden N. Baban

FEATURES OF GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ORDINSKAYA UNDERWATER CAVE, FORE-URALS, RUSSIA
Pavel Sivinskih

INIAAIIINOE AEIIAAIIIAI NIAEAIAAIACA AI?II-NEEAA?AOIE IAEANOE CAIAAIIAI EAAEACA
A.A.Aao?ooaa

AEOAEIIIA NO?IAIEA AEA?IAAINOA?U: IIAAEU AA?OEEAEUIIE CIIAEUIINOE
A.I. Eaoaaa

?IEU EA?NOA A OI?IE?IAAIEE NIEAIUO AIA E ?ANNIEIA IEAI?ENEIAI AANNAEIA
Aeaenaia? Eiiiiia, Na?aae Aeaenaaa, e Na?aae Nooia


Artesian origin of a cave developed in an isolated horst: a case pf Smocza Jama (Kraków Upland, Poland), 2009,
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Gradziñ, Ski Michal, Motyka Jacek, Gó, Rny Andrzej

The cave of Smocza Jama located in the centre of Kraków is developed in the Wawel Horst built of Upper Jurassic limestone and surrounded by grabens with Miocene clays. The cave is composed of two series: the old one has been known for ages and the new one was discovered when an artificial shaft was mined in 1974. The new series comprises small chambers separated by intervening thin walls while the old series consists of three connected together spatial chambers. The cave abounds in extensively developed solution cavities – cupolas and ceiling pockets. The internal fine-grained deposits, predominantly representing clay fraction are built of illite, mixed layer illite- smectite, kaolinite and iron oxides. They are probably the residuum after dissolution of Jurassic limestone. The cave originated in phreatic condition due to water input from below. The new series represents juvenile stage of cave evolution. The water rose through fissure-rifts located in chamber bottoms, circulated convectionally within particular chambers, finally led to bleaching of intervening walls, and hence to connection of the neighbouring chambers. The evolution of the old series is far more advanced. The rounded solution cavities imply that the cave was formed by water of elevated temperature. The lack of coarse-grained fluvial deposits, Pleistocene mammal remains and Palaeolithic artefacts prove that the cave was isolated since its inception till Holocene time. The cave originated due to artesian circulation, when the Wawel Horst was covered by impermeable Miocene clays. A foreland basin with carbonate basement, filled with fine-grained molasse-type deposits seems to be particularly favourable for the development of artesian caves.


HYPOGENIC ASCENDING SPELEOGENESIS IN THE KRAKW-CZESTOCHOWA UPLAND (POLAND) EVIDENCE IN CAVE MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE RELIEF, 2009,
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Tyc A.

Polygenetic and multiphase karst within Upper Jurassic limestone of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland (South Poland) is characterized by a distinct stage of speleogenesis taking place in conditions of phreatic ascending circulation. This stage (or stages) is evidenced by both cave morphology and surface relief. Morphostratigraphic studies show that the hypogenic ascending features were early forms in the caves and later became integrated into cave systems. Conditions favorable for hypogenic caves development existed during a late Cretaceous-Paleogene phase of speleogenesis when the carbonate massif was covered by low permeability Cretaceous sediments and was subject to intense tectonic Laramian movements. In spite of the significant transformation of caves and their morphology by later vadose, epigenetic speleogenesis and denudation - especially under Pleistocene glacial and periglacial conditions - features of hypogenic ascending circulation are widely observed in the region. Relics of hypogene caves are common in the walls of rock monadnocks in the highest part of the Krakw-Czestochowa Upland.


The cave sites of fauna remains on the Stanovoj Upland (Russia), 2009,
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Filippov A. G. , Erbajeva M. A. , Grebnev I. E. , Popova S. M. , Tiunov M. P.

Eight caves and one filled cave passage containing mammal bone remains and terrestrial molluscs were discovered in the Severo-Muisky, Delyun-Uransky and Aglan-Yan Ranges in the Kelyana, Pravyi and Sredny Mamakan river basins of the Stanovoj Upland. Nineteen species of mammals were identified among collected bones: Ochotona hyperborea, Lepus timidus, Myodes rufocanus, Myodes rutilus, Microtus cf. gregalis, Microtus cf. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis, Myopus schisticolor, Tamias sibiricus, Pteromys volans, Martes zibellina, Plecotus auritus, Murina hilgendorfi, Amblyotus nilssoni, Myotis brandti, Myotis petax, Myotis bombinus, Rangifer tarandus and Cervus elaphus. Four taxons were determined to a genus (Lepus, Myodes, Microtus and Alticola), one to a family (Mustelidae), three to an order (Insectivora, Artiodactyla, Carnivora) and one to a class (Aves); five species of terrestrial molluscs were also found: Vallonia tenuilabris, Bradybaena schrencki, Nesovitrea hammonis, Discus ruderatus, Euconulus fulvus. The layers containing mammal remains are of Holocene Age based on preservation state of bones. The site with molluscs’ shells within the filled cave passage on the watershed near the Prokhodnoi brook could be formed in Holocene, as well as in Pleistocene. All identified species are typical representatives of fauna of the mountain taiga landscapes in the south of Eastern Siberia. The described locations of fauna remains are the only known, within the studied area.


Active Erosion of Flat Interfluve Summits Above the Multi-storey Artesian Ozark Aquifer , 2010,
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Elfrink, N. M.

Migrating regional ground water divides can create unstable zones of relatively stagnant flow in upland areas. Unlike traditional upland ground water divides, the process of flow reversal causes these zones to reject recharge. Artesian pressure surfaces limit the downward infiltration of precipitation and form the subenvelope above which ground water sapping can create a ‘peneplain’ (Stearns, 1967). Only regolith and rock above the pressure surface subenvelope is available for epigenic erosion. Inertia is eventually overcome and ground water circulation substantially increases as hydraulically-advantaged, ‘entrenched’ river systems capture the isolated packets of stagnant ground water. As artesian pressure is lost in the upper story, losing streams form. The losing streams may eventually be consumed by the steep slopes of an entrenching stream, thus completing the reversal of flow. Water level data suggest that the dewatering of stagnant divide areas can be hastened by distant earthquakes.

A variety of observations in Missouri, including recent studies using heat pulse flow meters, show that pressurized sandstone aquifers are widespread beneath upland divides and at surprisingly high elevations. The ground water in the sandstones is confined by relatively tight carbonates. Ground water leaves these confined aquifers by slowly percolating upward through the confining carbonate into shallow bedrock fractures. Storm events then flush shallow mineral-laden ground water into surface streams, which is why floodwaters tend to be dominated by ground water (Frederickson & Criss, 1999). In the major valleys, transverse speleogenesis reverses the hydraulic role of the carbonate beds (Klimchouk, 2003). Classic artesian hydrology generally ignores these mechanisms and cannot explain why most large Ozark caves are associated with sandstones. Unlike classic artesian systems, artesian aquifers in the Ozarks typically lack a marginal recharge zone. Artesian pressures are maintained by ongoing vertical movements. A subsidence rate of approximately 1 mm/yr in the Northern Mississippi Embayment (Calais, 2008) would cause the Ozark ground water divide to migrate to the north and west at approximately 0.7 meter per year, assuming a constant gradient. Flat interfluve summits form as the flow reversal process unfolds.

Once thought to be remnants of ancient peneplains formed near sea-level, isotopic evidence now indicates that modern Ozark summits are actually being sapped by relatively shallow but significant zones of chemical migration. The flat summit surfaces and the steep stream valleys form simultaneously as the landscape is lowered and drainages are rearranged. There is no need to postulate the prior existence of a low elevation peneplain. The uppermost artesian pressure surface acts as the base level, not sea level. Flat interfluve surfaces can form at any elevation, depending on hydrologic conditions. The summit surfaces appear flat because they are essentially created by a regional ground water surface that is widespread and relatively flat.


DYNAMIC TOPOGRAPHY, PRESSURIZED SANDSTONES AND HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS IN THE OZARKS, 2010,
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Large-scale crustal subsidence proposed for the New Madrid region (Forte et al., 2007) can explain the upwelling of saline groundwater in the Northern Mississippi Embayment and parts of the adjacent Ozarks. As rock moves downward, deep groundwater is displaced upward. Raising the Ozarks relative to the Mississippi Embayment increases hydraulic pressure in sandstone aquifers and stresses the interlayered, low-conductivity, telogenetic, carbonates. In response to the increased pressure, groundwater finds new pathways to exit freshwater confined aquifers. Upward cross-formational discharge of deep groundwater can produce cave passages that do not correlate with joints as well as huge spring flows that do not correlate with catchment areas. Recognition of the widespread regional discharge regime in the Ozark region has been hampered by the unfounded assumption of unconfined conditions based on water levels from wells open to large intervals. Recent studies, using techniques such as flow meters, reveal relatively thin, pressurized sandstones at surprisingly high elevations in areas that were once thought to be recharge zones. The pressurized aquifers limit downward infiltration of meteoric recharge and create a complex flow field: a topography-driven meteoric regime perched above an overpressured regime driven by neotectonics. The boundary between the two competing regimes shifts continuously as valleys entrench and karstification changes the hydraulic function of carbonates. As denudation progresses, different parts of the Ozark stratigraphic column are in different karstification zones at the same time. Beneath uplands, groundwater is confined by relatively shallow unfractured carbonates. Ubiquitously ascending waters move upward into sandstone layers and then laterally toward the valleys. Mixing creates large conduits beneath sandstones and eventually unroofing opens fractures in the carbonates, allowing epigenic processes to become dominant. Wells that seal off or miss the upper pressurized sandstone can produce low water levels, a condition the USGS refers to as ‘mature karst’. In epigenic zones near deep valleys, sandstones that extend back into the uplands can continue to supply deep groundwater to perennial cave streams.


Interconnection of the Trinity (Glen Rose) and Edwards Aquifers along the Balcones Fault Zone and Related Topics, 2011,
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The proceedings volume contains nine contributions presented during the Karst Conservation Initiative Meeting held in February 17, 2011 at The University of Texas at Austin.

The Edwards and Trinity Aquifers are critical water resources, supplying high-quality potable water to over two million people in the greater Austin-San Antonio region of central Texas, USA. These Cretaceous carbonate aquifers are hydrogeologically juxtaposed by extensive Miocene tectonic deformation associated with the Balcones Fault Zone, where the younger Edwards Group limestone has been downthrown relative to the older Trinity Group. The karstic aquifers are managed separately by regional water regulatory entities, and they have been historically treated as independent systems, both scientifically and from a water policy standpoint. Recent awareness of a significant interconnection between the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers has resulted in a number of hydrogeologic investigations documenting how they may actually operate as a single system. Studies related to upland recharge variability (spatial and temporal), stream loss, phreatic dye tracing, multi-port well monitoring, geochemistry, biologic habitat analysis, geophysics, and groundwater modeling indicate that the two are much less separated than previously observed. Summaries of these investigations conclude that changes in management strategies may be required to properly protect the quantity and quality of water in the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers.

Contents (click to open individual articles)

Introduction and Acknowledgements 

I nterconnection of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Central Texas, U.S.A. 
Marcus O. Gary 

Spatial and Temporal Recharge Variability Related to Groundwater Interconnection of the Edwards and Trinity Aquifers, Camp Bullis, Bexar and Comal Counties, Texas 
Marcus O.Gary, George Veni, Beverly Shade, and Robin Gary

Potential for Vertical Flow Between the Edwards and Trinity Aquifer, Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer 
Brian A. Smith and Brian B. Hunt

Could Much of Edwards Aquifer “Matrix Storage” Actually be Trinity Aquifer Contributions from the Blanco River? 
Nico M. Hauwert

Geophysical Correlation of Haby Crossing Fault (Medina County) and Mt. Bonnell Fault (Travis County) and Their Implications on T-E Interconnection 
Mustafa Saribudak

Edwards Aquifer – Upper Glen Rose Aquifer Hydraulic Interaction 
R.T. Green, F.P. Bertetti, and M.O. Candelario

Interaction Between the Hill Country Portion of the Trinity and Edwards Aquifers: Model Results 
Ian C. Jones

Using Tracer Testing Data for Resource Management Planning 
Geary Schindel and Steve Johnson

Demonstrating Interconnection Between a Wastewater Application Facility and a First Magnitude Spring in a Karstic Watershed: Tracer Study of the Tallahassee, Florida Treated Effluent Spray Field 2006-2007  
Todd R. Kincaid, Gareth J. Davies, Christopher L. Werner, and Rodney S. DeHan

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Morphology and geology of an interior layered deposit in the western Tithonium Chasma, Mars, 2013,
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Baioni, Davide

This paper describes a morphologic and morphometric survey of a 3.1 km-high, domeshaped upland in western Tithonium Chasma (TC) which coincides with areas containing abundant surface signatures of the sulphate mineral kiersite, as identified by the OMEGA image spectrometer. The morphologic features of the dome were investigated through an integrated analysis of the available Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera, and Context Camera data, while the morphometric characteristics of the structure were measured using a topographic map (25-m contour interval) built from high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data.
The dome displays surface features that were apparently formed by liquid water probably released from melting ice. These features include karst landforms as well as erosive and depositional landforms. The surface of the dome has few impact craters, which suggests a relatively young age for the dome. Layers in the dome appear laterally continuous and are visibly dipping toward the slopes in some places.
The mineralogical and structural characteristics of the dome suggest that it was emplaced as a diapir, similar to the dome structure located in the eastern part of TC, and to many salt diapirs on Earth.


Morphology and geology of an interior layered deposit in the western Tithonium Chasma, Mars, 2013,
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Baioni, Davide

This paper describes a morphologic and morphometric survey of a 3.1 km-high, domeshaped upland in western Tithonium Chasma (TC) which coincides with areas containing abundant surface signatures of the sulphate mineral kiersite, as identified by the OMEGA image spectrometer. The morphologic features of the dome were investigated through an integrated analysis of the available Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera, and Context Camera data, while the morphometric characteristics of the structure were measured using a topographic map (25-m contour interval) built from high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data.

The dome displays surface features that were apparently formed by liquid water probably released from melting ice. These features include karst landforms as well as erosive and depositional landforms. The surface of the dome has few impact craters, which suggests a relatively young age for the dome. Layers in the dome appear laterally continuous and are visibly dipping toward the slopes in some places.

The mineralogical and structural characteristics of the dome suggest that it was emplaced as a diapir, similar to the dome structure located in the eastern part of TC, and to many salt diapirs on Earth.


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