Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That meteorology is the science dealing with all physical phenomena occurring in the atmosphere [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for a cave (Keyword) returned 622 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 586 to 600 of 622
Die Erdflle von Layla und Al-Kharj Einblicke in die Karst-Hydrogeologie des oberen Jura von Saudi-Arabien, 2013, Schleusener Florian, Kempe Stephan, Dirks Heiko, Rausch Randolf, Gbel Patricia

Until the end of the 20th century, the sinkhole lakes of Layla and Al-Kharj formed oases in central Saudi Arabia. They were fed by ascending groundwater from the karstified Upper Jurassic anhydrites of the Arab and Hith formations. Morphologic features of a cave near Al-Kharj and hydraulic heads in wells of the Layla region show that the karstification of the anhydrites was hypogene. The karstification led to zones of collapse in the overlying Cretaceous sediments. Because of the exploitation of the underlying aquifer, the sinkhole-lakes dried up, exposing worldwide singular sublacustrine gypsum tufas on their walls. The gypsum tufas and widespread gypsum crusts in the vicinity of the sinkholes reflect the former ascent of the sulphate enriched groundwater.



The Diana Cave in SW Romania develops along a fault line at the contact between Late Jurassic limestones and Early Cretaceous marls. It formed through corrosion of bedrock (limestone and marls) by sulphuric acid-rich steam condensate resulted after oxidation/hydrolysis of H2S escaping from the thermo-mineral water emerging from depth in the cave. The sulfuric acid causes a strong acid sulfate weathering of the bedrock generating a sulfate-dominated secondary cave-mineral assemblage that includes gypsum, anhydrite, bassanite, epsomite, alunite, and halotrichite group minerals. Closely associated with these minerals are two rare sulfate species, namely rapidcreekite and tamarugite that represent new occurrences in limestone caves. Traditional X-ray diffraction and single crystal analyses were used along with scanning electron microscope (SEM), stable isotope, and electron microprobe investigations to fully characterize the primary and secondary speleogenetic by-products of Diana Cave.

Rapidcreekite in the sulfuric acid weathering environment of Diana Cave, Romania, 2013, Onac B. P. Effenberger H. S. Wynn J. G. Povară, I.

The Diana Cave in SW Romania develops along a fault line and hosts a spring of hot (Tavg = 51 °C), sulfate-rich, sodium-calcium-chloride bearing water of near-neutral pH. Abundant steam and H2S rises from the thermal water to condensate on the walls and ceiling of the cave. The sulfuric acid produced by H2S oxidation/hydrolysis causes a strong acid-sulfate weathering of the cave bedrock generating a sulfate-dominated mineral assemblage that includes rapidcreekite, Ca2(SO4)(CO3)•4H2O closely associated with gypsum and halotrichite group minerals. Rapidcreekite forms bundles of colorless tabular orthorhombic crystals elongated along [001] and reaching up to 1.5 mm in length. For verifying the hydrogen bond scheme and obtaining crystal-chemical details of the carbonate group a single-crystal structure refinement of rapidcreekite was performed. Its unit-cell parameters are: a = 15.524(2), b = 19.218(3), c = 6.161(1) Å; V = 1838.1(5) Å3, Z = 8, space group Pcnb. Chemi¬cal composition (wt%): CaO 35.65, SO3 24.97, CO2 13.7, H2O 23.9, Na2O 0.291, MgO 0.173, Al2O3 0.07, total 98.75%. The empirical formula, based on 7 non-water O atoms pfu, is: Ca1.98Na0.029Mg0.013 Al0.004(S0.971 O4)(C0.97O3)•4.13H2O. The d34S and d18O values of rapidcreekite and other cave sulfates range from 18 to 19.5‰ CDT and from –9.7 to 7.8‰ SMOW, respectively, indicating that the source of sulfur is a marine evaporite and that during hydration of the minerals it has been an abundant 18O exchange with percolating water but almost no oxygen is derived from O2(aq). This is the first descrip¬tion of rapidcreekite from a cave environment and one of the very few natural occurrences worldwide. We also report on the mineral stability and solubility, parameters considered critical to understand the co-precipitation of carbonates and sulfates, a process that has wide applications in cement industry and scaling prevention.

Die Erdflle von Layla und Al-Kharj Einblicke in die Karst-Hydrogeologie des oberen Jura von Saudi-Arabien, 2013, Schleusener Florian, Kempe Stephan, Dirks Heiko, Rausch Randolf, Gbel Patricia

Until the end of the 20th century, the sinkholelakes of Layla and Al-Kharj formed oases in central Saudi Arabia. They were fed by ascending groundwater from the karstified Upper Jurassic anhydrites of the Arab and Hith formations. Morphologic features of a cave near Al-Kharj and hydraulic heads in wells of the Layla region show that the karstification of the anhydrites was hypogene. The karstification led to zones of collapse in the overlying Cretaceous sediments. Because of the exploitation of the underlying aquifer, the sinkhole-lakes dried up, exposing worldwide singular sublacustrine gypsum tufas on their walls. The gypsum tufas and widespread gypsum crusts in the vicinity of the sinkholes reflect the former ascent of the sulphateenriched groundwater.

Naica caves: perhaps the most important mine caves of the world, 2013, Badino Giovanni, Forti Paolo

In 2005 La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche together with C/Producciones of Mexico City and Peñoles Society started with the “Projecto Naica” a complex multidisciplinary project to explore, document and study all the relevant aspects of Naica caves. The project lasted about five years. Thanks to the “Projecto Naica” it is now clear that the Naica caves are presently the most important mine caves of the world, not only from the aesthetic point of view but also from the scientific one. But these cave will be likely destroyed in a short span of time and therefore La Venta Esplorazioni Geografiche is now working hard to try to preserve for future generations not only the memory and the records (already achieved with the “Projecto Naica”), but also a significant part of this incredible underground world.

Rana iberica (Boulenger, 1879) goes underground: subterranean habitat usage and new insights on natural history, 2013, Gonalo M. Rosa, Andreia Penado

Reports of amphibians exploiting subterranean habitats are common, with salamanders being the most frequent and studied inhabitants. Anurans can occasionally be observed in caves and other subterranean habitats, but in contrast to salamanders, breeding had never been reported in a cave or similar subterranean habitat in Western Europe. Based on observations during visits to a drainage gallery in Serra da Estrela, Portugal, from May 2010 to December 2012, here we document: (i) first report of Rana iberica reproduction in cave-like habitat, representing the fourth report of an anuran for the Palearctic ecozone; (ii) oophagic habits of the tadpoles of Ranaiberica; and (iii) Salamandra salamandra predation on Rana iberica larvae. These observations, particularly of Rana iberica, highlight our lack of knowledge of subterranean ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula.

New Zospeum species (Gastropoda, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae) from 980 m depth in the Lukina Jama Trojama cave system (Velebit Mts., Croatia), 2013, Alexander M. Weigand

A new species of the eutroglobiont gastropod taxon Zospeum Bourguignat, 1856 is described.Zospeum tholussum sp. n. is characterized based on a population from the Lukina Jama–Trojama cave system (Velebit Mts., Croatia). A single living specimen occurred at 980 m depth. The species is morphologically related to Zospeum amoenum (Frauenfeld, 1856), but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the presence of a weak columellar fold and its dome-like structured 2nd whorl. DNA barcoding is capable to clearly delineate Zospeum tholussum from other Zospeum spp. as well.

Early results of micro-deformation measurements in Magdalena Jama (Slovenia) by a vertical static pendulum, 2013, Kalenda Pavel, Neumann Libor, Šebela Stanka

Vertical static pendulums have been installed in mines or caves in Central Europe since 2007. Two­dimensional optical measurement of the tilt of a rock mass and continuous fully digital on­line evaluation of results makes possible the detection of a small tilt of the surroundings with a resolution of tens of nanoradians or the deformation of the surroundings in the horizontal plane with resolution of hundreds of nanometres. The paper describes the measurement device and the first results of the measurements in Magdalena Jama, which is part of the Postojna Cave System (Slovenia). The correlation of deformation between distant stations shows the existence of stress variations that are not only of local origin (high floods, local seismicity, and aseismic deformations). The stress field has a wider, and not only regional, character with effects that can be observed very far from the origin.

Using isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon species and water to separate sources of recharge in a cave spring, northwestern Arkansas, USA Blowing Spring Cave, 2013, Knierim Katherine J. , Pollock Erik, Hays Phillip D.

Blowing Spring Cave in northwestern Arkansas is representative of cave systems in the karst of the Ozark Plateaus, and stable isotopes of water (δ18O and δ2H) and inorganic carbon (δ13C) were used to quantify soil-water, bedrock-matrix water, and precipitation contributions to cave-spring flow during storm events to understand controls on cave water quality. water samples from recharge-zone soils and the cave were collected from March to May 2012 to implement a multicomponent hydrograph separation approach using δ18O and δ2H of water and dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C–DIC). During baseflow, median δ2H and δ18O compositions were –41.6‰ and –6.2‰ for soil water and were –37.2‰ and –5.9‰ for cave water, respectively. Median DIC concentrations for soil and cave waters were 1.8 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively, and median δ 13C–DIC compositions were –19.9‰ and –14.3‰, respectively. During a March storm event, 12.2 cm of precipitation fell over 82 h and discharge increased from 0.01 to 0.59 m3 /s. The isotopic composition of precipitation varied throughout the storm event because of rainout, a change of 50‰ and 10‰ for δ2H and δ18O was observed, respectively. Although, at the spring, δ2H and δ18O only changed by approximately 3‰ and 1‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of precipitation and pre-event (i.e., soil and bedrock matrix) water were isotopically similar and the two-component hydrograph separation was inaccurate, either overestimating (>100%) or underestimating (<0%) the precipitation contribution to the spring. During the storm event, spring DIC and δ13C–DIC de- creased to a minimum of 8.6 mg/L and –16.2‰, respectively. If the contribution from precipitation was assumed to be zero, soil water was found to contribute between 23 to 72% of the total volume of discharge. Although the assumption of negligible contributions from precipitation is unrealistic, especially in karst systems where rapid flow through conduits occurs, the hydrograph separation using inorganic carbon highlights the importance of considering vadose-zone soil water when analyzing storm chemohydrographs.  

The first cavernicolous Nicoletiidae (Insecta: Zygentoma) from The United Arab Emirates, 2013, Espinasa L. , Mendes L. F.

Lepidospora mazyadi, n. sp., is described and differentiated from all the other known Lepidospora s.s. The new species was collected from a cave in Jebel Hafeet in the United Arab Emirates. Morphology and preliminary analyses of 16S rRNA DNA sequences are described. The new species is unique because, unlike other species in the genus, it lacks sexually dimorphic terminal filaments. It is also the first nicoletiid reported from the United Arab Emirates and the second cave-adapted species from Arabia.

The view of Maya cave ritual from the Overlook Rockshelter, Caves Branch River Valley, Central Belize, 2013, Wrobel G. D. , Shelton R. , Morton S. , Lynch J. , Andres C.

Archaeological investigations of the Overlook Rockshelter in the Caves Branch River Valley of central Belize offer a unique view of ancient Maya cave ritual through the complete recovery and analysis of all artifacts within the site’s two small activity areas. In general, the assemblage contains many of the same types of objects documented from other nearby caves and rockshelters. However, the nearly 1700 ceramics sherds showed almost no refits, demonstrating that sherds were deposited at the site individually, rather than as complete vessels. The human bone assemblage represents three or four individuals, with the majority of the bones comprising a single individual, and all of these were deposited as incomplete secondary interments. Analogies for this depositional behavior based on archaeological and ethnographic studies suggest that this rockshelter may represent a waypoint within a ritual circuit composed of multiple locations over which fragments of complete items such as ceramic vessels and secondary burials were spread.  


Insights into Cave Architecture and the Role of Bacterial Biofilm, 2013,

Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside conditions. They lend living proof of the presence of minute life forms that delve deep within the earth’s crust where the possibility of life seems impossible. Devoid of all light sources and lacking the most common source of energy supplied through photosynthesis, the mysterious microbial kingdom in caves are consequently dependent upon alternative sources of energy derived from the surrounding atmosphere, minerals and rocks. There are a number of features that can be observed within a cave that may serve as evidence of microbial activity, for example, formation of biofilms comprised of multiple layers of microbial communities held together by protective gel-like polymers which form complex structures. Different bacterial biofilms can develop on the walls of the cave which can be visually distinguished by their colorations. Moreover, the pH generated by the metabolism of bacterial biofilm on the cave environment can lead to precipitation or dissolution of minerals in caves. Caves also offer an excellent scenario for studying biomineralization processes. The findings on the association of bacteria with secondary minerals as mentioned in this review will help to expand the existing knowledge in geomicrobiology and specifically on the influence of microorganisms in the formation of cave deposits. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of biospeleology of caves and the associated bacterial biofilms. Recommendations for future research are mentioned to encourage a drift from qualitative studies to more experimental studies.


The Toca da Boa Vista and Barriguda caves are located in Northeastern Brazil. They occur in the Neoproterozoic carbonates (limestones and dolomites) of the Salitre Formation, located at Irecê Basin. This set of rocks occurs within the São Francisco Craton, a region that was not affected by the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogeny (Pedreira et al., 1987). The caves occur at a dis­tance of approximately 300 m apart and there is a possibility of a link between them, but so far this has not been proven. Toca da Boa Vista has about 108 km of mapped passages and is therefore the largest cave in South America. Toca da Barriguda is smaller and has about 32 km of mapped galleries.

The architecture of the Toca da Boa Vista and Barriguda caves present both a 2D network and spongework type (Auler, 2009). The control of the conduits is related to faults, fractures and axial planes of antiforms. The general configuration of the caves seems to follow the Pacuí riverbed that has its channel located about 1km southeast. The origin of these hypogenic caves was first postulated by Auler & Smart (2004), who described some hypogenic features and reported a acid source (H2S) coming from existing pyrite in carbonates to explain the corrosion and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Klimchouk (2009) wrote about the need to investigate deeper this issue. He drew attention to the apparent feeders presence coming from the lower aquifer as well as to the importance of determi­nation of the source of acidity, since the amount of pyrite present doesn’t seem to be significant for the origin and development of the caves by hypogenic speleogenesis.

Although the origin and development of the caves are still under discussion, abundant hypogenic forms are present. Feeders, rising wall channels, half ceiling tubes, half wall tubes, ceiling cupolas, convection cupolas and wall niches are the major forms found. The linear geometry of caves suggests that they have a structural control. In addition, cavities generated at Toca da Boa Vista and Barriguda caves seem to follow the same stratigraphic level, as well as existing permeable structures such as fractures, faults and axial planes of antiforms. The process of ascending flow through these structures has resulted in the opening of the cavities by hypogenic dissolution as well as the collapse of blocks caused by the lack of sustainability of the layers generated by the voids left by the dis­solution. Outlets that would flow to levels above were not found. The origin and evolution of the cave system, however, needs further investigation.


Subaerial corrosion has been recognized as an important cave modifying process in limited settings. But is it possible that we overlook its importance in other cases? Could it actually be a significant speleogenetic agent in its own right? Numerous corroding agents have been identified including sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, ambient water vapor, and thermal water vapor. Morphogenetic features have been described, and cautions issued about possible confusion with hypogene features. Theoretical calculations seem to limit the importance of corrosion in many settings, but it appears that great care must be taken, especially for possible confusion between “hypogene” morphologies in a cave.
Some caves in the Iberian Range (Spain) seem undoubtedly hypogene in origin based on hydrologic constraints. They also contain morphologies that are consistent with this origin. But, extreme corrosion of speleothems and bedrock may be masking the nature of the cave morphology post-drainage of the forming waters. Topographic position of some caves suggests the possibility of a strong component of subaerial corrosion as the cave forming agent

A new species of Duvalius from world’s deepest cave (Coleoptera: Carabidae), 2014, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Ortuño V. M.

The new hypogean ground beetle, Duvalius abyssimus n. sp., from Krubera-Voronja, world’s deepest cave (Arabika massif, Western Caucasus) is described and illustrated. Diagnostic morphological characters of the imago, male and female genitalia are provided. Its relations with other Duvalius Delarouzée species from the Western Caucasus geographic area are discussed. An updated overview of the biocoenosis of its peculiar habitat is made.



Results 586 to 600 of 622
You probably didn't submit anything to search for