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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That recovery method is a pumping test analysis method in which both drawdown and recovery of head after cessation of pumping are observed and plotted for the same observation well [16].?

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Your search for populations (Keyword) returned 110 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 106 to 110 of 110
Molecular divergence and evolutionary relationships among Aemodogryllinae from Southern China, Laos and Thailand (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae), 2013, Valerio Ketmaier, Claudio Di Russo, Mauro Rampini, Nadine Bernhardt, Ralph Tiedemann, Marina Cobolli

In this study we screened for sequence polymorphisms at one mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) gene 33 populations of the cave cricket generaDiestrammena, ParadiestrammenaEutachycines and Paratachycines from Southern China (three Provinces: Jiangxi, Guangdong and Guizhou), Laos and Thailand. Twenty-five of these populations were assigned to the genusDiestrammena, subgenus Gymnaeta, while the remaining eight belonged to the genera Paradiestrammena (3), Eutachycines (3) and Paratachycines(2). The degree of troglomorphosis varies among them; some populations are blind and depigmented, some have fully developed eyes, while some others show intermediate characteristics. Phylogenetic searches carried out on the two gene partitions separately revealed multiple cases of incongruence but only three of them were statistically significant and were hence removed from the subsequent analyses based on the combined data set. Our data do not support Diestrammena as monophyletic while representatives of ParadiestrammenaEutachycines and Paratachycineswere clustered together; the validity of some nominal species was confirmed molecularly but we also revealed a large number of deeply divergent lineages. Populations with the same degree of troglomorphosis do not cluster together. We identified five major clades; divergence among them (and in a few circumstances also within them) is always higher than the DNA barcode threshold for intraspecific comparisons in insects. In two circumstances, the same clades (III and V) are co-distributed in geographically distinct areas (Provinces). This geographical distribution might be explained by envisioning an evolutionary scenario based on zones of secondary admixture following epigean dispersal among lineages that diverged in allopatry.


New species and new records of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) from caves in the Salem Plateau of Illinois, USA, 2013, Sotoadames F. N. , Taylor S. J.

The springtail (Hexapoda: Collembola) fauna of eight caves (Wizard Cave, Pautler Cave, Spider Cave, Wanda’s Waterfall Cave, Illinois Caverns, Stemler Cave, Hidden Hand Cave, and Bat Sump Cave) in the Salem Plateau of southwestern Illinois (Monroe and St. Clair counties) was surveyed in 2009 using a combination of methods, including pitfall traps, Berlese-funnel processing of litter, and hand collections by quadrat, on drip pools, free standing bait, and random locations. In total, forty-nine species of springtails were found. Four are described as new to science (Onychiurus pipistrellae n. sp., Pygmarrhopalites fransjanssens n. sp, P. incantator n. sp, and P. salemensis n. sp), four may represent new species but there is insufficient material available to prepare full descriptions (two species in the genus Superodontella, one in Pseudachorutes, one in Sminthurides), and three others (Ceratophysella cf. brevis, C. cf. lucifuga, and Folsomia cf. bisetosa) are identified to species, but differences from the nominal species suggest further studies may indicate the Illinois populations represent distinct forms. In addition, five other species represent new records for Illinois, and eighteen are new cave records for the species in North America. The new records more than double the number of springtails species known from caves in the Salem Plateau region. More than half (twenty-nine) of the species reported are ranked as rare (S1–S2) at the state level. The total number of springtail species in Salem Plateau caves could be more than twice what is recorded in the present study, and more new species and state records should be found when caves in other Illinois karst regions are more thoroughly examined.


Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review., 2014, Falasco Elisa, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona.

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems). Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm), this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally) a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and cosmopolitan. These are, in order of frequency: Hantzschia amphioxys, Diadesmis contenta, Orthoseira roeseana, Luticola nivalis, Pinnularia borealis, Diadesmis biceps and Luticola mutica. Due to the peculiarity of the subterranean habitats, the record of rare or new species is relatively common. The most important environmental factors driving species composition and morphological modifications observed in subterranean populations are analysed throughout the text and tables. In addition, suggestions to prevent and remove the corrosive biofilms in view of an environmentally sustainable cave management are discussed.


Niche differentiation in Meta bourneti and M. menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) with notes on the life history, 2014, Mammola Stefano, Isaia Marco

Meta menardi and M. bourneti are two species of spiders inhabiting caves and other subterranean habitats. The occurrence of both species within the same cave has never been proved convincingly and several authors hypothesized a complete niche differentiation mainly based on microclimatic conditions.In order to study the apparent niche differentiation of the two species, we studied several populations of M. menardi and M. bourneti occurring in six caves in the Western Italian Alps (NW Italy). A series of squared plots were monitored monthly from March 2012 to February 2013. At each survey, we counted individuals and we collected the main environmental variables at each plot, namely distance from cave entrance, structural typology (wall, floor or ceiling), light intensity, wind speed and counts of potential prey. Moreover, temperature and relative humidity were continuously logged in each cave. We run several statistical models (GLMMs) in order to relate the counts of individuals to the environmental parameters. The distance from the cave entrance, structural typology and prey availability resulted most important factors driving the abundance of both species within the cave. On the other hand, despite life cycles appeared very similar, the two species seems to exhibit different tolerance to the microclimatic variations within the cave, which emerged as the main factors determining the differentiation of their niche. At least in our study area, M. bourneti tolerates broad microclimatic fluctuations and is potentially able to colonize a wide variety of caves. On the other hand, when the climatic conditions in a cave are suitable for M. menardi (narrow ranges of relatively low temperature and high humidity), M. bourneti is excluded.


Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites, 2015, Guadalupe Monge, Francisco J. Jimenezespejo, Antonio Garcíaalix, Francisca Martínezruiz, Nadine Mattielli, Clive Finlayson, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Miguel Cortés Sánchez, Jose María Bermúdez De Castro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, José Carrión, Joaquí

Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.


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