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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calcareous is 1. containing calcium carbonate [10]. 2. descriptive of a rock that contains calcium carbonate [9].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for croatia (Keyword) returned 105 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 91 to 105 of 105
Do Karst Rivers deserve their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia, 2010, Rađ, A B. , Puljas S.

In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, rnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P.) scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index) suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.


Sustainability of the karst environment. Dinaric karst and other karst regions: Proceedings of the Intermational Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference, Plitvice Lakes, Croatia, 23-26 september 2009, 2010,

The objective of the international interdisciplinary scientific conference “Sustainability of the karst environment - Dinaric karst and other karst regions”, organized by Centre for Karst, Gospić, Croatia, was to give a theoretical and practical contribution to the concept of sustainable development in karst regions, with a special emphasis on the experiences achieved in the Dinaric karst region. The exchange of information and findings obtained in other karst regions worldwide allows for an integral approach to this complex issue, and thereby contribute towards finding reliable solutions. The basic objective of the conference was to apply an interdisciplinary approach to scientifically assess the issues of sustainable development of all forms of karst.

The issue was approached from different perspectives, from those of a technical and biological nature, to those addressing the social aspects of environmental issues and life on the karst. The conference itself was held at the Plitvice Lakes (World Heritage Site), one of the most fascinating phenomena on Earth. During the conference, one half-day excursion was organized to visit National Park Plitvice Lakes. Following the conference, an excursion was organised to visit several other significant phenomena of the Dinaric karst in Croatia.

Conference themes were:

- Geological aspects

- Geomorphological aspects

- Hydrological and hydrogeological aspects

- Coastal and submerged karst

- Biological and ecological aspects of karst

- Anthropogenic impacts and protecting karst

- Sociological, demographic and social aspects of karst

- Dinaric karst and other karst regions (China, Alpine, Caribbean karst, etc.)

The publication will serve as a contribution to the VIIth Phase of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP 2008-2013) of UNESCO, which has endeavoured to address demands arising from a rapidly changing world.


Distribution of authigenic and allogenic fractions in recent lake sediment: Isotopic and chemical compositions, 2011, Bareić, Jadranka, Horvatinč, Ić, Nada, Vreč, A Polona, Sironić, Andreja

Recent sediments in Lake Kozjak, in the Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia, were used to study the impact of the material delivered
to the lake sediment via Rječica Brook. Sediment cores, top 40 cm, were taken near the mouth of the Rječica Brook at three locations in the lake at different distances from the shore, water depth 2-9 m and analyzed using different isotopic and chemical methods. Sediment depth profiles of the following parameters were obtained: organic and carbonate fraction, C/N analyses of organic fraction, 14C activity (a14C) and d13C values of carbonate (d13Ccarb) and organic fraction (d13Corg) and d15N of total nitrogen. The results were compared with sediment
core collected in the middle of Lake Kozjak, water depth 21 m. Distribution of organic matter, C/N values, d13Corg and d13Ccarb in sediment profiles showed strong influence of terrestrial
organic and carbonate fraction run-off via Rječica Brook which decreased rapidly in the direction of the open lake. The sedimentation rate as well as the ratio of allogenic and authigenic
fraction in sediments was estimated. Lower d13Corg values in surface sediments might be a consequence of the increase in algal productivity but might also be a contribution of fossil fuel combustion. The anthropogenicaly induced 14C in the atmosphere
in 1963/64 is visible though shadowed in sediments.


Vascular plant biodiversity richness and endemo relictness of the karst mountains Prenj-Čvrsnica-Čabulja in Bosnia and Herzegovina (W. Balkan) , 2011, Redhić, Sulejman, Barudanović, Senka, Trakić, Sabina, Kulijer Dejan
The complex of karstic mountains Prenj-Čvrsnica and Čabulja in Herzegovina (w. Balkan) is characterized by high level of both geomorphology and biodiversity richness. This has been confirmed by a research of plant communities, their structure and dynamics, which took place throughout several seasons from 2005 to 2008. In the investigated area the vegetation cover, as a reliable indicator for specific karstic circumstances, is being differentiated in a great number of syntaxa (plant communities) that encompass over 2,500 vascular plants. On the surface of about 100,000 ha identified were up to 236 plant associations, 116 alliances and 63 vegetation orders that belong to 34 classes. This amounts 34% of total of vegetation classes at the European level and 100% of so far known vegetation classes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 80% of classes at the level of Montenegro and Croatia.There have been identified nearly 450 endemic and relict species, which is why most of the identified communities are endemic and relict ones, not only at the level of association but also at the level of higher syntaxonomic categories, such as alliance and order. The highest diversity level characterizes those communities that make a direct contact with the calcareous geological foundation either in rock crevices or screes on limestone. That high level of floristic and vegetation richness places this area among the most diverse areas both in Europe and whole Mediterranean.That high level of floristic and vegetation richness places this area among the most diverse areas both in Europe and whole Mediterranean. Such pattern of vegetation (syntaxonomy) and floristic diversity confirms the unique role of dinaric-herzegovina karst as a complex of unrepeatable ecological factors on global scale.

New data on the dolines of Velebit Mountain: An evaluation of their sedimentary archive potential in the reconstruction of landscape evolution , 2012, Ballut Christle, Faivre Sanja

The first approach to the relationships between societies and physical environments on Velebit Mountain shows narrow correlations between spatial distribution of dolines, soil formation, hydric resources, vegetation and land occupation. In 2002, sediment cores have been obtained from different dolines of Velebit Mountain to evaluate the potential of their sedimentary archives in order to reconstruct the landscape history. On the littoral slopes and on the top parts of the mountain, the dolines were difficult to dig due to the presence of rocks in depth. Nevertheless, the cores have been sampled and soil analyses have been made (physical and chemical analyses: colour, grain size, pH, CaCO3, C, N, P, K, Mg, CEC). No dating materials were found. The first results attest to rather homogeneous pedologic processes in each area studied (Kamenica, Stinica, Baške Oštarije and Bilensko Mirevo), but they also indicate colluvial contributions. These contributions differ from one doline to another according to their location and morphology. Dolines reveal themselves to be not very good traps, as the representative nature of their sedimentary archives could be very local. However, the best profile has been obtained at Bilensko Mirevo, which shows a change in the soil nutrient content from an impoverishment in its middle part toward an increase of the soil nutrients in recent parts. Those environmental changes could not be precisely dated, but could be correlated with the 17th to 20th century phase of strong human impact on the Velebit environment and with the rural depopulation observed since the second half of the 20th century.


Late Holocene widening of karst voids by marine processes in partially submerged coastal caves (Northeastern Adriatic Sea)., 2012, Furlani Stefano, Cucchi Franco, Biolchi Sara

 

The coastal scenery of the Northeastern Adriatic sea is widely interested by caves and related coastal features, which are developed in correspondence of geological weaknesses of sea cliffs. We present the preliminary surveying of five partially submerged coastal caves cut in limestone cliffs, relating the dissolutionally widened vadose karst voids and the present- day forms. The analysis pointed out two well-defined morphological zones inside the caves. The boundary between the zones roughly coincides with the mean sea level. The submerged zone is mainly affected by abrasion processes on the bottom and the lateral walls, while the emerged zone is interested by karst processes and collapse of blocks from the roof. Their effects produce a bell-shaped cross-section, in which the submerged part of the caves is significantly larger than the emerged one. Considering the tectonic behaviour of the area inferred from literature the caves were flooded about 6 ka BP, when marine processes started to shape their submerged part. Our results allowed, in particular, to evaluate processes shaping the partially submerged coastal caves in the Northeastern Adriatic Sea after the marine transgression. Considering the very preliminary surveyed data, we suggest that the early phases of cave evolution was mainly dissolutionally-controlled and produced the widening of pre-existing joints or faults, as demonstrated by the occurrence of karst features in the upper part of the caves. Recent evolution is instead marine-controlled and the widening is mainly due to the overlapping of marine processes effects on karst voids, since they are closely related to the Late Holocene sea level rise


THERMOMINERAL WATERS OF INNER DINARIDES KARST, 2012, Milenić, D. , KruniĆ, O. , MilankoviĆ, D.

The Dinarides are the largest continuous karst region in Europe. With regard to a geotectonic view, they are divided into the Outer, Central and Inner Dinarides occupying the territories of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Numerous occurrences of thermomineral water have been recorded in the Inner Dinarides area. The majority of them are genetically related to carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age. This paper deals with occurrences of thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, basic genetic types, the age of karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides, the available quantities of hydrogeothermalmineral energy, balneological potential and the possibility of rational multi-purpose utilisation. Hydrochemical and isotope methods have been used for the analysis of basic genetic types and age of karst thermomineral waters, while a geothermometer method has been used for the calculation of primary temperatures in water-bearing horizons(geothermal reservoirs) themselves. The carried out research has pointed out that karst thermomineral waters formed in carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age are characterized by temperatures ranging from 15.5oC (Kneina Ilida) to 75oC (Bogatić), being most frequently of a HCO3-Ca, Mg type with neutral to poor alkaline reaction and mineralization below 1 g/l. Karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides are most frequently related to geothermal systems formed in carbonate sediments covered by rocks of poor water permeability. In case of some thermomineral water occurrences, the mixing of the karst thermomineral waters with those formed in sedimentary basins occurs due to their hydraulic relation, thus it is not possible to determine only one geothermal system in which they are formed. The overall geothermal potential of the thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst is about 160 MW. In addition to the geothermal aspect, these waters have been widely utilised in balneology, wellness programmes, as well as for the needs of bottling. The level of research activity and with that the way of the utilisation of these waters are various. With regard to the number of occurrences known so far and their potential, it can be claimed with certainty, that the utilisation of thermomineral water occurring in the karst of the Inner Dinarides will increase significantly in future. An example of the multi-purpose utilisation of the Pribojska Banja Spa thermomineral waters illustrates a possible way of doing it.


Water supply spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012, Biondić, R. , Biondić, B. , Measki H.

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska Zrnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.


Thermomineral waters of inner Dinarides Karst, 2012, Milenić, Dejan, Krunić, Olivera, Milanković, Djuro

The Dinarides are the largest continuous karst region in Europe. With regard to a geotectonic view, they are divided into the Outer, Central and Inner Dinarides occupying the territories of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Numerous occurrences of thermomineral water have been recorded in the Inner Dinarides area. The majority of them are genetically related to carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age. This paper deals with occurrences of thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, basic genetic types, the age of karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides, the available quantities of hydrogeothermalmineral energy, balneological potential and the possibility of rational multi-purpose utilisation. Hydrochemical and isotope methods have been used for the analysis of basic genetic types and age of karst thermomineral waters, while a geothermometer method has been used for the calculation of primary temperatures in water-bearing horizons(geothermal reservoirs) themselves. The carried out research has pointed out that karst thermomineral waters formed in carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age are characterized by temperatures ranging from 15.5oC (Kneina Ilida) to 75oC (Bogatić), being most frequently of a HCO3-Ca, Mg type with neutral to poor alkaline reaction and mineralization below 1 g/l. Karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides are most frequently related to geothermal systems formed in carbonate sediments covered by rocks of poor water permeability. In case of some thermomineral water occurrences, the mixing of the karst thermomineral waters with those formed in sedimentary basins occurs due to their hydraulic relation, thus it is not possible to determine only one geothermal system in which they are formed. The overall geothermal potential of the thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst is about 160 MW. In addition to the geothermal aspect, these waters  have been widely utilised in balneology, wellness programmes, as well as for the needs of bottling. The level of research activity and with that the way of the utilisation of these waters are various. With regard to the number of occurrences known so far and their potential, it can be claimed with certainty, that the utilisation of thermomineral water occurring in the karst of the Inner Dinarides will increase significantly in future. An example of the multi-purpose utilisation of the Pribojska Banja Spa thermomineral waters illustrates a possible way of doing it.


Water supply spring zone Novljanska rnovnica (Croatia) new quantities of drinking water in the conditions of salt water intrusion, 2012, Biondić, Ranko, Biondić, Boidar, Meaki Hrvoje

This paper presents an approach for solving the problem of exploitation of freshwater in the coastal karst aquifer during summer dry periods in the conditions of potential salt water intrusion. The approach is presented on the example of spring zone Novljanska rnovnica, situated in the northern part of Croatian Adriatic coastal region. The spring zone is used for water supply (about 250 l/s) of an important tourist area of Crikvenica and Novi Vinodolski. After unsuccessful attempts of physical separation of freshwater system from the sea influence, by construction of grout curtain, hydrogeological studies have focused on the possibility of groundwater capturing in the hinterland of discharge zone, outside of the zone of periodical salinity. The final research results with the exploitation well in the spring hinterland can serve as a model for research and exploitation of drinking water in natural conditions of unstable freshwater-saltwater interface in similar natural conditions.

 

Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci O. , Zeljkovic I. , Galic A.

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


Karst rivers particularity: an example from Dinaric karst (Croatia/Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2013, Bonacci Ognjen, Ž, Eljković, Ivana, Galić, Amira

The very complex system of sinking, losing and underground transboundary Karst rivers, lakes and aquifers in the central part of the deep and bare Dinaric karst in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is analysed. The groundwater and surface water are hydraulically connected through numerous karst forms which facilitate the exchange of water between the surface and subsurface. A complex underground conduit system is an inherent characteristic karst system analysed. Groundwater and surface water exchange with both adjacent and distant aquifers through underground routes or inflows from surface streams and artificial reservoirs. Because of a complex surface and underground karst features, which strongly influenced its hydrological and hydrogeological regime, the main open stream flow, with a longitude of about 106 km, undergoes eight name changes. In this paper, it is noted as ‘‘the eight-name river’’. In fact, it represents one river with losing, sinking and underground stream sections. Different surface and underground karst forms play crucial roles in the way the water flowing over the surface and on the underground sections of its catchment. The analysed area is full of varied and often spectacular surface landforms, including for example the Blue and Red Lakes and the Kravice Waterfall. The analyses made in the paper show the existence of a decreasing trend of mean annual discharges on the eight-name river, which can cause numerous problems in the regional water resource management of this transboundary river and catchment.


New Zospeum species (Gastropoda, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae) from 980 m depth in the Lukina Jama Trojama cave system (Velebit Mts., Croatia), 2013, Alexander M. Weigand

A new species of the eutroglobiont gastropod taxon Zospeum Bourguignat, 1856 is described.Zospeum tholussum sp. n. is characterized based on a population from the Lukina Jama–Trojama cave system (Velebit Mts., Croatia). A single living specimen occurred at 980 m depth. The species is morphologically related to Zospeum amoenum (Frauenfeld, 1856), but can be readily distinguished from the latter by the presence of a weak columellar fold and its dome-like structured 2nd whorl. DNA barcoding is capable to clearly delineate Zospeum tholussum from other Zospeum spp. as well.


Analysis of "standard" (Lipica) lemestone tablets and their weathering by carbonate staining and SEM imaging, a case study on the Vis island, Croatia, 2013, Krklec Kristina, Marjanac Tihomir, Perica Dražen

This paper focuses on the evolution and patterns of microscale weathering forms and dissolution rates of “standard” (Lipica) limestone tablets. Analysis of carbonate weathering using combination of methods (quantitative analysis by the weight loss of "standard" tablets, and qualitative analysis of the weathered surfaces by stained acetate peels and SEM imaging) showed that dissolution takes place not only at the surface of limestone tablets, but also along voids and cavities in limestone tablets which makes total weathering surface larger than the area of the tablet surface. Dissolution is more pronounced on the micritic calcite surfaces (due to different dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals), resulting in lowering of the surface (calcite matrix) which causes gradual unburial and removal of authigenic dolomite grains.


LIFE AND WATER ON KARST. Monitoring of transboundary water resources of Northern Istria, 2015,

The monograph presents the natural features of Northern Istria, the karst and karst phenomena, karst hydrogeology, ecology and microbiology, and highlights in particular the vulnerability of the karst to various human activities. The main focus of attention is on karst water sources. In assessing their characteristics we used available knowledge of karst water on both sides of the border and supplemented it with new research on the transboundary area in question, which was based on field measurements and sampling, and chemical, microbiological and biological analysis of water. The collected findings form the basis for planning more effective monitoring of the quality of karst water sources, their protection and consequently the improvement of their quality.
 


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