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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That tubular passage; tube; tube passage is 1. cave passage formed by approximately equal dissolution all round when full of flowing water within the phreas. relict tubes, abandoned as the water table was lowered, are common in old caves, and may be partially filled by sediment, breakdown or stalagmite, or entrenched to form keyhole passages. tube sizes range to over 15m in diameter, but the larger ones are rarely of uniform section. peak cavern in derbyshire is well known for its fine circular phreatic tubes. some of the trunk passages of mammoth cave, kentucky, are spectacular tubes of elliptical section, formed by dissolution rates that were higher along the bedding than across [9]. 2. these are nearly horizontal cave passages (tunnels) with round or elliptical cross sections and are either straight or winding. at mammoth cave they vary in size up to 30 feet high and nearly 100 feet wide. they are formed while completely filled with flowing water. whereas they are typically wider than high as a result of dissolution along horizontal cracks and beddingplane partings, they may also form as high, narrow, straight fissures along major vertical or near vertical fractures [15]. see also canyon passage; keyhole passage; passage; vertical shaft.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for marble (Keyword) returned 74 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 61 to 74 of 74
Subglacial Maze Origin in Low-Dip Marble Stripe Karst: Examples from Norway, 2011, Skoglund R. O. , Lauritzen S. E.

Maze caves or network caves are enigmatic in their evolution, as they form flow nets rather than more efficient, direct point-to-point flow routes. Network caves are often characterized by uniform passage dimensions in several directions, which indicates simultaneous dissolution of most available fractures. Nonshauggrotta in Gildeska° l, northern Norway, is formed in low-dip marble strata and situated as a relict in a topographical and hydrological hanging position, thus lacking a modern drainage area. The cave displays a reticulate network geometry dictated by two orthogonal fracture sets. Passage morphology and paleocurrent marks in the cave walls (scallops) demonstrate that the cave evolved under water-filled conditions (phreatic) and that the relatively slow flow was directed uphill towards the confining aquiclude and the cliff face. In that sense, it has some resemblance to hypogene caves. However, we propose that the cave is a result of ice-contact speleogenesis, as it developed in the lee side of the Nonshaugen ridge under topographically directed glacier flow and seems independent of the otherwise variable flow regimes characteristic of the glacial environment.


Mineralogy of Iza Cave (Rodnei Mountains, N. Romania), 2011, Tă, Maş, Tudor, Kristly Ferenc, Barbutudoran Lucian

The secondary minerals from Iza Cave result from the interactions of karst water and/or cave atmosphere over a variety of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The cave passages expose at various extents Eocene limestones and conglomerates, Oligocene black shales, Upper Precambrian micaschists, marble and dolomitic marble and associated ore deposits.
Twelve secondary minerals identified in the cave (carbonates, sulfates, phosphates, oxides and hydroxides, and silicates) are presented in this study. Calcite, aragonite, gypsum, brushite and hydroxylapatite are the components of common speleothems in the limestone, dolomite and conglomerate areas of the cave. Ankerite crusts are related to areas with pyrite mineralization within the metamorphic carbonate rocks. Goethite, jarosite, hematite and gypsum form various speleothems in the sectors within micaschists and conglomerates. Large weathering deposits occurring in passage areas developed within micaschists consist of illite, kaolinite, jarosite, goethite, gypsum and alunite. The extent of the weathering deposits occurring on non-karst rocks in the underground environment makes this cave a particularly interesting site for studies of water-rock interactions.


Iron Oxide and Calcite Associated with Leptothrix sp. Biofilms within an Estavelle in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, 2011, Florea Lee J. , Stinson Chasity L. , Brewer Josh, Fowler Rick, Kearns B Joe, Greco Anthony M.

In Thornton’s Cave, an estavelle in west-central Florida, SEM, EDS, and XRD data reveal biofilms that are predominantly comprised of FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths that are overgrown and intercalated with calcite. Fragments of this crystalline biofilm adhere to the walls and ceiling as water levels vary within the cave. Those on the wall have a ‘cornflake’ appearance and those affixed to the ceiling hang as fibrous membranes. PCR of DNA in the active biofilm, combined with morphologic data from the tubes in SEM micrographs, point to Leptothrix sp., a common Fe-oxidizing bacteria, as the primary organism in the biofilm. Recent discoveries of ‘rusticles’ in other Florida caves suggest that Fe-oxidizing bacteria may reside elsewhere in Florida groundwater and may play a role in the mobility of trace metals in the Upper Florida aquifer.
SEM micrographs from two marble tablets submerged for five months, one exposed to microbial activity and a second isolated from microbial action, revealed no visible etchings or borings and very limited loss of mass. EDS data from the electron micrographs of the unfiltered tablet document the same FeOOH-encrusted hollow sheaths and similar deposits of calcite as seen in the ‘cornflakes’. These results, combined with water chemistry data imply that the biofilm may focus or even promote calcite precipitation during low-water level conditions when CO2 degasses from the cave pools.


Cave Millipeds of the United States. IX. A New Species of the Genus Taiyutyla (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from Caves in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks, California, USA, 2011, Shear William A. , Krejca Jean K.

During surveys of cave life in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks and
Yosemite National Park, Taiyutyla loftinae, a new species of conotylid milliped, was collected and is described below. The new species occurs in eleven marble caves distributed throughout Sequoia National Park (Tulare County, California), two granite talus caves, and a single surface locality in Yosemite National Park (Mariposa County, California) and is best considered troglophilic, not troglobitic.


Kontaktkarst im Bereich Murursprung-Rosskar (Lungau, Salzburg) , 2011, Steinwender C, Plan L.
The karst morphology of the high-alpine area east of the Mur spring (Province of Salzburg, Austria) was studied. Various surface karst features and seven new caves were documented. The 10 to 50 m thick carbonate sequence at the Mur spring is part of the Mesozoic Silbereck Marble Group which stretches along the northern margin of the Tauern-Window. Differences in the dipping of the strata with respect to the slope result in two different appearances of the karst on both sides of the Rosskar fault: carbonate rocks east of the fault are widely exposed and autogenic recharge is dominant. West of the fault the narrow marble band is mainly recharged by allogenic waters (stripe karst). Intense karstification is visible in both allogenically and autogenically fed areas. Waters infiltrating in the higher lying catchment suggest a single hydrologic system between the Frauennock and the Mur spring. Despite the small thickness of the carbonates remarkable caves exist and a total length of 337 m was surveyed. More than 150 dolines as well as other karst features including karren and ponors were mapped.

Quantifying Concentrated and Diffuse Recharge in Two Marble Karst Aquifers: Big Spring and Tufa Spring, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA, 2012, Tobin B. , Schwartz B. ,

To improve water management in mountain systems, it is essential that we understand how water moves through them. Researchers have documented the importance of porous-media aquifers in mountain river systems, but no previous research has explicitly included mountain karst as part of conceptual models. To do so, we used discharge and geochemical parameters measured along upstreamto- downstream transects under high- and low-flow conditions in 2010 to assess storage characteristics and geochemical properties of two mountain marble-karst systems, the Big Spring and Tufa Spring systems in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. During both high- and low-flow conditions, we quantified the relative contributions of concentrated and diffuse recharge in both karst systems, and we used a simple linear mixing model to calculate specific conductance in unsampled diffuse sources that ranged from 34 mS cm21 to 257 mS cm21. Data show that the Big Spring system has a much higher seasonal storage capacity than the Tufa Spring system, and that diffuse sources dominate discharge and geochemistry under baseflow conditions in both aquifer systems. Baseflow in Big Spring was 0.114 m3 s21 and in Tufa Spring it was 0.022 m3 s21. Snowmelt-derived allogenic recharge dominates both systems during high discharge periods, measured at Big Spring as 0.182 m3 s21 and Tufa Spring as 0.220 m3 s21. A conceptual model is proposed that explicitly includes the effects of karst aquifers on mountain hydrology when karst is present in the basin.


Glacier ice-contact speleogenesis in marble stripe karst, 2013, Lauritzen S. E. , Skoglund R. .

Relict phreatic caves, in hanging positions within a glacial topography, pose an enigma with respect to the speleogeneticinterpretation. A glacier ice mass may provide liquid water and create caves anywhere in the adjacent rock, making glacierice-contact as well as interglacial, meteoric speleogenesis feasible. The problem is reviewed with relevant glacier rheology,hydrology, and chemistry. The glacial environment was certainly able to overprint and widen already existing caves (sensulato speleogenesis), while the full evolution of caves from tight fractures (sensu stricto speleogenesis) was slow and inefficient(about 1/40) as compared to nonglacial conditions


Fungi isolated from Niedźwiedzia Cave in Kletno (Lower Silesia, Poland), 2013, Ogrek Rafal, Lejman Agnieszka, Matkowski Krzysztof

Niedźwiedzia Cave is the most beautiful cave in Poland, discovered in a block of Cambrian marbles. It is the most important part of the reserve established in 1977. The cave is located within the Kłodzko Valley, in Śnieżnik Mt. Massif, in Kleśnica Stream Valley and was discovered in 1966 while working in a quarry. The study aimed at first mycological evaluation of the air and the rocks in Niedźwiedzia Cave. Nine species of filamentous fungi and a yeast species were isolated from the air sampled in the cave, whereas from the rocks - nine species of filamentous fungi and two species of yeasts were collected. Rhizopus stolonifer was the species most frequently isolated from the air and from the rocks, while the least isolated from the air was Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Among the species found in the rock, the least frequently collected were Fusarium oxysporum and the yeast Rhodotorula rubra.


Hypogenic origin of Provalata Cave, Republic of Macedonia: a distinct case of successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis, 2013, Temovski Marjan, Audra Philippe, Mihevc Andrej, Spangenberg Jorge E. , Polyak Victor, Mcintosh William, Bigot Jeanyves.

Provalata Cave (Republic of Macedonia) is a small but remarkable hypogenic cave, developed in Cambrian marbles by successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The cave has a thick partly corroded calcite crust, abundant gypsum deposits, with cupolas, ceiling and wall channels, feeders and replacement pockets as some of the most characteristic morphological features. Distribution of morphology and deposits suggest a hypogenic origin in two distinct speleogenetic phases: the first by thermal CO2 rich waters, the second by sulfuric acid dissolution, which were separated by complete infilling of cave passages with pyroclastic-derived clays. In the first phase of speleogenesis, cave passages were formed by dissolution along fractures due to cooling of rising carbonated thermal waters. These phreatic morphologies were later covered with a thick calcite crust deposited in a shallow phreatic environment. In Early Pleistocene the cave was completely filled with clays due to deposition of pyroclastic rocks in a lacustrine environment in the nearby Mariovo Basin. Mariovo Lake sediments were later incised by the Buturica River, which cut down into Cambrian marbles, creating its superimposed valley. Incision lowered the water table and allowed removal of the clay deposits in Provalata Cave. The second phase of speleogenesis started after introduction of H2S associated with rising thermal waters. Oxidation produced sulfuric acid, which rapidly dissolved first calcite crust, then marble host rock. Condensation-corrosion by sulfuric vapors replaced carbonate rock with gypsum producing replacement pockets as well as second generation of pockets and cupolas. The contact of sulfuric acid with the clay deposits formed alunite, jarosite, and natroalunite. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave maximum ages of 1.6 Ma (alunite) and 1.46 Ma (jarosite) for this last stage of speleogenesis, thus making it the second 40Ar/39Ar dating of a sulfuric cave in Europe (after Kraushöhle in Austria), and the first dated cave in the Republic of Macedonia.


Spatial and temporal changes in invertebrate assemblage structure from the entrance to deep-cave zone of a temperate marble cave, 2013, Tobin Benjamin W. , Hutchins Benjamin T. , Schwartz Benjamin F.

Seasonality in surface weather results in seasonal temperature and humidity changes in caves. Ecological and physiological differences among trogloxenes, troglophiles, and troglobionts result in species-dependent responses to this variability. To investigate these responses, we conducted five biological inventories in a marble cave in the Sierra Nevada Range, California, USA between May and December 2010. The cave was divided into six quadrats and temperature was continuously logged in each (humidity was logged at the entrance and in the deep cave). With increasing distance from the entrance, temperature changes were increasingly attenuated and lagged relative to surface temperature. Linear regressions were created to determine the relationship between measured environmental variables and diversity for cavernicoles (troglobionts and troglophiles) and trogloxenes cave– wide and in the transition zone. Diversity for cavernicoles and trogloxenes peaked in the entrance and deep cave zones, respectively. Quadrat, date, 2-week antecedent temperature average, 2-week antecedent temperature range, and trogloxene abundance explained 76% of cavernicole diversity variability. Quadrat explained 55% of trogloxene diversity variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene abundance explained 26% of cavernicole variability and 2-week antecedent temperature and 2-week antecedent temperature range explained 40% of trogloxene variability. In the transition zone, trogloxene diversity was inversely related to 2-week antecedent temperature average and 2-week antecedent temperature range, suggesting that species were moving into the transition zone when temperature was most stable. In a CCA of cavernicoles distribution data and environmental variables, 35% of variation in species-specific distributions was attributable to quadrat, and non-significant percentages were explained by date and environmental variables. Differences in assemblage structure among quadrats were largely due to differences between distributions of trogloxenes and cavernicoles, but responses varied among species. Differences are likely due to ecological niche width, physiological constraints, and competition.


GLACIER ICE-CONTACT SPELEOGENESIS, 2013, Lauritzen S. E. Skoglund R. Ø, .

 

The classic hypothesis of G. Horn’s (1935) subglacial speleogenesis as an explanation of the relatively small diameter cave conduits in the Scandinavian marble stripe karst is reviewed. Recent work, including accurate cave mapping and morphological analysis, radiometric dating of cave deposits, chemical kinetics experiments and computer simulations have challenged the old theory. Scandinavia has relatively small caves that often have surprisingly high ages, going beyond the limit of Th/U dating. The high ages are apparently compensated by correspondingly slow wall retreat rates in the icecontact regime, and longer periods when the caves were inactive. Ice-contact speleogenesis varied in time and space, in pace with waxing and waning of wet-based ice. Maze or labyrinth morphology appears as a characteristic feature of caves ascribed to these processes.


Fingerprinting water-rock interaction in hypogene speleogenesis: potential and limitations of isotopic depth-profiling, 2014, Spötl Ch, Dublyansky Y.

Dissolution processes in karst regions commonly involve (meteoric) water whose stable isotopic (O, H, C) composition is distinctly different from that of the paleowaters from which the host rock (limestone, dolostone) formed. This, in theory, should lead to isotopic alteration of the host rock beyond the active solution surface as the modern karst water is out of isotopic equilibrium with the carbonate rock. No such alteration has been reported, however, in epigenetic karst systems. In contrast, isotopic alteration, commonly referred to as isotopic halos or fronts, are known from various hypogene systems (ore deposits, active hydro­thermal systems, etc.). These empirical observations suggest that stable isotope data may be a diagnostic tool to identify hypogene water-rock interactions particularly in cave systems whose origin is ambiguous.

We have been testing the applicability of this assumption to karst settings by studying the isotopic composition of carbonate host rocks in a variety of caves showing clear-cut hypogene morphologies. Cores drilled into the walls of cave chambers and galleries were stud­ied petrographically and the C and O isotope composition was analyzed along these cores, which typically reached a depth of 0.5 to 1.2 m. We identified three scenarios: (a) no isotopic alteration, (b) a sigmoidal isotope front within a few centimeters of the cave wall, and (c) pervasive isotope alteration throughout the entire core length. Type (a) was found in caves where the rate of cave wall retreat apparently outpaced the rate of isotopic alteration of the wall rock (which is typical, for example, for sulfuric acid speleogenesis). Type (c) was observed in geologically young, porous limestone showing evidence of alteration zones up to 5 m wide. The intermediate type (b) was identified in hypogene karst cavities developed in tight limestone, dolostone and marble.

Our data in conjunction with evidence from speleothems and their geochemical and fluid-inclusion composition suggest that the spa­tial extent of the isotopic alteration front depends on the porosity and permeability, as well as on the saturation state of the water. Wider alteration zones primarily reflect a higher permeability. Shifts are most distinct for oxygen isotopes and less so for carbon, whereby the amplitude depends on a number of variables, including the isotopic composition of unaltered host rock, the isotopic composition of the paleofluid, the temperature, the water/rock ratio, the surface of water-rock contact, the permeability of the rock, and the time available for isotope exchange. If the other parameters can be reasonably constrained, then semi-quantitative temperature estimates of the paleowater can be obtained assuming isotopic equilibrium conditions.

If preserved (scenarios b and c), alteration fronts are a strong evidence of hypogene speleogenesis, and, in conjunction with hypogene precipitates, allow to fingerprint the isotopic and physical parameters of the altering paleofluid. The reverse conclusion is not valid, however; i.e. the lack of evidence of isotopic alteration of the cave wall rock cannot be used to rule out hypogene paleo-water-rock interaction.


PER ASCENSUM CAVE MORPHOLOGIES IN THREE CONTINENTS AND ONE ISLAND, INCLUDING PLACES WHERE THEY SHOULDN’T OCCUR, 2014, Osborne, R. A. L.

Hypogene or per-ascensum, whatever you prefer to call them, caves that form from the bottom up have a great range of patterns in plan, large cavity morphology and an expanding, but specific suite of speleogens that distinguish them from fluvial caves formed by descending surface water. Once thought to be rare and unusual, caves or sections of caves with plans, large cavities and suites of “hypogene” speleogens are turning up in situations traditionally thought to have fluvial or even glacial origin. The role of condensation corrosion in the formation of cavities and speleogens remains controversial, but surprisingly some insights may come for processes in salt mines. Phantom rock formation and removal and similar processes involving removal of dolomitized bedrock, de-dolomitized bedrock, and almost trace-free removal of palaeokarst raise problems of both temporal relationships and of how to distinguish between the outcomes of recent and ancient processes. The presence of “hypogene” speleogens in both gneiss and marble caves in Sri Lankan of unclear origin adds to the complexity. Back in the early 1990s, before hypogene caves were de-rigour, workers such as David Lowe were puzzling about speleo-inception, how caves begin. Perhaps the rare occurrences of solution pockets in joints in obvious fluvial caves, such as Postojna Jama, are indicating that many more caves than we imagine are actually multi-process and multiphase and that “hypogene” processes of various types are significant agents of speleo-inception.


Hypogene speleogenesis in dolomite host rock by CO2-rich fluids, Kozak Cave (southern Austria), 2015,

A growing number of studies suggest that cave formation by deep-seated groundwater  (hypogene) is a more common process of subsurface water-rock interaction than previously  thought. Fossil hypogene caves are identified by a characteristic suite of morphological  features on different spatial scales. In addition, mineral deposits (speleothems) may provide  clues about the chemical composition of the paleowater, which range from CO2-rich to  sulfuric acid-bearing waters. This is one of the first studies to examine hypogene cave  formation in dolomite. Kozak Cave is a fossil cave near the Periadriatic Lineament, an area  known for its abundance of CO2-rich springs. The cave displays a number of macro-, mesoand  micromorphological elements found also in other hypogene caves hosted in limestone,  marble or gypsum, including cupolas, cusps, Laughöhle-type chambers and notches. The  existance of cupolas and cusps suggests a thermal gradient capable of sustaining free  convection during a first phase of speleogenesis, while triangular cross sections (Laughöhle  morphology) indicate subsequent density-driven convection close to the paleowater table Notches mark the final emergence of the cave due to continued rock uplift and valley  incision. Very narrow shafts near the end of the cave may be part of the initial feeder system,  but an epigene (vadose) overprint cannot be ruled out. Vadose speleothems indicate that the  phreatic phase ended at least about half a million years ago. Drill cores show no evidence of  carbon or oxygen isotope alteration of the wall rock. This is in contrast to similar studies in  limestone caves, and highlights the need for further wall-rock studies of caves hosted in  limestone and dolomite


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