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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That photogeology is the interpretation of aerial photographs for geological purposes [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for overview (Keyword) returned 81 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 61 to 75 of 81
Wachstumsphasen von Stalagmiten im Katerloch (2833/59), 2010, Boch R. , Sptl C. , Kramers J.
This article gives an overview on the time intervals in the past documented by absolutely dated stalagmites from Katerloch Cave, one of Austrias most well known and highly decorated dripstone caves. The dating results are compared with those of two other caves in the region, Blasloch and Moos - schacht. Multiple subsamples obtained along the growth axes of eight stalagmites from Katerloch were analyzed by a state-ofthe- art Uranium-Thorium dating technique. In total, 83 individual measurements were conducted, and this data set is currently one of the most comprehensive ones of caves in the Alpine realm. Four stalagmites (K1, K3, K7, K8) and a segment of stalagmite K5 formed during the current warm period (Holocene). K8 started its growth 2.4 kyr before present (1 kyr = 1000 years), i.e. during the Iron Age. Three stalagmites (K1, K3, K7) formed between 11 and 10 kyr, i.e. during the early Holocene, and the largest stalagmite (K7, 170 cm) stopped growing already 6.5 kyr before present. The average growth rate of these samples ranges from 0.2 to 0.7 mm/yr, which is very high compared to typical stalagmites from alpine cave sites. Stalagmites K5 and K6 grew for a few thousand years after ca. 59 and 60 kyr, respectively, i.e. during the last ice age (Wrmian Glacial). The mean growth rates are significantly lower (0.1-0.2 mm/yr). The two oldest of the eight stalagmites studied (K2 and K4) formed since ca. 129 kyr, i.e. during the early Last Interglacial. The mean growth rates (0.5-0.6 mm/yr) were similar to those in the Holocene. In addition, dating of drill cores from large, in-situ stalagmites in Katerloch revealed ages of more than half a million years (Boch et al., 2006a).

The subterranean fauna of a biodiversity hotspot region - Portugal: an overview and its conservation, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


Karstic uvala revisited: Toward a redefinition of the term, 2011, Ć, Alić, Jelena

Uvalas are a particular type of karst closed depression. While other types of closed depression – dolines and poljes – are regularly listed and relatively well defined in overviews of karst surface morphology, uvalas are either excluded or their vague identification is stressed. The leading idea of this paper is to obtain a clearer meaning of the term uvala and prevent its abandonment from karstology and general geomorphology. Within the study, 43 examples of uvalas have been selected. The studied uvalas are located in the Dinaric karst and karst of the Carpatho–Balkanides. All the case examples have been digitally processed in the same way. Creation of high-resolution digital elevation models enabled quantification of morphometric parameters, generation of inclination maps and cross-sections, as well as application of statistical analyses. Formation of the geographical information system of the studied uvalas was done using raster-based and vector-based GIS software packages. In 12 studied uvalas, detailed structural–geological mapping has been carried out, which revealed dominant development of uvalas along regional scale tectonically broken zones. A revised definition of the term uvala is suggested, leaving the opportunity for further discussion.


Role of sediment in speleogenesis; sedimentation and paragenesis, 2011, Farrant Andrew R. , Smart Peter L.

Although the effects of sedimentation in caves have been recognised for many years, its role in speleogenesis is frequently overlooked. Influxes of sediment into a cave system fundamentally alter the way cave passages develop, either by alluviation in a vadose environment, forcing lateral corrosion and the development of notches, or by upwards dissolution in a phreatic environment through a process known as paragenesis. Sediment influxes affect the hydrological functioning of a karst aquifer by changing the way conduits behave and subsequently develop both in plan and long section.

Here we give an overview of the mechanisms of cave sedimentation and describe how the process of alluviation and paragenesis affect speleogenesis. A characteristic suite of meso- and micro-scale dissolutional features can be used to recognise paragenetic development, which is reviewed here. In a vadose environment these include alluvial notches, whilst in a phreatic environment, half tubes, anastomoses and pendants, bedrock fins and paragenetic dissolution ramps result. Using these to identify phases of sedimentation and paragenesis is crucial for reconstructing denudation chronologies from cave deposits. We suggest that sedimentation and paragenesis are most likely to occur in certain geomorphological situations, such as ice marginal and periglacial environments, beneath thick residual soils and where rivers can transport fluvial sediment into a cave, either via stream sinks or back-flooding.


An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature o, 2011, Reboleira Ana Sofia P. S. , Borges Paulo A. V. , Gonalves Fernando, Serrano Artur R. M. , Orom Pedro

An overview of the obligate hypogean fauna in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira archipelagos) is provided, with a list of obligated cave-dwelling species and subspecies, and a general perspective about its conservation. All the available literature on subterranean Biology of Portugal since the first written record in 1870 until today has been revised. A total of 43 troglobiont and 67 stygobiont species and subspecies from 12 orders have been described so far in these areas, included in the so-called Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The subterranean fauna in Portugal has been considered moderately poor with some endemic relicts and it remains to be demonstrated if this fact is still true after investing in standard surveys in cave environments. The major problems related to the conservation of cave fauna are discussed, but it is clear that the protection of this specialized fauna implies an adequate management of surface habitats.


Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview, 2011, Onac Bogdan P. , Forti Paolo

Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not available elsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interesting from the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a single compound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although only a limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, some of which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversed by water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development of various minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydration-dehydration, sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly control most of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimes allow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico), but the presence of extremely small yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likely be focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the most important minerogenetic processes in caves


Contribution of geophysical methods to karst-system exploration: an overview, 2011, Chalikakis Konstantinos, Plagnes Valerie, Guerin Roger, Valois Remi, Bosch Frank P.

The karst environment is one of the most challenging in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information in karst regions concerning, for instance, hazard estimation or groundwater exploration and vulnerability assessment. However, a karst area remains a very difficult environment for any geophysical exploration; selection of the best-suited geophysical method is not always straightforward, due to the highly variable and unpredictable target characteristics. The state of the art is presented, in terms of the contributions made by geophysical methods to karst-system exploration, based on extensive analysis of the published scientific results. This report is an overview and should be used as a preliminary methodological approach, rather than a guideline. 


Ogof Draenen: an overview of its discovery and exploration, 2011, Lovett, Ben

The discovery of Ogof Draenen is one of the most significant events in British caving history. In October 1994, following almost 4 years of weekly digging activity, cavers from the Cardiff based Morgannwg Caving Club broke through into a major cave system near Abergavenny, southeast Wales. In less than 2 months 20km of passage was explored, and by the end of 1996 Ogof Draenen was more than 60km long. Exploration over that first 26 months proceeded at an average of around 2.5km per month. At over 70km, the cave is currently the longest in Britain. In this article the most significant events during the exploration of the cave are documented.


CLASSIFICACI MORFOGENTICA DE LES CAVITATS CRSTIQUES DE LES ILLES BALEARS, 2011, Gins J. , Gins A.

A typological classification of the caves and shafts in the Balearic Islands is presented in this paper, with the aim of update the knowledge on the morphogenetics of endokarst in the archipelago and incorporating the explorations and discoveries carried out during the last decades. After a brief overview about the classificatory attempts of subterranean cavities in our islands, a systematization on the basis of hydrogeological and speleogenetic criteria is proposed, establishing four main categories as follows: 1) vertical shafts in the vadose zone, 2) caves of the vadose zone, 3) inland phreatic caves, and 4) caves of the littoral fringe. Within these categories, up to ten cavity types corresponding to well-differentiated genetic modalities are distinguished, together with five additional subtypes that designate specific morphological singularities branching from a given typology. The geographical distribution of the diverse cave types in the different karst regions of the archipelago is analyzed, being worth to mention the richness and variety of subterranean forms in the mountain karst of Serra de Tramuntana, in Mallorca island, as well as the abundant and variegated littoral caves occurring in the Upper Miocene postorogenic carbonates of Mallorca, Menorca and Formentera islands. The hypogene speleogenetic processes recently documented in the karst areas of southern Mallorca contribute to supply new insights on the high diversity of subterranean environments represented in the Balearic archipelago


Overview of karst geo-environments and karst water resources in north and south China, 2011, Keqiang H. , Jia Y. , Wang F. , Lu Y.

The karst geological system in north China is different from that in the south. Due to differences in basic geological conditions and environment, the karst evolutional pattern and karst water resources, among other things, are also different in the two regions. This paper, based on on-site fieldwork and analysis of an extensive database of karst in China, presents a systematic and contrastive analysis of karst geological environment and karst water resources in north versus south China, highlights the differences between the two regions in basic karst geological conditions, groundwater dynamics and karst water resources, and concludes with the economic, environmental and engineering implications of these differences. These findings will be helpful for the strategic planning and decision-making processes associated with exploitation of karst geological resources and with prevention and control of karst geological hazards.


Controls on paleokarst heterogeneity. Integrated study of the Upper Permian syngenetic karst in Rattlesnake Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, USA, 2011, Labraa De Miguel, Gemma

The present study contributes to a better understanding of early dissolution mechanisms for syngenetic karst development and provides constraints on the timing of formation of the Rattlesnake Canyon paleokarst system in the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, U.S.A. Paleozoic paleokarsts commonly undergo burial and collapse, which reduces significantly the preservation of early fracture networks and geometries of dissolution. Rattlesnake Canyon constitutes a magnificent scenario for the study of global controls on Upper Permian karsting since early fracture networks and dissolution geometries are extremely well preserved and lack major tectonic deformation. This thesis sheds light on the scientific knowledge of paleokarsts and can be of interest to the oil industry since paleokarsts are common targets of exploration. As the evolution of the reservoir properties is often diagenetically controlled, the diagenetic study was particularly useful in determining the degree of sealing following hydrocarbon charge. 1) Aims This thesis seeks to improve our understanding of the relationship between early syndepositional fracture networks that are typically found in platform margins and syngenetic karst development. The thesis includes multidisciplinary carbonate studies aimed at understanding the multiscale paleokarst heterogeneity by means of (i) the development of a conceptual model for the karst evolution, (ii) the construction of a 3D paleokarst model, (iii) the determination of the diagenetic history of the paleokarst system and (iv) the paleokarst reservoir characterization. 2) Thesis Structure The thesis consists of 9 chapters and 2 appendices. Chapter 1 sets out the rationale for this thesis. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the most basic aspects of karst science and to the hydrogeological model of Carbonate Island as well as an overview of the state-of-the-art paleokarst studies. The geological setting and the study area is detailed in Chapter 3. The results of the thesis are contained in Chapters 4 to 7. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of this thesis, each of these chapters is dedicated to one discipline. Chapter 4 focuses on the analysis of field data to obtain a conceptual model for the evolution of the paleokarst system. Chapter 5 discusses the methodology to implement the 3D paleokarst model and provides data to assess the dimensions of the system in subsurface. Chapter 6 focuses on the diagenetic stages that affected and controlled the karst development. Finally, Chapter 6 offers a paleokarst reservoir characterization. A comprehensive approach and discussion of the results obtained in each of these chapters are included in Chapter 8. General and specific conclusions are presented in Chapter 9. Appendix One contains a representative image compendium of the petrographic features observed in the paleokarst filling sequence of Fault N. Appendix Two sets out the raw data from the geochemical analysis. The paleokarst analysis using different disciplines provides a complete characterization of paleokarst heterogeneity and enables us to elucidate the controls of the system.


Kopfber durch den Winter Ein berblick zum Internationalen Jahr der Fledermaus , 2011, Brger, K.
In Central Europe most bat species spend a major part of their life time in subterranean cavities. In winter they need habitats providing protection against frosty temperatures. Also, hibernation plays an important role to overcome low insect availability and to preserve fat stores. In Austria 16 out of 28 bat species hibernate in caves and other subterranean winter roosts. These are Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), Lesser Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), Greater Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis myotis), Lesser Mouse-eared Bat (Myotis oxygnathus), Daubentons Myotis (Myotis daubentonii), Brown Big-eared Bat (Plecotus auritus), Gray Big-eared Bat (Plecotus austriacus), Mountain Long-eared Bat (Plecotus macrobullaris), Bechsteins Myotis (Myotis bechsteinii), Geoffroys Bat (Myotis emarginatus), Natterers Bat (Myotis nattereri), Whiskered Bat (Myotis mystacinus), Brandts Myotis (Myotis brandtii), Serotine (Eptesicus serotinus), Northern Bat (Eptesicus nilssonii) and Schreibers Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii). Threats to many species are not only caused by human disturbances in winter roosts but also in - clude a multitude of human impacts in summer roosts as well as in foraging habitats. This is reflected in the conservation status of each species which are protected by the Council Directive on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. To reduce these threats and achieve sustain success, public relations and cooperation with people, conservation organisations, cave associations and responsible authorities is necessary.

Speleothems: General Overview, 2012, White, William B.

Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits formed in caves by flowing, dripping, or seeping water. The most commonly occurring minerals are calcite, aragonite, and gypsum although many other minerals have been found in speleothems. The shapes of speleothems are determined by a competition between the dynamics of the water and the crystal growth habits of the constituent minerals. Stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone, and other speleothems deposited from dripping for flowing water take shapes dictated by the details of the flow behavior. Helictites, anthodites, and gypsum flowers formed from seeping water and various pool deposits take shapes dictated by the habit of crystal growth. Tan, orange, and brown colors common to calcite speleothems and also their luminescence under ultraviolet light is due to inclusion of humic and fulvic acid from overlying soils. Speleothems are also found in lava tubes.


Fauna reported from Batu caves, Selangor, Malaysia: annotated checklist and bibliography, 2012, Moseley Max, Lim Teck Wyn, Lim Tze Tshen

The Batu caves are the only caves in the Malay Peninsula that are well investigated zoologically, and they are the most thoroughly sampled anywhere in Southeast Asia. However, the records have not been collated to provide a comprehensive overview of the fauna present. This issue is addressed here by presenting an authoritative checklist of all reported zoological taxa, together with ecological annotations and a comprehensive bibliography.


Hhlendunkel und Wissbegierde - Eine Kulturgeschichte der Hhlenforschung in Europa von der Antike bis zur Romantik, 2012, Mattes, J.
On the basis of the constructivist culture theory the traditional research interests of the history of science were renewed in the 1990ies. The article bases upon an oral presentation at the Austrian Society for the History of Science. In contrast to the dominating micro historic studies in the history of speleology, the paper provides an overview of the human activity in caves from ancient world to the beginning of the 19th century. This includes not only the scientific study of caves, but also sightseeing tours, the investigation and opening of caves undertaken by scientific laymen. The focus doesnt lie on single explorers and their attainments, but concentrates on the changes in the perception and interpretation of the underground cavities as well as on the practice of the visitors and explorers. The results show an intimate correlation between the scientific and cultural discourses to the interior of the earth. The people in the antiquity and Middle Ages interpreted caves as sexualized areas, which refer to social taboos. Simultaneously caves were used for protection and as a place for religious meditations. During the Baroque period they became the location of bizarre objects, admiring promenades and aristocratic celebrations. In the Romantic period the netherworld was seen as an area of inwardness and edification. Geologists and paleontologists discovered them as archives of natural history; artists recognized caves as areas of spiritual revelation, where ancient myths were updated.

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