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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That dispersion, mechanical is see mechanical dispersion.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for seepage (Keyword) returned 103 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 91 to 103 of 103
Fifty Years of the Hypotelminorheic: What Have We Learned?, 2012, Pipan T. , Fiser C. , Novak T. , Culver D. C.

Originally described by Meštrov in 1962, hypotelminorheic habitats are superficial subterranean drainages, typically less than a meter or so in depth, that emerge at small seepage springs. These are persistent wet spots, typically with blackened leaves in small depressions. There may be no flow during dry periods, but the underlying clay retains water above. They share the landscape with other small bodies of water (močila in Slovenian), not necessarily connected with groundwater. Hypotelminorheic habitats (mezišča in Slovenian) usually harbor a fauna dominated by species adapted to subterranean life, characteristically without eyes or pigment. The basic chemistry and hydrology of the habitat is described as are the basic faunal elements. The habitat is placed in a more general context by reviewing how species invade the habitat, their morphology, and their possible connection to deeper subterranean habitats.


Fifty Years of the Hypotelminorheic: What Have We Learned?, 2012, Pipan Tanja, Fier Cene, Novak Tone, Culver David C.

 

Originally described by Meštrov in 1962, hypotelminorheic habitats are superficial subterranean drainages, typically less than a meter or so in depth, that emerge at small seepage springs. These are persistent wet spots, typically with blackened leaves in small depressions. There may be no flow during dry periods, but the underlying clay retains water above. They share the landscape with other small bodies of water (močila in Slovenian), not necessarily connected with groundwater. Hypotelminorheic habitats (mezišča in Slovenian) usually harbor a fauna dominated by species adapted to subterranean life, characteristically without eyes or pigment. The basic chemistry and hydrology of the habitat is described as are the basic faunal elements. The habitat is placed in a more general context by reviewing how species invade the habitat, their morphology, and their possible connection to deeper subterranean habitats.
 

A Non-Linear Fluid-solid Coupling Mechanical Model Study for Paleokarst Collapse Breccia Pipes Under Erosion Effect, 2012, Yao Banghua, Mao Xianbiao, Zhang Kai, Cai Wei

In this research the seepage characteristics of Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes under particles erosion effect, and their water inrush mechanism were studied. In this paper, based on the seepage theory of pores media and the nonlinear mechanics theory, we deduced the transport equation of particles in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes, obtained the seepage field equation for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes, and investigated the porosity evolution equation under the effect of particles transport, building a nonlinear fluid-solid coupling model for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes. Furthermore, we took the relationship between fluid and particle velocities as well as the effect of particle concentration on fluid property into account, and assumed the porosity in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes obey Weibull distribution. Finally, we lead the model equations into the COMSOL Multiphysics to solve, obtaining the parameters including porosity, seepage velocity, particle concentration, water inflow evolution law as the time. The research results indicate that: (1) particles in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes will be eroded and transport under the effect of fluid movement as the time, the concentration of particles behaved rapidly increased and then sharply decreased, and the porosity and seepage velocity grew quickly until reached the maximum value; (2) the seepage capacity for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes initially grows slowly, while seepage velocity increases at an increasing rate with the growth and connectivity of porosity; (3) the porosity evolution under erosion effect in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipe is an important reason for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipe water inrush.


HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS AND SPELEOTHEMS OF SIMA DE LA HIGUERA CAVE (MURCIA, SOUTH-EASTERN SPAIN), 2013, Gá, Zquez Fernando Calaforra José, Marí, A

 

Sima de la Higuera Cave (Pliego, south-eastern Spain) has been recently adapted for speleological use. Nevertheless, knowledge of the hypogenic origin of this cavity is still quite limited. The peculiar genetic mechanisms could provide added value if the cave is exploited for speleotourism. By studying geomorphological features and speleothem characteristics, it has been possible to deduce the predominant speleogenetic mechanism (whether hypogenic or epigenic) that controlled the evolution of this cave. The hypogenic mechanism that gave rise to this cavity was associated with upflow of CO2-rich hydrothermal fluid from depth, and was unconnected to meteoric water seepage. In this paper we describe some of the geomorphological evidence and unusual speleothems in Sima de la Higuera Cave. Large scallops are found on the upper level (-74 m); these are related to the mechanism of hypogenic speleogenesis and generally indicate the direction of ascending flow. There are also corrosion crusts made of micritic calcite. In addition, bubble trails related to bubbles of rising CO2 have been identified. Centimetric calcite spar speleothems frequently fill fractures in the host rock. Other typical hypogenic speleothems occur in this cave, including calcite raft cones, folia, cave clouds, tower coral and calcite raft deposits, all suggesting the influence of thermal water during the cave’s formation. Furthermore, the first reported occurrence of calcite raft double-tower cones has been described in this cave; their origin is linked to water table oscillations in Paradise Chamber (-82 m). At the deepest level (-110 m), Mn-Fe oxyhydroxides occur as a black coating totally covering the cave walls, usually over subaerial “boxwork” formations. The wide variety of speleothems unconnected to meteoric water seepage make Sima de la Higuera Cave one of the most unusual hypogenic caves in Spain.


COMPLEX EPIKARST HYDROLOGEOLOGY AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN A SOUTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY KARST LANDSCAPE, 2013, Polk J. S. , Vanderhoff S. , Groves C. , Miller B. , Bolster C.

 

The movement of autogenic recharge through the shallow epikarstic zone in soil-mantled karst aquifers is important in understanding recharge areas and rates, storage, and contaminant transport processes. The groundwater in agricultural karst areas, such as Kentucky’s Pennyroyal Plateau, which is characterized by shallow epikarst and deeper conduits flow, is susceptible to contamination from organic soil amendments and pesticides. To understand the storage and flow of autogenic recharge and its effects on contaminant transport on water flowing to a single epikarst drain in Crump’s Cave on Kentucky’s Mississippian Plateau, we employed several techniques to characterize the nature and hydrogeology of the system. During 2010–2012, water samples and geochemical data were collected every four hours before, during, and between storm events from a waterfall in Crumps Cave to track the transport and residence time of epikarst water and organic soil amendments during variable flow conditions. Geochemical data consisting of pH, specific conductivity, temperature, and discharge were collected continuously at 10-minute intervals, along with rainfall amounts. In addition, stable isotope data from rainfall, soil water, and epikarst water were collected weekly and during storm events to examine storage and recharge behavior of the system. The changes in geochemistry indicate simultaneous storage and transport of meteoric water through epikarst pathways into the cave, with rapid transport of bacteria occurring through the conduits that bypass storage. The isotopic data indicate that recharge is rapidly homogenized in the epikarst, with storage varying throughout the year based on meteorological conditions. Results indicate current best management practices in agricultural karst areas need to be revisited to incorporate areas that do not have surface runoff, but where contaminants are transported by seepage into local aquifers.


STRONTIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS (87SR/86SR) IN GYPSUM SPELEOTHEMS FROM THE NAICA MINE CAVES (CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO): GENETIC IMPLICATIONS, 2013, Gzquez Fernando, Calaforra Jos Maria, Garcacasco Antonio, Sanna Laura, Forti Paolo

The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of several gypsum speleothems from the caves of the Naica Mine (Chihuahua, Mexico) has been determined in order to evaluate the origin of the saline solution from which they precipitated. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the huge selenite crystals from the Cristales Cave (-290 m Level) and of the gypsum core of the “espadas” speleothems from the Espadas Cave (-120 m Level) are 0.707337 and 0.708343, respectively. These values are slightly higher than that of the carbonate host rock (0.7072) as well as that of the Tertiary felsic dikes emplaced in the carbonate sequence (0.7080). They are also lower than those expected for crystallization from seepage water solutions (>0.7090). Therefore, the 87Sr/86Sr values determined for the speleothems at Naica suggest that gypsum in these caves precipitated from a mixture of infiltration water and thermal water. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of gypsum speleothems is regarded as a useful indicator to infer the rela- tive contribution of meteoric deep thermal water solutions during the genesis of the Naica’s gypsum speleothems.


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini M. , Van Rooy J. L. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini Mehran, Van Rooy Jan Louis, Bumby Adam

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality.


Organic matter flux in the epikarst of the Dorvan karst, France, 2013, Simon, Kevin S.

Availability of organic matter plays an important role in karst ecosystems. Somewhat surprisingly, study of the composition and distribution of organic matter in karst aquifers is rare. The most comprehensive study or organic matter flux to date is a two year continuous monitoring of detritus and animal flux in epikarst drip waters and an epikarst-fed cave stream in the Dorvan karst, France. Analysis of those data reveals high temporal variation in detritus and animal flux in both habitats, but little evidence of seasonality in flux. water flux explained 30-69% of the variation in animal flux in both habitats and detritus flux in the epikarst seepage water. Detritus flux in the cave stream was better explained by peak monthly discharge. Lack of coherence between organic matter flux in epikarst seepage and the epikarst stream suggests organic matter transport is governed by differing factors in the two habitats. Overall, much of the particulate organic matter flux in the epikarst occurs as living animals suggesting a dominant role of ecological processes in organic matter transport.


Hypogenic Karstification and Conduit System Controlling by Tectonic Pattern in Foundation Rocks of the Salman Farsi Dam in South-Western Iran, 2013, Koleini M. , Louis J. , Rooy V. , Bumby A.

The Salman Farsi dam project is constructed on the Ghareh Agahaj River about 140km south of Shiraz city in the Zagros Mountains of southwestern Iran. This tectonic province of southwestern Iran is characterized by a simple folded sedimentary sequence. The dam foundation rocks compose of the Asmari Formation of Oligo-miocene and generally comprise of a variety of karstified carbonate rocks varying from strong to weak rocks. Most of the rocks exposed at the dam site show a primary porosity due to incomplete diagenetic recrystallization and compaction. In addition to these primary dispositions to weathering, layering conditions (frequency and orientation of bedding) and the subvertical tectonic discontinuities channeled preferably the infiltrating by deep-sited hydrothermal solutions. Consequently the porosity results to be enlarged by dissolution and the rocks are expected to be karstified and to develop cavities in correspondence of bedding, major joint planes and fault zones. This kind of karsts is named hypogenic karsts which associated to the ascendant warm solutions. Field observations indicate strong karstification and vuggy intercalations especially in the middle part of the Asmari succession. The biggest karst in the dam axis which identified by speleological investigations is Golshany Cave with volume of about 150,000 m3. The tendency of the Asmari limestone for strong dissolution can alert about the seepage from the reservoir and area of the dam locality


From Slots to Tubes: The Influence of Dimensionality on Fracture Dissolution Models, 2013, Szymczak, Piotr

We briefly review the models of fracture dissolution process, discussing the experimental and numerical evidence showing that this phenomenon is inherently two-dimensional and hence cannot be accurately described by one-dimensional models. The physical reason for this incompatibility is that a dissolution front in a single rock fracture is potentially unstable to small variations in local permeability, leading to spontaneous formation of dissolution channels in the rock. This leads to a dramatic increase of fissure opening rates, which must be taken into account not only in the estimation of karstification times but also in the assessment of ground subsidence, dam collapse or toxic seepage risks.


Identification of the Exchange Coefficient from Indirect Data for a Coupled Continuum Pipe-Flow Model, 2014, Wu X. , Kugler Ph. , Lu Sh.

Calibration and identification of the exchange effect between the karst aquifers and the underlying conduit network are important issues in order to gain a better understanding of these hydraulic systems. Based on a coupled continuum pipe-flow (CCPF for short) model describing flows in karst aquifers, this paper is devoted to the identification of an exchange rate function, which models the hydraulic interaction between the fissured volume (matrix) and the conduit, from the Neumann boundary data, i.e., matrix/conduit seepage velocity. The authors formulate this parameter identification problem as a nonlinear operator equation and prove the compactness of the forward mapping. The stable approximate solution is obtained by two classic iterative regularization methods, namely, the Landweber iteration and Levenberg-Marquardt method. Numerical examples on noisefree and noisy data shed light on the appropriateness of the proposed approaches


Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq) , 2015, Dafny Elad, Tawfeeq Kochar Jamal, Ghabraie Kazem

Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10−8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.


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