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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That gypsum karst is a karst landscape developed on, or perhaps above, gypsum or similar evaporite rock sequences. dissolution of gypsum by ground water in buried, interstratal, situations is common and the effects of such dissolution may be expressed at the land surface in the form of subsidence depressions. there are extensive areas of gypsum karst in north america and the ukraine but british examples are limited to rare caves, exposed by quarrying, and subsidence depressions above dissolved gypsum beds, such as those around ripon, yorkshire [9].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for rocks (Keyword) returned 671 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 661 to 671 of 671
Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method, 2015, Sanna Laura, De Waele Jo, Calaforra José Maria, Forti Paolo

The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flowand hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr−1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm −1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr−1 on carbonate flowstones. 

The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr−1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation–corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation–corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr−1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr−1.


International Conference on Groundwater in Karst, Programme and Abstracts, 2015, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2015,

Carbonate rocks present a particular challenge to hydrogeologists as the major groundwater flux is through an integrated network of dissolutionally enlarged channels that discharge via discrete springs. The channels span a very wide aperture range: the smallest are little more than micro-fractures or pathways through the rock matrix but at the other end of the spectrum (and commonly in the same rock mass) channels may grow to dimensions where they can be explored by humans and are called caves. Groundwater transmission through the smaller channels that are commonly intersected by boreholes is very slow and has often been analysed using equivalent porous media models although the limitations of such models are increasingly recognised. At the other end of the spectrum (and commonly in the same rock mass) flow through the larger conduits is analogous to ‘a surface stream with a roof’ and may be amenable to analysis by models devised for urban pipe networks. Regrettably, hydrogeologists have too often focussed on the extreme ends of the spectrum, with those carbonates possessing large and spectacular landforms regarded as “karst” whereas carbonates with little surface expression commonly, but incorrectly labelled as “non-karstic”. This can lead to failures in resource management. Britain is remarkable for the variety of carbonate rocks that crop out in a small geographical area. They range in age and type from Quaternary freshwater carbonates, through Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic limestones and dolostones, to Proterozoic metacarbonates. All near surface British carbonates are soluble and groundwater is commonly discharged from them at springs fed by dissolutionally enlarged conduits, thereby meeting one internationally accepted definition of karst. Hence, it is very appropriate that Britain, and Birmingham as Britain's second largest city, hosts this International Conference on Groundwater in Karst. The meeting will consider the full range of carbonate groundwater systems and will also have an interdisciplinary approach to understanding karst in its fullest sense.


Turkish karst aquifers, 2015, Gunay G. , Guner N. , Tork K.

One third of Turkey’s surface is underlain by carbonate rocks that have been subdivided into four karst regions. The carbonate rock units are about 200 km wide along the Taurus Mountains that attain elevations of 2500 m. Karst features of western Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean seas demonstrate the tectonic, lithological and climatic controls on the occurrence, movement, and chemical characteristics of groundwater. In Turkey all karstic feature, such as lapies, caves, sinkholes, uvalas, poljes, ground river valleys developed in all karstic areas. Karstification is related not only to the thickness and to purity of limestone, climate and height but also to tectonic movements. Water resources of karst terrains of Turkey are relatively rich and as such are very important for the economic development of the country. High mountain chains, very often associated with the karst terrains, are responsible for some important and beneficial characteristics of these water resources. Four karst regions are: (1) Taurus karst region, (2) southeast Anatolia karst region, (3) central Anatolia karst region, and (4) northwest Anatolia and Thrace karst regions.


Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq) , 2015, Dafny Elad, Tawfeeq Kochar Jamal, Ghabraie Kazem

Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10−8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.


Basinscale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region, 2015,

Application of the gravitydriven regional groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, is justified based on the principle of hydraulic continuity. The GDRGF concept informs about basin hydraulics and groundwater as a geologic agent. It became obvious that the effect of heterogeneity and anisotropy on the flow pattern could be derived from hydraulic reactions of the aquifer system. The topography and heat as driving forces were examined by numerical simulations of flow and heat transport. Evaluation of groups of springs, in terms of related discharge phenomena and regional chloride distribution, reveals the dominance of topographydriven flow when considering flow and related chemical and temperature patterns. Moreover, heat accumulation beneath the confined part of the system also influences these patterns. The presence of cold, lukewarm and thermal springs and related wetlands, creeks, mineral precipitates, and epigenic and hypogenic caves validates the existence of GDRGF in the system. Vice versa, groups of springs reflect rock–water interaction and advective heat transport and inform about basin hydraulics. Based on these findings, a generalized conceptual GDRGF model is proposed for an unconfined and confined carbonate region. An interface was revealed close to the margin of the unconfined and confined carbonates, determined by the GDRGF and freshwater and basinal fluids involved. The application of this model provides a background to interpret manifestations of flowing groundwater in thick carbonates generally, including porosity enlargement and hydrocarbon and heat accumulation.


Hydrothermal speleogenesis in carbonates and metasomatic silicites induced by subvolcanic intrusions: a case study from the Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, Slovakia, 2015,

Several caves of hydrothermal origin in crystalline limestones and metasomatic silicites were investigated in the central zone of the Štiavnica stratovolcano, Štiavnické vrchy Mountains, central Slovakia. Evidence of hydrothermal origin includes irregular spherical cave morphology sculptured by ascending thermal water, occurrence of large calcite crystals and hydrothermal alteration of host rocks, including hydrothermal clays. The early phases of speleogenesis in the crystalline limestone near Sklené Teplice Spa were caused by post-magmatic dissolution linked either to the emplacement of subvolcanic granodiorite intrusions during Late Badenian time or to the spatially associated Late Sarmatian epithermal system. Speleogenesis in metasomatic silicites in the Šobov area is related to hydrothermal processes associated with the pre-caldera stage of the Štiavnica stratovolcano in Late Badenian. Both localities are remarkable examples of hydrothermal speleogenesis associated with Miocene volcanic and magmatic activity in the Western Carpathians


The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States, 2015,

Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and main-tains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.


Basin-scale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region, 2015,

Application of the gravity-driven regional  groundwater flow (GDRGF) concept to the  hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the  Transdanubian Range (TR), Hungary, is justified based on  the principle of hydraulic continuity. The GDRGF concept  informs about basin hydraulics and groundwater as a  geologic agent. It became obvious that the effect of  heterogeneity and anisotropy on the flow pattern could be  derived from hydraulic reactions of the aquifer system.  The topography and heat as driving forces were examined  by numerical simulations of flow and heat transport.  Evaluation of groups of springs, in terms of related  discharge phenomena and regional chloride distribution,  reveals the dominance of topography-driven flow when  considering flow and related chemical and temperature  patterns. Moreover, heat accumulation beneath the confined  part of the system also influences these patterns. The  presence of cold, lukewarm and thermal springs and  related wetlands, creeks, mineral precipitates, and epigenic  and hypogenic caves validates the existence of GDRGF in  the system. Vice versa, groups of springs reflect rock–  water interaction and advective heat transport and inform  about basin hydraulics. Based on these findings, a  generalized conceptual GDRGF model is proposed for  an unconfined and confined carbonate region. An interface  was revealed close to the margin of the unconfined and  confined carbonates, determined by the GDRGF and  freshwater and basinal fluids involved. The application  of this model provides a background to interpret manifestations  of flowing groundwater in thick carbonates  generally, including porosity enlargement and hydrocarbon  and heat accumulation.


Initial conditions or emergence: What determines dissolution patterns in rough fractures?, 2015,

Dissolution of fractured rocks is often accompanied by the formation of highly localized flow paths. While the fluid flow follows existing fractures in the rock, these fissures do not, in general, open uniformly. Simulations and laboratory experiments have shown that distinct channels or “wormholes”develop within the fracture, from which a single highly localized flow path eventually emerges. The aim of the present work is to investigate how these emerging flow paths are influenced by the initial aperture field. We have simulated the dissolution of a single fracture starting from a spatially correlated aperture distribution. Our results indicate a surprising insensitivity of the evolving dissolution patterns and flow rates to the amplitude and correlation length characterizing the imposed aperture field. We connect the similarity in outcomes to the self-organization of the flow into a small number of wormholes, with the spacing determined of the longest wormholes. We have also investigated the effect of a localized region of increased aperture on the developing dissolution patterns. A competition was observed between the tendency of the high-permeability region to develop the dominant wormhole and the tendency of wormholes to spontaneously nucleate throughout the rest of the fracture. We consider the consequences of these results for the modeling of dissolution in fractured and porous rocks.


The karst paradigm: changes, trends and perspectives, 2015, Klimchouk, Alexander

The paper examines representative definitions of karst (21), and discusses some concepts that influenced the modern un­derstanding of the phenomenon. Several trends are discussed that took karst science beyond the limits of the traditional par­adigm of karst. Dramatic progress in studies of speleogenesis plays the most significant role in changes taking place in the general understanding of karst. Also important is an adoption of the broad perspective to karst evolution which goes beyond the contemporary geomorphologic epoch and encompasses the entire life of a geological formation. Speleogenesis is viewed as a dynamic hydrogeological process of self-organization of the permeability structure in soluble rocks, a mechanism of the specific evolution of the groundwater flow system. The result is that these systems acquire a new, "karstic", quality and more complex organization. Since almost all essential attributes of karst owe their origin to speleogenesis, the latter is considered as the primary mechanism of the formation of karst. Two fundamental types of speleogenesis, hypogene and epigene, differentiate mainly due to distinct hydrodynamic characteristics of the respective groundwater flow systems: (1) of layered aquifer systems and fracture-vein flow systems of varying depths and degrees of confinement, and (2) of hydrodynamically open, near-surface unconfined systems. Accordingly, two major genetic types of karst are distinguished: hypogene and epigene. They differ in many characteristics, notably in relationships with the surface, hydrogeological behaviour, groundwater quality, and the areas of practical importance and approaches to solving karst-related issues. Although views on essential attributes of karst have been clearly changing, this was not reflected in definitions of the notion which are in broad use in the earth-science literature. A refined approach is suggested to the notion of karst in which it is viewed as a groundwater (fluid) flow system of a specific kind, which has acquired its peculiar properties in the course of speleogenesis.


Engineering challenges in Karst, 2015, Stevanović Zoran, Milanović Petar

Anisotropy and heterogeneity of karstified rocks make them the most problematic media for various interventions which are needed in engineering practice. The long history of attempts to adapt karstic nature to human needs started with the utilization of karstic aquifers: tapping large springs, transferring their waters to the long distances, improving minimal flows or capturing fresh water in coastal areas. During the 20th century the number of other challenges such as building dam and reservoirs, and constructing roads and railways, bridges, tunnels, new settlements open a new era in engineering works but also in collecting new knowledge and experience for the karstology and hydrogeology sciences. Today, almost no engineering projects can be implemented without a proper environmental impact assessment, which establishes a better balance between human and ecological needs. 


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