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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That water invasion is the sudden invasion of water into a well or borehole [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for hydrology (Keyword) returned 658 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 631 to 645 of 658
Central concepts of karst hydrology, 2013, Palmer, Arthur N.

Hydraulic boundary conditions as a controlling factor of water exchanges between a saturated karstic conduit and its surrounding rock, 2013, Binet Stphane, Joigneaux Emmanuelle, Albric Patrick, Pauwels Helene, Bruand Ary

Central concepts of karst hydrology, 2013, Palmer, Arthur N.

The solutional growth of karst features involves a simple mass transfer, in which the mass removed from the walls of a void equals the mass removed in solution by flowing water. Mass removed = volume  rock density, and mass in solution = discharge  solute concentration. Therefore (e.g., in a solution conduit) the rate of volume increase = discharge  gain in dissolved load  time / rock density. Density is essentially con-stant, so conduit size depends only on the cumulative values of discharge, dissolution rate, and time. All three are essential, and all are equally important.
Discharge in a conduit depends on catchment area and water balance; and the distribu-tion of water among all solution conduits depends on hydraulic variables and conduit geometry. Dissolution rate varies with rock type, undersaturation, and solution kinetics, the last of which can be determined by laboratory and field measurements. Together, they provide a tool for quantifying the local geomorphic history.
These relationships seem simple, but applying them quantitatively is complex. This requires a finely divided 2- or 3-dimensional grid in which each segment varies in dis-charge and dissolution rate within each of many small time increments. Computer modelers use this approach to simulate conduit growh; but the results depend on the specific boundary conditions of the model.
It is more challenging to use this concept intuitively to solve real field problems, where the variables are only partly understood. In this case, one must show that the water source, dissolution rate, and available time are all great enough to account for the ob-served solution features. All three variables are closely linked by a web of interactive processes, all of which can be expressed quantitatively. Whether the goal is to under-stand what is already known, or to predict the unknown, this approach provides a solid basis for interpreting karst systems.


Investigating Groundwater Flow Between Edwards and Trinity Aquifers in Central Texas, 2013, Wong C. I. , Kromann J. S. , Hunt B. B. , Smith B. A. , Banner J. L.

Understanding the nature of communication between aquifers can be challenging when using traditional physical and geochemical groundwater sampling approaches. This study uses two multiport wells completed within Edwards and Trinity aquifers in central Texas to determine the degree of groundwater inter-flow between adjacent aquifers. Potentiometric surfaces, hydraulic conductivities, and groundwater major ion concentrations and Sr isotope values were measured from multiple zones within three hydrostratigraphic units (Edwards and Upper and Middle Trinity aquifers). Physical and geochemical data from the multiport wells were combined with historical measurements of groundwater levels and geochemical compositions from the region to characterize groundwater flow and identify controls on the geochemical compositions of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers. Our results suggest that vertical groundwater flow between Edwards and Middle Trinity aquifers is likely limited by low permeability, evaporite-rich units within the Upper and Middle Trinity. Potentiometric surface levels in both aquifers vary with changes in wet vs. dry conditions, indicating that recharge to both aquifers occurs through distinct recharge areas. Geochemical compositions in the Edwards, Upper, and Middle Trinity aquifers are distinct and likely reflect groundwater interaction with different lithologies (e.g., carbonates, evaporites, and siliceous sediments) as opposed to mixing of groundwater between the aquifers. These results have implications for the management of these aquifers as they indicate that, under current conditions, pumping of either aquifer will likely not induce vertical cross-formational flow between the aquifers. Inter-flow between the Trinity and the Edwards aquifers, however, should be reevaluated as pumping patterns and hydrogeologic conditions change.


CAVES AND KARST HYDROGEOLOGY OF JERUSALEM, ISRAEL, 2013, Frumkin Amos

 

The city of Jerusalem, Israel, is growing for ~4,000 years on karst terrain. Lacking closed depressions, surface topography seems fluvial, but karst is well demonstrated by speleology and subsurface hydrology. Several caves in the city were truncated by construction works, including an 800 m long river cave (longest limestone river cave in Israel), and a 200 × 140 × 90 m isolated chamber cave (largest chamber cave in Israel). Caves are being discovered at a growing rate, as construction works dig deeper into the subsurface in the crowded city. Some of them are eventually destroyed by the construction works; only presently accessible caves are discussed here. The hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the Gihon, Jerusalem’s main karst spring, was studied in order to understand its behavior, as well as urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical and bacterial analysis demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity is high compared to nearby springs located at the town margins, indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring does not exist today. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge area thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically.


TRITIUM AND H, O AND C STABLE ISOTOPES AS A TOOL FOR TRACKING OF WATER CIRCULATION IN THE NIEDŹWIEDZIA CAVE SYSTEM (SUDETES, POLAND), 2013, Gą, Siorowski M. Hercman H.

 

Water circulation in Niedźwiedzia Cave system is complicated. The system is fed by direct infiltration of precipitation, infiltration from the surface stream and, possibly, by rising flow from deep sources. The cave is drained by system of karst springs in the Kleśnica stream valley, but some part of water flows across border ridge and occurs in Morava stream valley, Czech Republic (Ciężkowski et al. 2009). We tried to use tritium and stable isotopes to describe hydrology of the cave system and analyzed 155 water samples for stable isotopes and 38 water samples for tritium content. The Niedźwiedzia Cave system is composed of three levels of halls and galleries. In the upper level, stable isotope composition in drip water plots close to the local meteoritic water line (LMWL) on the δ18O vs δD diagram. It varies during the year similar to stable isotope composition of precipitation (i.e. low δ18O values during winters and higher δ18O during summers). The delay between isotopic signal in precipitation and drip water is ~10–14 days and this can be interpreted as a time of infiltration from the surface to the cave upper level. The correlation between isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is not observed in the lower level of the cave system. There isotopic composition of drip water is more stable during the year. We use tritium dating method to estimate the age of this water. It has shown that infiltration time to the lower level is 1.4±0.3 year. The “oldest” water was found in karst spring draining the cave system. The estimated transit time is 3–4 years and suggest admixture of some “old” water that was not sampled in the cave.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci O. , Zeljkovic I. , Galic A.

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci Ognjen, Ž, Eljković, Ivana, Galić, Amira

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Proceedings of the Thirteenth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2013,

These proceedings represent the talks, posters, and symposia presented at the 13th Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, which took place in Carlsbad, New Mexico, at the NCKRI headquarters, May 6-10, 2013. This international conference series creates a better understanding of environmental issues and geohazards associated with karst environments.
This 480 page volume contains 52 peer-reviewed papers organized under the following headings: a) Engineering and Geotechnical Aspects of Karst, b) Evaporite Karst, c) Geophysical Investigations in Karst Terrain, d) Formation Processes of Karst and Sinkholes, e) Karst Hydrology, and f) Mapping and Management of Karst Regions.


Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst: Proceedings of the thirteenth multidisciplinary Conference, 2013,
Welcome to the Thirteenth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst in sunny Carlsbad, New Mexico. This will be the farthest west the Sinkhole Conference, as it is informally known, has met since its inception in 1984. The setting will provide conference participants with a unique opportunity to view karst phenomena such as gypsum cenotes that are uncommon outside the southwestern United States, and world-class caves and karst features that occur (for better or worse) within and adjacent to giant oil fields of the Permian Basin region.
In 2011 the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) assumed responsibility for hosting the Sinkhole Conference series. NCKRI, a non-profit organization dedicated to pure and applied research on caves, karst phenomena, and karst hydrology is well-positioned to assume a leadership role in organizing and hosting the conference. Several of the staff of NCKRI have a long history of participation in past Sinkhole Conferences, and we look forward to supporting and hosting future meetings in other areas of the United States and abroad. The fourteenth conference will be held in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2015, and discussion has begun on the possibility of an international setting for a future conference.
We wish to dedicate this year’s proceedings volume to the memory of Barry Beck, who died in 2011. Barry initiated the Sinkhole Conference series in 1984 and was instrumental in maintaining the series of meetings over the years through several sponsors. Although his energy and enthusiasm will be greatly missed by future conference organizers, we are honored to carry Barry’s legacy into the future.

EVAPORITE KARST AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE CASTILE FORMATION: CULBERSON COUNTY, TEXAS AND EDDY COUNTY, NEW MEXICO, 2013, Stafford, K. W.

Karst development in Permian Castile evaporites has resulted in complex speleogenetic evolution with multiple phases of diagenetic overprinting. More than 10,000 surficial features, primarily sinkholes, occur throughout Culberson County, Texas, and Eddy County, New Mexico, based on GIS-analyses where laminated Castile sulfates crop out. Cave development is largely the result of hypogene processes, where ascending fluids from the underlying Bell Canyon Formation migrate near vertically through the Castile Formation, creating caves up to 100 meters deep and over 500 meters long, which have been breached through a combination of collapse and surface denudation. Numerous small and laterally limited epigene features occur throughout the region, as well as the anomalously large Parks Ranch Cave System with more than 6.5 kilometers of cave development and multiple large, incised, sinkhole entrances. Hypogene caves exhibit varying degrees of epigenic overprinting as a result of surficial breaching.

Water resources in the Castile Formation are directly related to karst development with extremely heterogeneous flow networks. Most springs in the region discharge sulfate-rich waters, contain high levels of hydrogen sulfide, and support sulfate-reducing bacterial colonies. Isolated stream passages in northern Culberson County provide locally significant water resources that do not exhibit elevated hydrogen sulfide concentrations. Local water tables vary greatly over the region and few caves access base-level conditions. Upward migration of hydrocarbons complicates regional hydrology and diagenesis, resulting in extensive evaporite calcitization, which greatly modifies both fluid / rock interaction and permeability structures.


AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND DELINEATION OFKARST TERRAIN DEPRESSIONSAND ITSAPPLICATION IN GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALySIS, 2013, PardoigÚzquiza E. , DurÁn J. J. , Dowd P. A.

Digital elevation models (DEM) are digital representations of topography that are especially suitable for numerical terrain analysis in earth sciences and engineering. One of the main quantitative uses of DEM is the automatic delineation of flow networks and watersheds in hydrology and geomorphology. In these applications (using both low­resolution and precision DEM) depressions hinder the inference of pathways and a lot of work has been done in designing algorithms that remove them so as to generate depression­free digital elevation models with no interruptions to flow. There are, however, geomorphological environments, such as karst terrains, in which depressions are singular elements, on scales ranging from centimetres to kilo­metres, which are of intrinsic interest. The detection of these depressions is of significant interest in geomorphologic map­ping because the development of large depressions is normal in karst terrains: potholes, blind valleys, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The smallest depressions that can be detected depend on the spatial resolution (pixel size) of the DEM. For example, depressions from centimetres to a few metres, such as some types of karren, cannot be detected if the raster digital eleva­tion model has a spatial resolution greater than, say, 5 m (i.e., square 5m pixel). In this work we describe a method for the au­tomatic detection and delineation of terrain depressions. First, we apply a very efficient algorithm to remove pits from the DEM. The terrain depressions are then obtained by subtract­ing the depression­free DEM from the original DEM. The final product is a digital map of depressions that facilitates the cal culation of morphometric features such as the geometry of the depressions, the mean depth of the depressions, the density of depressions across the study area and the relationship between depressions and other variables such as altitude. The method is illustrated by applying it to data from the Sierra de las Nieves karst massif in the province of Málaga in Southern Spain. This is a carbonate aquifer that is drained by three main springs and in which the depressions play an important role in the recharge of the aquifer. A doline density map, produced from a map of 324 detected dolines/uvalas, identifies three main recharge areas of the three springs. Other morphometric results related to the size and direction of the dolines are also presented. Finally the dolines can be incorporated into a geomorphology map.


A framework for assessing the role of karst conduit morphology, hydrology, and evolution in the transport and storage of carbon and associated sediments, 2013, Veni George

Karst aquifers and conduits form by dissolution of carbonate minerals and the slow release of inorganic carbon to the surface environment. As conduits evolve in size, morphology, and position within the aquifer, their function and capacity change relative to the storage and transport of inorganic and organic carbon as sediment. Conduits serve mostly as transport mechanisms in relation to sediments. quantified data are sparse, but for conduits to function effectively there must be at least equilibrium in the amount of sediment entering and exiting the aquifer. If sediment discharge exceeds input, little sediment will remain underground. when natural declines in base level cease removing sediments and only deposit calcite speleothems, these materials are stored until the rock mass is denuded. while sediment storage is mostly transient in hydrologically active conduits, relative differences occur. Aquifers with conduits developed at multiple levels or as floodwater mazes store proportionately greater volumes of sediment. Hypogenic systems should store greater volumes of sediment than epigenic aquifers because they mostly discharge a dissolved load as opposed to both dissolved and suspended clastic loads. However, some hypogenic aquifers are diffusely recharged and receive and store little sediment from the surface. The global volume of sediment and organic carbon stored in karst aquifers is estimated in this study to be on the order of 2x104 km3 and 2x102 km3, respectively. The amount of organic carbon stored in paleokarst is not estimated, but available data indicate it is substantially greater than that stored in modern karst aquifers. Development of such data may suggest that paleokarst petroleum reservoirs might serve as efficient carbon sinks for global carbon sequestration. Hydrocarbon-depleted paleokarst reservoirs should provide substantially more storage per injection well than sequestration in non-paleokarstic rocks.


Spring discharge records – a case study, 2013, Wicks, Carol M.

Spring discharge records integrate of all the processes and the reactions occurring within a karst basin. A brief summary of the use of discharge records as a means to constrain the internal structure of karst basins, as means to constrain rainfallrunoff models for karst basin, and as a means to determine the value of hydrodynamic parameters of karst basins is presented. Data collected from Devils Icebox, a karst basin spring in Missouri, USA, were used to assess these approaches to characterizing karst basins. For Devils Icebox, most of the discharge responses do not record information about the internal structure of the basin rather the responses record information about the recharge to the basin. A rainfall-runoff model failed to reproduce the data from which model parameters were derived and has little utility in a predictive mode. Use of conservation of mass equations as a means to derive hydrodynamic parameters is a useful approach, although critical data are lacking. More generally, karst hydrologists need quantitative tracer data and long-term, high-resolution temporal data of the input(s) to and the output(s) from karst basins.


Flow characterization in the Santee Cave system in the Chapel Branch Creek watershed, upper coastal plain of South Carolina, USA., 2013, Edwards A. E. , Amatya D. M. , Williams T. M. , Hitchcock D. R. , James A. L.

Karst watersheds possess both diffuse and conduit flow and varying degrees of connectivity between surface and groundwater over spatial scales that result in complex hydrology and contaminant transport processes. The flow regime and surface-groundwater connection must be properly identified and characterized to improve management in karst watersheds with impaired water bodies, such as the Chapel Branch Creek (CBC), South Carolina watershed, which has a long-term sampling station presently listed on an EPA 303(d) list for phosphorous, pH, and nitrogen. Water from the carbonate limestone aquifer of the Santee Cave system and spring seeps in the CBC watershed were monitored to characterize dominant flow type and surface-groundwater connection by measuring dissolved calcium and magnesium, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, alkalinity, pH, specific conductance, and stable isotopes (d18O, d2H). These measurements indicated that the conduit flow to Santee Cave spring was recharged predominantly from diffuse flow, with a slow response of surface water infiltration to the conduit. Qualitative dye traces and stage elevation at Santee Cave spring and the adjacent Lake Marion (equal to the elevation of the flooded portion of CBC) also indicated a relation between fluctuating base level of the CBC reservoir-like embayment and elevation of the Santee Limestone karst aquifer at the spring. Methods described herein to characterize the flow type and surface-groundwater connection in the Santee Cave system can be applied not only to watershed management in the Chapel Branch Creek watershed, but also to the greater region where this carbonate limestone aquifer exists. 


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