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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rock pillar is a residual isolated mass of bedrock linking the roof or overhanging wall and floor of a cave, in contrast with a column, which to composed of dripstone or flowstone [10]. see column; pillar.?

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for hydrology (Keyword) returned 658 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 616 to 630 of 658
Solute transport in solution conduits exhibiting multi-peaked breakthrough curves, 2012, Field M. S. , Leij F. J.

Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to solution conduits where transport is rapid, turbulent, and relatively unrestrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests are typically positively-skewed and may exhibit multiple peaks. In order to understand the circumstances under which multi-peaked positively skewed breakthrough curves occur, physical experiments utilizing singleand multiple-flow channels were conducted. Experiments also included waterfalls, short-term solute detention in pools, and flow obstructions. Results demonstrated that breakthrough curve skewness nearly always occurs to some degree but is magnified as immobile-flow regions are encountered. Multi-peaked breakthrough curves occurred when flow in the main channel became partially occluded from blockage in the main channel that forced divergence of solute into auxiliary channels and when waterfalls and detention in pools occurred. Currently, multi-peaked breakthrough curves are fitted by a multi-dispersion model in which a series of curves generated by the advection–dispersion equation are fitted to each measured peak by superimposing the measured breakthrough curve to obtain a combined model fit with a consequent set of estimated velocities and dispersions. In this paper, a dual-advection dispersion equation with first-order mass transfer between conduits was derived. The dual-advection dispersion equation was then applied to the multi-peaked breakthrough curves obtained from the physical experiments in order to obtain some insight into the operative solute-transport processes through the acquisition of a consequent set of velocities, dispersions, and related parameters. Successful application of the dual-advection, dispersion equation to a tracer test that exhibited dual peaks for a karst aquifer known to consist of two connected but mostly separate conduits confirmed the appropriateness of using a multi-dispersion type model when conditions warrant.

Radionuclides as natural tracers for the characterization of fluids in regional discharge areas, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary, 2012, Eross A. , Mdlszonyi J. , Surbeck H. , Horvth . , Goldscheider N. , Csoma A. .

The Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) developed in the regional discharge zone of a carbonate rock aquifer system. High radioactivity of the spring waters has already been reported in 1912, but there has been no detailed study and no consistent explanation for its origin. In this area mixing of cold and hot karst waters was hitherto assigned to be responsible for cave formation. However, the dissimilarity of the discharging waters within Budapest (in the North: Rozsadomb; in the South: Gellert Hill), may suggest also different cave forming processes. The application of radionuclides as natural tracers represents a novel approach to investigate these questions. For this study, we used uranium, radium and radon to identify mixing of fluids in the Buda Thermal Karst system and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members. Chloride as a conservative component allowed the mixing ratios for the sampled waters to be calculated. Their fluid compositions were modeled and through the comparison of modeled and measured values, the end members were validated. As the result of this study, it was possible to characterize the mixing end members for the Rozsadomb area, whereas for the Gellert Hill discharge zone, mixing components could not be identified with the aid of radionuclides. Therefore, it is suggested that different processes are responsible for cave formation in these areas. In the Rozsadomb area, structurally-controlled mixing is the dominant cave forming process, whereas in the Gellert Hill area, due to the lack of mixing members, other processes have to be found, which are responsible for the formation of the caves, such as retrograde calcite solubility and/or geogenic acids, such as H2S. The application of radionuclides thus further supported the differences between the two study areas. This study identified moreover the source of elevated radon content of the waters in the Gellert Hill area in form of iron-hydroxide precipitates that accumulate in the spring caves. These precipitates are highly efficient in adsorbing radium, which generates radon by alpha decay, and hence act as local radon source for the waters. In this study we showed that uranium, radium and radon naturally occurring in groundwater can be used to characterize fluids of different flow systems in regional discharge areas owing to the contrasting geochemical behaviors of these elements

Simulation of flow processes in a large scale karst system with an integrated catchment model (Mike She) Identification of relevant parameters influencing spring discharge, 2012, Doummar J. , Sauter M. , Geyer T.

In a complex environment such as karst systems, it is difficult to assess the relative contribution of the different components of the system to the hydrological system response, i.e. spring discharge. Not only is the saturated zone highly heterogeneous due to the presence of highly permeable conduits, but also the recharge processes. The latter are composed of rapid recharge components through shafts and solution channels and diffuse matrix infiltration, generating a highly complex, spatially and temporally variable input signal. The presented study reveals the importance of the compartments vegetation, soils, saturated zone and unsaturated zone. Therefore, the entire water cycle in the catchment area Gallusquelle spring (Southwest Germany) is modelled over a period of 10 years using the integrated hydrological modelling system Mike She by DHI (2007). Sensitivity analyses show that a few individual parameters, varied within physically plausible ranges, play an important role in reshaping the recessions and peaks of the recharge functions and consequently the spring discharge. Vegetation parameters especially the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the root depth as well as empirical parameters in the relationship of Kristensen and Jensen highly influence evapotranspiration, transpiration to evaporation ratios and recharge respectively. In the unsaturated zone, the type of the soil (mainly the hydraulic conductivity at saturation in the water retention and hydraulic retention curves) has an effect on the infiltration/evapotranspiration and recharge functions. Additionally in the unsaturated karst, the saturated moisture content is considered as a highly indicative parameter as it significantly affects the peaks and recessions of the recharge curve. At the level of the saturated zone the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix and highly conductive zone representing the conduit are dominant parameters influencing the spring response. Other intermediate significant parameters appear to influence the characteristics of the spring response yet to a smaller extent, as for instance bypass and the parameters a in the Van Genuchten relation for soil moisture content curves.

Spatially dense drip hydrological monitoring and infiltration behaviour at the Wellington Caves, South East Australia, 2012, Jex Catherine N. , Mariethoz Gregoire, Baker Andy, Graham Peter, Andersen Martin S. , Acworth Ian, Edwards Nerilee, Azcurra Cecilia

Despite the fact that karst regions are recognised as significant groundwater resources, the nature of groundwater flow paths in the unsaturated zone of such fractured rock is at present poorly understood. Many traditional methods for constraining groundwater flow regimes in karst aquifers are focussed on the faster drainage components and are unable to inform on the smaller fracture or matrix-flow components of the system. Caves however, offer a natural inception point to observe both the long term storage and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such fractured carbonate rock by monitoring of drip rates of stalactites, soda straws and seepage from fractures/micro fissures that emerge in the cave ceiling. Here we present the largest spatial survey of automated cave drip rate monitoring published to date with the aim of better understanding both karst drip water hydrogeology and the relationship between drip hydrology and surface climate. By the application of cross correlation functions and multi-dimensional scaling, clustered by k-means technique, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between drip behaviour and initial surface infiltration and similarity amongst the drip rate time series themselves that may be interpreted in terms of flow regimes and cave chamber morphology and lithology.

Preparing the ground - new mechanisms for karst and speleogenesis: 'alteration', fantomisation and replacement, 2012, Laverty, Martin

Two distinctive new rock alteration mechanisms that can lead to the development of karst features, including caves, are reviewed here for the first time in a British publication. Fantomisation is a two-stage process of partial dissolution around fractures followed, typically much later, by rapid removal of the residue to create passages. Replacement is the simultaneous volume-for-volume alteration of the mineralogy of the rock to create apparently buried forms in situ. These new explanations are not restricted to development of karst in carbonates, and can explain otherwise enigmatic features. They should be considered when interpreting the history, hydrology and morphology of caves and karst where the host rock has been in a low-energy environment with surface and/or fractures open enough for ingress of weathering fluid at some time since its deposition.

Quantifying Concentrated and Diffuse Recharge in Two Marble Karst Aquifers: Big Spring and Tufa Spring, Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, USA, 2012, Tobin B. , Schwartz B. ,

To improve water management in mountain systems, it is essential that we understand how water moves through them. Researchers have documented the importance of porous-media aquifers in mountain river systems, but no previous research has explicitly included mountain karst as part of conceptual models. To do so, we used discharge and geochemical parameters measured along upstreamto- downstream transects under high- and low-flow conditions in 2010 to assess storage characteristics and geochemical properties of two mountain marble-karst systems, the Big Spring and Tufa Spring systems in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California. During both high- and low-flow conditions, we quantified the relative contributions of concentrated and diffuse recharge in both karst systems, and we used a simple linear mixing model to calculate specific conductance in unsampled diffuse sources that ranged from 34 mS cm21 to 257 mS cm21. Data show that the Big Spring system has a much higher seasonal storage capacity than the Tufa Spring system, and that diffuse sources dominate discharge and geochemistry under baseflow conditions in both aquifer systems. Baseflow in Big Spring was 0.114 m3 s21 and in Tufa Spring it was 0.022 m3 s21. Snowmelt-derived allogenic recharge dominates both systems during high discharge periods, measured at Big Spring as 0.182 m3 s21 and Tufa Spring as 0.220 m3 s21. A conceptual model is proposed that explicitly includes the effects of karst aquifers on mountain hydrology when karst is present in the basin.

Fifty Years of the Hypotelminorheic: What Have We Learned?, 2012, Pipan T. , Fiser C. , Novak T. , Culver D. C.

Originally described by Meštrov in 1962, hypotelminorheic habitats are superficial subterranean drainages, typically less than a meter or so in depth, that emerge at small seepage springs. These are persistent wet spots, typically with blackened leaves in small depressions. There may be no flow during dry periods, but the underlying clay retains water above. They share the landscape with other small bodies of water (močila in Slovenian), not necessarily connected with groundwater. Hypotelminorheic habitats (mezišča in Slovenian) usually harbor a fauna dominated by species adapted to subterranean life, characteristically without eyes or pigment. The basic chemistry and hydrology of the habitat is described as are the basic faunal elements. The habitat is placed in a more general context by reviewing how species invade the habitat, their morphology, and their possible connection to deeper subterranean habitats.

Effective porosity of a carbonate aquifer with bacterial contamination: Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, 2012, Worthington S. R. H. , Smart C. C. , Ruland W.

Preferential flow through solutionally enlarged fractures can be a significant influence on travel times and source area definition in carbonate aquifers. However, it has proven challenging to step beyond a conceptual model to implementing, parameterizing and testing an appropriate numerical model of preferential flow. Here both porous medium and preferential flow models are developed with respect to a deadly contamination of the municipal groundwater supply at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. The preferential flow model is based on simple orthogonal fracture aperture and spacing. The models are parameterized from bore hole, gamma, flow and video logs resulting in a two order of magnitude lower effective porosity for the preferential flow model. The observed hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity are used to predict groundwater travel times using a porous medium model. These model predictions are compared to a number of independent estimates of effective porosity, including three forced gradient tracer tests. The results show that the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity values closely match the preferential flow predictions for an equivalent fracture network of _10 m spacing of 1 mm fractures. Three tracer tests resulted in groundwater velocities of hundreds of meters per day, as predicted when an effective porosity of 0.05% was used in the groundwater model. These velocities are consistent with a compilation of 185 tracer test velocities from regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. The implication is that carbonate aquifers in southern Ontario are characterized by relatively low-volume dissolutionally enlarged fracture networks that dominate flow and transport. The porous matrix has large storage capacity, but contributes little to transport. Numerical models based on much higher porosities risk significantly underestimating capture zones in such aquifers. The hydraulic conductivity – effective porosity prediction framework provides a general analytical frame work for a preferential flow carbonate aquifer. Not only is the framework readily parameterized from borehole observations, but also it can be implemented in a conventional porous medium model, and critically tested using simple tracer tests.

Fifty Years of the Hypotelminorheic: What Have We Learned?, 2012, Pipan Tanja, Fier Cene, Novak Tone, Culver David C.


Originally described by Meštrov in 1962, hypotelminorheic habitats are superficial subterranean drainages, typically less than a meter or so in depth, that emerge at small seepage springs. These are persistent wet spots, typically with blackened leaves in small depressions. There may be no flow during dry periods, but the underlying clay retains water above. They share the landscape with other small bodies of water (močila in Slovenian), not necessarily connected with groundwater. Hypotelminorheic habitats (mezišča in Slovenian) usually harbor a fauna dominated by species adapted to subterranean life, characteristically without eyes or pigment. The basic chemistry and hydrology of the habitat is described as are the basic faunal elements. The habitat is placed in a more general context by reviewing how species invade the habitat, their morphology, and their possible connection to deeper subterranean habitats.

Glacier ice-contact speleogenesis in marble stripe karst, 2013, Lauritzen S. E. , Skoglund R. .

Relict phreatic caves, in hanging positions within a glacial topography, pose an enigma with respect to the speleogeneticinterpretation. A glacier ice mass may provide liquid water and create caves anywhere in the adjacent rock, making glacierice-contact as well as interglacial, meteoric speleogenesis feasible. The problem is reviewed with relevant glacier rheology,hydrology, and chemistry. The glacial environment was certainly able to overprint and widen already existing caves (sensulato speleogenesis), while the full evolution of caves from tight fractures (sensu stricto speleogenesis) was slow and inefficient(about 1/40) as compared to nonglacial conditions

Glacial Processes in Caves, 2013, Luetscher, M.

Glacial processes are known to impinge on many karst systems, of which the active formation of cave ice represents a salient feature. In temperate environments, the preservation of massive, perennial cave ice deposits, comprising sometimes tens of thousands cubic meters, represents probably the most severe test for models of sporadic permafrost distribution. Additionally, stratified cave ice deposits foster detailed glaciochemical investigations to decipher this environmental archive. Recent investigations have shown that the accessible time window for paleoclimate reconstructions sometimes covers several thousands of years, but understanding the relation between external climate change and the cave ice mass balance still remains challenging. Process-oriented studies suggest that interannual cave ice mass balances respond primarily to modifications in the winter thermal and precipitation regimes. By contrast, cave ice ablation is largely driven by heat exchange with the surrounding rock, which is a function of the external mean annual air temperature. Many mid-latitude, low-altitude ice caves are thus likely to disappear under a warming climate scenario. Yet, traces of former glacial processes can be observed in several temperate cave environments. Cryoclasts, solifluction lobes, sorted sediment patterns, cryogenic calcite, and broken speleothems provide clues for the reconstruction of paleo-permafrost. Because they can be accurately dated with U-series methods, cryogenic cave calcites offer a promising field of investigation for past glacial processes in caves.

Isotopic and hydrochemical data as indicators of recharge areas, flow paths and waterrock interaction in the Caldas da RainhaQuinta das Janelas thermomineral carbonate rock aquif, 2013, Marques J. M. , Graa H. , Eggenkamp H. G. M. , Neves O. , Carreira P. M. , Matias M. J. , Mayer B. , Nunes D. , Trancoso V. N.

An updated conceptual circulation model for the Caldas da Rainha and Quinta das Janelas thermomineralwaters was developed. These thermomineral waters (T _ 33 _C) are related to a huge syncline ascribed tothe regional flow paths. Two diapiric structures were responsible for the uplift and subsequent folding ofregional Jurassic carbonate rocks. Environmental isotopic (d2H and d18O) data indicates that the mainrecharge area of the thermomineral system is linked to the Jurassic limestones (Candeeiros Mountains,E border of the syncline). The thermomineral waters belong to the Cl–Na sulphurous-type, with a totalmineralization of about 3000 mg/L. The thermomineral aquifer system seems to be ‘‘isolated’’ fromanthropogenic contamination, which is typical for the local shallow groundwater systems, due to theexistence of impermeable layers composed of a series of loamy and detritic rocks of the Upper Jurassic.The presence of 3H in some thermomineral borehole waters, not accompanied by an increase in SO2_4 andNO_3 , could be ascribed to different underground flow paths and different mean residence time. Thed34S(SO4) and d18O(SO4) values of dissolved sulphate of groundwaters of the Caldas da Rainha Spas indicatethat the sulphate is the result of water–rock interaction with evaporitic rocks (e.g. gypsum and anhydrite)ascribed to the regional synclinal structure.

Some initial thoughts on sediment dynamics in the active phreatic conduits of the Yorkshire Dales, UK, 2013, Murphy P. J. , Cordingley J. N.

Observations by cave divers of the nature and contexts of clastic sedimentary deposits in Yorkshire Dales caves, especially those within water-filled phreatic conduits, are gradually being collected and interpreted. Insights into the age, history, relationships and dynamics of the clastic materials are emerging alongside more obvious basic data such as sediment grain size, clast lithology and possible clast provenance. Potentially these and other aspects have wider relevance to other karst issues, including studies of palaeo-hydrology and sequences of conduit development; they can also provide pointers to the whereabouts and possible significance of currently unknown cave passages.

MALAYSIAN CAVE BIBLIOGRAPHY (up tp 2012), 2013, Price, Liz


(up to 2012)

by   LIZ   PRICE

A4 , 246 pp, soft cover.

ISBN 978-967-11839-0-8

This bibliography covers the whole of Malaysia, i.e. Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak, and contains about 4800 references to Malaysian caves and karst, dating from the 1700s to 2012. In addition there is an extensive newspaper biblio covering 1953 – 2012. Other pages provide an introduction to Malaysian caves and history, and there is a map and glossary. It is an invaluable reference work for anyone interested in limestone caves and karst, archaeology, conservation, flora and fauna, geomorphology, geology, hydrology, history etc, as well as for the sporting caver who wants to learn more about Malaysian caves.

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Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor of water exchanges between a saturated karstic conduit and its surrounding rock, 2013, Binet Stphane, Joigneaux Emmanuelle, Albric Patrick, Pauwels Helene, Bruand Ary

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