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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That pyrrhotite is a cave mineral - fes [11].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for groundwater (Keyword) returned 958 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 958
International Symposium on Groundwater Biology: introduction., 1981,
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Buikema Arthur L. Jr. , Holsinger John R.
Short presentation of the Symposium on Groundwater.

Distribution of Ostracods in the Groundwater of the North Western Coast of Euboea (Greece)., 1981,
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Danielopol Dan L.
Freshwater fauna from 20 wells located 15-200 m from the seashore as well as marine interstitial fauna from the coastal zone around the village Aghios Georghios (Cape Likhada) have been investigated. Freshwater hypogean ostracods live mainly in protected wells having clean bottom and little particulate organic matter from which the water is moderately pumped. Epigean freshwater ostracods dominate in unprotected wells with large amounts of organic matter on the bottom. There is a sharp difference between the ostracod fauna living in fresh groundwater (mainly Cypridids) and those living in coastal marine interstitial habitats (marine Cytherids and Polycopids). It is suggested that in the Mediterranean realm the hypogean fauna could be found easily in protected wells with little organic matter accumulation, where water is moderately pumped.

The Edwards Aquifer: Earth's Most Diverse Groundwater Ecosystem?, 1981,
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Longley Glenn
Recent studies on the Edwards Aquifer, a karstic formed cavernous system in Texas, indicate an extremely diverse community of aquatic troglobites. Sampling of wells and springs is providing new insight into the dynamics of this fascinating system, which is possibly the most diverse subterranean aquatic ecosystem known in the world today.

Biogeographical and Paleobiogeographical Problems in Stenasellids (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Underground Waters)., 1981,
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Magniez Guy
Considering their systematic isolation among present Asellota, their strong burrowing behaviour, their aptitude for interstitial life and their wide north-tropical present distribution, the history of Stenasellid Crustaceans seems to be marked by the antiquity of their settlements in continental groundwaters (Middle Cretaceous period?) and a long stage of life in phreatic waters on permanently emerged paleotropical continents during the Cenozoic Era. The resemblance between some forms of the Guinean shield and Mexico sets the problem of the anteriority of their continental conquest to South Atlantic drift. The repartition of Mediterranean European forms appears as a consequence of paleogeographical changes in Tertiary Times. The distribution of continental European forms has been marked by Quaternary climatic alterations: severe curtailment of settlements, endemicity in Glacial periods but wide Holocene expansion for the forms adapted to new climatic conditions.

Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung der Bakterienflora und Bestimmung ihrer heterotrophen Aktivitt in organisch belastetem und unbelastetem Grundwasser sandig-kiesiger Ablagerungen., 1981,
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Marxsen Jurgen
Bacteriological investigations were carried out in the groundwater of sandy and gravelly deposits of the river Fulda valley in an area named Johannesaue near the town Fulda (Hesse, Fed. Rep. of Germany). In January 1979 water samples were collected from 16 pumping tubes distributed in organically polluted and unpolluted areas. For characterizing the bacterial populations, methods used for surface waters were modified and, as far as the author is aware, these methods were used for the first time for investigations pertaining subterranean waters. The bacteria were counted by means of epifluorescence microscopy after staining the bacteria with the fluorochrome acridine orange. This technique renders possible the simultaneous registration of shape and size of bacteria. Parameters characterizing the heterotrophic bacterial activity were measured with 14C-labelled glucose. The number of bacteria in the groundwater collected through pumping tubes, varied from 1.4 to 11.3 million bacteria per ml. The relative glucose uptake potential vr, which was measured at one substrate concentration (600 microg glucose .1-1) where the maximum uptake velocity is almost reached, was 0.12; 0.74 microg glucose 1-1 .h-1. The corresponding specific potential was 0.02-0.18 microg glucose h-1 cell-1. The results agreed with the values of maximum uptake velocity Vmax which was measured at the same time in some of the groundwater samples. The data give first information about distribution of the number of bacteria and of heterotrophic bacterial activity in the groundwater of the investigation area. Relationships could be shown between the bacteriological parameters on the one hand and the concentration of oxygen and the values of COD measured with KMnO4 on the other hand.

Geophysical logging of water wells, 1981,
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Robinson V. D. , Oliver D.

Karst development and groundwater flow in the Quatsino Formation, northern Vancouver Island. MSc. thesis, McMaster Univ, 1981,
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Mills W. R. P.

Three Groundwater Candoninae (Ostracoda) from Romania., 1982,
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Danielopol Dan L.
Description of Mixtcandona botosaneanu, Mixtacandona loffleri and Phreatocandona motasi, are presented. The first two species belong to the group laisi-chappuisi and have been found in porous and karstic aquifers in Southwest Romania in or near the Lower Danube Valley. Phreatocandona motasi occurs in a porous aquifer in the Olt Valley, at Jiblea, near Calimanesti. Biogeographical information on the present distribution of the Mixtacandona of the group laisi-chappuisi and on the subterranean Candoninae from the Lower Danube Valley in Romania is given.

Paramexiweckelia, a new Genus of Subterranean Amphipod Crustacean (Hadziidae) from Northern Mexico., 1982,
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Holsinger John R.
Paramexiweckelia, new genus, is described from a groundwater outlet in Cohauila, Mexico. The type-species, by monotypy, is Mexiweckelia particeps Holsinger. Based on the number of its plesiomorphic (ancestral) characters, this genus is the most primitive member of the family Hadziidae from the North American mainland.

Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer, Saudi Arabia, with reference to fossil gradients, 1982,
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Bakiewicz W, Milne Dm, Noori M,
Much of North Africa and the Arabian peninsula, lying in the Saharan climate zone, are underlain by huge tabular sandstone and carbonate aquifers, ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. These are often saturated with water of reasonable quality and form very valuable resources in an area often desperately short of water. The Palaeocene Umm Er Radhuma carbonate aquifer is one such formation which has been the subject of intensive recent investigation. The formation contains groundwater of a reasonable quality, has adequate transmission and storage characteristics and hence considerable potential for future development. The origin of the water in such aquifers is the subject of continuing controversy. It is not disputed that the water is moving under the influence of regional groundwater gradients but origins of these gradients are the subject of considerable argument. On the one hand, there are those who hold that the presently observed gradients are fossil remnants of conditions created by a much wetter climatic regime prevalent some thousands of years ago. Against this are those who maintain that the gradients, at least in part, reflect a present day system with groundwater discharge in approximate dynamic equilibrium with recharge. This paper examines the hydrogeology of a typical Middle Eastern formation of the disputed kind, the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer in Saudi Arabia, and, with the aid of analytical and numerical models, attempts to resolve the problem of the origin of the observed groundwater gradients and to discover the extent to which the past must influence present day plans for future development

Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982,
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Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

Hydrogeology of the Great Nubian Sandstone basin, Egypt, 1982,
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Shata A. A. ,
In Egypt, the strata of major hydrogeological interest are composed of a sandstone complex ranging from Cambrian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This sandstone complex, commonly known as the Nubian Sandstone, has a thickness varying from less than 500 m to more than 3000 m and rests directly on Precambrian basement. This simple picture is complicated by a number of major structural fault and fold axes which traverse the region in a north-easterly direction. The sandstones reach their max-imum development in the Ain Dalla basin, a downthrown structural block SW of Bahariya oasis. Basement features exercise a dominant control on the structural and sedimentological form of the sandstone complex. In spite of the structural complications, the Nubian sand-stone, underlying an extensive area of Egypt, probably con-stitutes a single hydrogeological system to the W of the Gulf of Suez. To the E, on the Sinai peninsula, a second system may exist with some connection to the main western system in the N. The main western system, which extends into Libya and Sudan, comprises a multi-layered artesian basin where huge groundwater storage reserves were accumulated, principally during the pluvials of the Quaternary. The carbonate rocks overlying the Nubian Sandstone complex display karst features locally and are recharged by upwards leakage from the underlying major aquifer. Large-scale development of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in Egypt has been under consideration since 1960. Latest proposals for the New Valley development project involve exploitation at the annual rate of 156.2 x l06m3 at El-Kharga, 509.2 at

Cavern Development in the Dimensions of Length and Breadth. PhD Thesis, 1982,
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Ewers, Ralph Owen

Three conceptual models are proposed for the integration of the large systems of conduits responsible for groundwater flow in soluble rocks. These models are supported by laboratory experiments with scaled solution models, flow-field analogues, and evidence from existing caves.
The three models reflect different boundary conditions imposed by geologic structure and stratigraphy. They have three characteristics in common. First, the smaller elements of the larger systems propagate separately from points of groundwater input toward points of discharge as distributary networks. Second, the integration of the smaller networks proceeds headward from the resurgence, in a stepwise fashion. Third, the result of the integration process in each case is a tributary system with many inputs discharging through a single discharge point.
The potential for growth of each of the smaller networks, within a common pressure field, is related to its distance from the discharge boundary and the distribution of other inputs. The first input to establish a low-resistance link to the discharge boundary will effect a localized depression within the potential field, thus attracting the flow and redirecting the growth of nearby networks until they eventually link with it. As additional orders of links develop, the system takes on a tributary pattern.
The first model applies to steeply dipping rocks. Inputs occur where bedding planes are truncated by erosion, and discharge takes place to the strike. Conduits in this case evolve as a roughly rectangular grid of strike and dip oriented elements. Dip elements are the initial form, with subsequent integration along the strike. The type example is the Holloch in Switzerland.
The second model applies to flat-lying rocks. Inputs occur over a broad area, and discharge takes place along a linear boundary. Conduits in this case evolve in a trellised array with elements normal to the discharge boundary predating those parallel to it. These latter conduits integrate the flow. The type example is the Mammoth Cave Region, Kentucky.
The third model applies to simple systems which occur beneath an impermeable cap rock. Inputs occur where erosion has breached the capping beds. The type example is Cave Creek, Kentucky.


Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983,
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Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

Hydrology of autogenic percolation systems in some tropical karst outcrops, West Malaysia, 1983,
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Crowther J,
This paper reports on the flow regimes of underground seepages in three tower-karst outcrops and in the Setul Boundary Range, West Malaysia. Groundwater movement in the tower-karst hills, which comprise very pure, massive marbles, is confined to vertical and subvertical joints. Although flow is primarily diffuse and the discharges of the majority of seepages correlate most closely with rainfall in antecedent periods of 1-16 days or more, some stormflow occurs along conduits in the upper parts of these aquifers. Many of these conduits appear to peter out at depth into tight rock fractures, thereby forming funnel-shaped underground reservoirs which serve to moderate discharge variations. In contrast, the limestones of the Setul Boundary Range are less pure and retain much of their original bedding. The presence of near-horizontal bedding plane fractures favours lateral groundwater movement and the development of integrated drainage networks within the rock. Compared with the tower-karst caves, seepage rates are generally higher and more responsive to short-term variations in rainfall. The marked difference in topography between the tower-karst hills and the Setul Boundary Range is largely attributable to the contrasted geohydrological properties of the limestones

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