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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flow, uniform is a characteristic of a flow system where specific discharge has the same magnitude and direction at any point [22].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for origins (Keyword) returned 67 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 61 to 67 of 67
Potential impact of a proposed railway tunnel on the karst environment: the example of Rosandra valley, Classical Karst Region, Italy-Slovenia, 2011, Zini Luca , Visintin Luca, Cucchi Franco, Boschin Walter

Val Rosandra is a unique geomorphological environment located on the western side of the Classical Karst Plateau (NE Italy). This deep limestone gorge is crossed by a stream that is fed by a large basin located in Slovenia. Val Rosandra is the only example of a karst river valley with surface hydrography in the Classical Karst Plateau. The torrent that crosses it digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes, small waterfalls, enclosed meanders and basins; here, the first seepage phenomena occur, and part of the water feeds the underground aquifer.Val Rosandra is characterised by a complex structural situation. The NE slope culminates in the structure of Mt. Stena, a limestone tectonic wedge between two faults, firmly rooted in the karst platform. Both its external morphology and its caves are influenced by the structure, i.e. by the attitude of bedding planes, fault planes and master joints. Mt. Stena, in particular, hosts a comprehensive net of articulated and diversely shaped caves, basically organised on several levels. This network stretches over a total of 9,000 metres, bearing testimony to ancient geological and hydrogeological origins.The deepest areas of the system reach a suspended aquifer that is probably sustained by an overthrust and placed about 100 meters above the underground aquifer of the Rosandra torrent.A series of feasibility studies on the Trieste-Divača high-speed railway link concentrated on the potential interaction between the project and karst features. In line with the project requirements, risk of voids intersection and water contamination were analyzed as Mt. Stena’s suspended aquifer partially feeds the Rosandra torrent, which flows in a protected natural area. We therefore suggest that further investigations ought to be performed to integrate the existing knowledge on karst and on the hydrogeological aspects of the massif.


Limestone plateaus of the Yorkshire Dales glaciokarst, 2011, Waltham Tony, Long Harry

Landforms across the Yorkshire Dales were mapped by Marjorie Sweeting in 1950 and interpreted as a 1300-foot erosion surface, surviving from a past phase of planation. Re-appraisal of the field data shows that many of the surface features are stratimorphs or structural benches. The Malham Tarn basin may have erosional or geological origins. Other features of past erosion have long since been eroded away. Any concept of an old erosion surface surviving as elements within the modern Dales landscape is untenable.


Speleogenesis, Hypogenic, 2012, Klimchouk, Alexander

Recognition of the cave development at depths below the near-surface environment, largely during mesogenesis by processes not directly related to the surface, signifies a major paradigm shift in karst science, previously overwhelmingly dominated by the epigene concepts and models. Such caves form by upwelling waters of meteoric and deeper origins driven by hydrostatic pressure and other sources of energy. They occur widely through the upper part of the Earth’s crust, although become available for direct study only when shifted to the shallow subsurface during uplift and erosion, or through mines or boreholes. Hypogenic caves form in different rocks in a wide range of geological and tectonic settings and include some of the largest known caves in the world. Hypogene karst is one of the fundamental categories of karst, at least of equal importance with more familiar epigenic karst. The more comprehensive approach to karst that emerges implies that speleogenesis should be viewed in time scales of the host rock life, in the context of its diagenetic evolution and the evolution of basin-scale groundwater circulation regimes and systems in response to tectonic processes and geomorphic development. The rapidly evolving deeper understanding of hypogene speleogenesis has broad implications for many applied fields such as prospecting and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs and mineral resources, groundwater management, geological engineering, and related activities.


Clastic Sediments in Caves, 2012, Springer, Gregory S.

This article focuses on the natures, origins, and significances of clastic sediments in caves. Clastic sediments are fragments of preexisting rocks that have been transported and redeposited. Streams transport large quantities of clastic sediments through caves, including stream gravels and mud, but clastic sediments also move as gravity flows by slumping and sliding. Sedimentology and stratigraphy offer the means to understand the origins and transport mechanisms behind individual clastic deposits. Together, the two methodologies consider layering within deposits and grain sizes, sorting, mineralogies, and sedimentary structures within individual beds. Facies are recognized where those variables include diagnostic properties tied to particular depositional processes or driving forces. As is shown using examples, stratigraphy and facies analysis make it possible to reconstruct cave or landscape histories, including system responses to disturbances such as climate change and land use. Notably, system responses typically reflect changes in sediment supply, hydraulic gradients, or obstructions. These factors are recorded in passage morphologies, which should always be considered when studying clastic sediments in caves, and examples are cited.


Solution Caves in Regions of Moderate Relief, 2012, Palmer, Arthur N.

Caves in regions of moderate relief are widely regarded as the standard to which all others are compared. Tectonic stability is their most significant characteristic. The presence of moderate relief implies that uplift of the land is slow and erosional processes are able to keep pace. As a result, rivers easily erode to their local base levels, and base-level control is reflected in cave passages. The relation between caves and regional geomorphic history is stronger than in any other setting. Examples are given from the Illinois Basin (Kentucky and Indiana), the Ozark Plateau (Missouri), and the Appalachians.


Hydrogeological approach to distinguishing hypogene speleogenesis settings, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

The hydrogeological approach to defining hypogene speleogenesis (HS) relates it to ascending groundwater flow (AF). HS develops where AF causes local disequilibria conditions favoring dissolution and supports them during sufficiently long time in course of the geodynamic and hydrogeological evolution. The disequilibrium conditions at depth are invoked by changing physical-chemical parameters along an AF paths, or/and by the interaction between circulation systems of different scales and hydrody-namic regimes. The association of HS with AF suggests a possibility to discern regulari-ties of development and distribution of HS from the perspectives of the regional hy-drogeological analysis. In mature artesian basins of the cratonic type, settings favorable for AF and HS, are as follows: 1) marginal areas of discharge of the groundwaters of the 2nd hydrogeological story (H-story), 2) zones of topography-controlled upward cir-culation within the internal basin area (at the 1st and, in places, at the 2nd H-stories; 3) crests of anticlinal folds or uplifted tectonic blocs within the internal basin area where the upper regional aquitard is thinned or partially breached; 4) linear-local zones of deep-rooted cross-formational faults conducting AF from internal deep sources across the upper H-stories. Hydrodynamics in the 3rd and 4th stories is dominated by ascending circulation strongly controlled by cross-formational tectonic structures. Specific circula-tion pattern develops in large Cenozoic carbonate platforms (the Florida-type), side-open to the ocean, where AF across stratified sequences in the coastal parts, driven by both topography-induced head gradients and density gradients, involves mixing with the seawater. The latter can be drawn into a platform at deep levels and rise in the plat-form interior (the Kohout’s scheme). In folded regions, AF and HS are tightly con-trolled by faults, especially those at junctions between large tectonic structures. In young intramontaine basins with dominating geostatic regime, HS is favored at margin-al discharge areas where circulation systems of different origins and regimes may inter-act, such as meteoric waters flows from adjacent uplifted massifs, basinal fluids expelled from the basin’s interiors, and endogenous fluids rising along deep-rooted faults. Spe-cific and very favorable settings for HS are found in regions of young volcanism with carbonate formations in a sedimentary cover


DEEP TIME ORIGINS OF SINKHOLE COLLAPSE FAILURES IN SEWAGE LAGOONS IN SOUTHEAST MINNESOTA, 2013, Alexander Jr. E. C. , Runkel A. C. , Tipping R. G.

Three of the approximately twenty-three municipal wastewater treatment lagoons constructed in the 1970s and 1980s in southeastern Minnesota’s karst region have failed through sinkhole collapse. Those collapses occurred between 1974 and 1992. All three failures occurred at almost exactly the same stratigraphic position. That stratigraphic interval, just above the unconformable contact between the Shakopee and Oneota Formations of the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group is now recognized as one of the most ubiquitous, regional-scale, karst hydraulic high-transmissivity zones in the Paleozoic hydrostratigraphy of southeastern Minnesota. These karst aquifers have been developing multi-porosity conduit flow systems since the initial deposition of the carbonates about 480 million years ago. The existence of syndepositional interstratal karst unconformities between the Oneota and Shakopee Formations and between the Shakopee and St. Peter Formations, were recognized in the 1800s. About 270 million years ago galena, sphalerite and iron sulfides were deposited in pre-existing solution enlarged joints, bedding planes and caves. The region has been above sea level since the Cretaceous and huge volumes of fresh water have flowed through these rocks. The regional flow systems have changed from east-to-west in the Cenozoic, to north-to-south in or before the Pleistocene. The incision of the Mississippi River and its tributaries has and is profoundly rearranging the ground water flow systems as it varies the regional base levels during glacial cycles. The Pleistocene glacial cycles have removed many of the surficial karst features and buried even more of them under glacial sediments. High erosion rates from row crop agriculture between the us1850s and 1930s filled many of the conduit systems with soil. Over eighty years of soil conservation efforts have significantly reduced the flux of mobilized soil into the conduits. Those conduits are currently flushing much of those stored soils out of their spring outlets. Finally, the increased frequency and intensity of major storm events is reactivating conduit segments that have been clogged and inactive for millions of years.The karst solution voids into which the lagoons collapsed have formed over 480 million years. The recognition and mapping of this major karst zone will allow much more accurate karst hazard maps to be constructed and used in sustainable resource management decisions.


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