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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That Meinzer unit is a measure of hydraulic conductivity as gpd/ft2 under a unit hydraulic gradient [16].?

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Search in KarstBase

Your search for energy (Keyword) returned 134 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 121 to 134 of 134
Biospeleogenesis, 2013, Barton, H. A.

Microorganisms have shaped the world around us, yet their role in karst processes and speleogenesis remains poorly understood. Biospeleogenesis is the formation of subsurface cavities and caves through the activities of microorganisms, by either respiratory (redox) or metabolic chemistries. In carrying out energy acquisition and the metabolic processes of growth, microorganisms change the local geochemistry of the environment. Such activities can dramatically accelerate speleogenesis and even lead to cave formation in geochemical environments that would otherwise not be conducive to dissolution. The aim of this chapter is to help the reader understand the importance of microbial activity in geochemistry and how such activity can lead to the formation and morphology of caves. The chapter then describes the role that microorganisms are known to have in speleogenesis (carbonic and sulfuric acid biospeleogenesis), hints that such activity may be occurring in newly described cave systems (iron biospeleogenesis), and a potential role in other cave systems (quartzite biospeleogenesis). It is hoped that the reader will gain an understanding of what motivates microorganisms to dramatically change their environment, understand the potential geochemical conditions where such activity could occur, and allow the informed geologist to make predictive statements as to the potential of, and for, biospeleogenesis 


Characterization and conceptualization of a relict karst aquifer (Bilecik, Turkey), 2013, Aydin H. , Ekmekci M. , Soylu M. E.

The carbonate rocks in Turkey have different hydrogeological properties as a result of controlling karstification factors, such as lithostratigraphy, source of energy gradient, tectonic activity, type of erosion base, fluctuation in sea level, and climate change in their extended areas. This study was undertaken for the characterization and conceptualization of the hydrogeological behavior of a unique example of the dissected relict karst aquifer, which is known as the Harmanköy-Beyyayla Karst System (HBKS) in Central Turkey. In order to obtain the conceptualization of the HBKS, properties of recharge, flow, storage, and discharge was analyzed. The contribution of allogenic-point recharge to the Beyyayla and Döşkaya aquifers occurs from the Beyyayla and Tozman sinkhole with approximately 85% of total recharge. The rest of the recharge takes place as autogenic-diffuse/point type from the limestone rock-mass. The recharge on the Nardın aquifer originates from direct precipitation onto the limestone area mainly as autogenic-diffuse and, to lesser extent, as autogenic-point. Groundwater flow occurs as conduit flow at the Beyyayla and Döşkaya aquifers and as dispersed flow at the Nardın aquifer. The evaluation of all parameters shows that the HBKS can be divided into three distinct sub-catchments, namely, the Beyyayla, Döşkaya, and Nardın, while it has two different hydrogeological system so Beyyayla and Döşkaya have similar characteristics.


Deep 3D thermal modelling for the city of Berlin (Germany), 2013, Sippel Judith, Fuchs Sven, Cacace Mauro, Braatz Anna, Kastner Oliver, Huenges Ernst, Scheckwenderoth Magdalena

This study predicts the subsurface temperature distribution of Germany’s capital Berlin. For this purpose, a data-based lithosphere-scale 3D structural model is developed incorporating 21 individual geological units. This model shows a horizontal grid resolution of (500 9 500) m and provides the geometric base for two different approaches of 3D thermal simulations: (1) calculations of the steadystate purely conductive thermal field and (2) simulations of coupled fluid flow and heat transport. The results point out fundamentally different structural and thermal configurations for potential geothermal target units. The top of the Triassic Middle Buntsandstein strongly varies in depth (159–2,470 m below sea level) and predicted temperatures (15–95 _C), mostly because of the complex geometry of the underlying Permian Zechstein salt. The top of the sub-salt Sedimentary Rotliegend is rather flat (2,890–3,785 m below sea level) and reveals temperatures of 85–139 _C. The predicted 70 _C-isotherm is located at depths of about 1,500–2,200 m, cutting the Middle Buntsandstein over large parts of Berlin. The 110 _C-isotherm at 2,900–3,700 m depth widely crosscuts the Sedimentary Rotliegend. Groundwater flow results in subsurface cooling the extent of which is strongly controlled by the geometry and the distribution of the Tertiary Rupelian Clay. The cooling effect is strongest where this clay-rich aquitard is thinnest or missing, thus facilitating deep-reaching forced convective flow. The differences between the purely conductive and coupled models highlight the need for investigations of the complex interrelation of flow- and thermal fields to properly predict temperatures in sedimentary systems.


Deep 3D thermal modelling for the city of Berlin (Germany), 2013, Sippel Judith, Fuchs Sven, Cacace Mauro, Braatz Anna, Kastner Oliver, Huenges Ernst, Scheckwenderoth Magdalena

This study predicts the subsurface temperature distribution of Germany’s capital Berlin. For this purpose, a data-based lithosphere-scale 3D structural model is developed incorporating 21 individual geological units. This model shows a horizontal grid resolution of (500 9 500) m and provides the geometric base for two different approaches of 3D thermal simulations: (1) calculations of the steady state purely conductive thermal field and (2) simulations of coupled fluid flow and heat transport. The results point out fundamentally different structural and thermal configurations for potential geothermal target units. The top of the Triassic Middle Buntsandstein strongly varies in depth (159–2,470 m below sea level) and predicted temperatures (15–95 _C), mostly because of the complex geometry of the underlying Permian Zechstein salt. The top of the sub-salt Sedimentary Rotliegend is rather flat (2,890–3,785 m below sea level) and reveals temperatures of 85–139 _C. The predicted 70 _C-isotherm is located at depths of about 1,500–2,200 m, cutting the Middle Buntsandstein over large parts of Berlin. The 110 _C-isotherm at 2,900–3,700 m depth widely crosscuts the Sedimentary Rotliegend. Groundwater flow results in subsurface cooling the extent of which is strongly controlled by the geometry and the distribution of the Tertiary Rupelian Clay. The cooling effect is strongest where this clay-rich aquitard is thinnest or missing, thus facilitating deep-reaching forced convective flow. The differences between the purely conductive and coupled models highlight the need for investigations of the complex interrelation of flow- and thermal fields to properly predict temperatures in sedimentary systems.


Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst: Proceedings of the thirteenth multidisciplinary Conference, 2013,
Welcome to the Thirteenth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst in sunny Carlsbad, New Mexico. This will be the farthest west the Sinkhole Conference, as it is informally known, has met since its inception in 1984. The setting will provide conference participants with a unique opportunity to view karst phenomena such as gypsum cenotes that are uncommon outside the southwestern United States, and world-class caves and karst features that occur (for better or worse) within and adjacent to giant oil fields of the Permian Basin region.
In 2011 the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI) assumed responsibility for hosting the Sinkhole Conference series. NCKRI, a non-profit organization dedicated to pure and applied research on caves, karst phenomena, and karst hydrology is well-positioned to assume a leadership role in organizing and hosting the conference. Several of the staff of NCKRI have a long history of participation in past Sinkhole Conferences, and we look forward to supporting and hosting future meetings in other areas of the United States and abroad. The fourteenth conference will be held in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2015, and discussion has begun on the possibility of an international setting for a future conference.
We wish to dedicate this year’s proceedings volume to the memory of Barry Beck, who died in 2011. Barry initiated the Sinkhole Conference series in 1984 and was instrumental in maintaining the series of meetings over the years through several sponsors. Although his energy and enthusiasm will be greatly missed by future conference organizers, we are honored to carry Barry’s legacy into the future.

Organic matter flux in the epikarst of the Dorvan karst, France, 2013, Simon, Kevin S.

Availability of organic matter plays an important role in karst ecosystems. Somewhat surprisingly, study of the composition and distribution of organic matter in karst aquifers is rare. The most comprehensive study or organic matter flux to date is a two year continuous monitoring of detritus and animal flux in epikarst drip waters and an epikarst-fed cave stream in the Dorvan karst, France. Analysis of those data reveals high temporal variation in detritus and animal flux in both habitats, but little evidence of seasonality in flux. water flux explained 30-69% of the variation in animal flux in both habitats and detritus flux in the epikarst seepage water. Detritus flux in the cave stream was better explained by peak monthly discharge. Lack of coherence between organic matter flux in epikarst seepage and the epikarst stream suggests organic matter transport is governed by differing factors in the two habitats. Overall, much of the particulate organic matter flux in the epikarst occurs as living animals suggesting a dominant role of ecological processes in organic matter transport.


Environmental controls on organic matter production and transport across surface-subsurface and geochemical boundaries in the Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA, 2013, Hutchins Benjamin T. , Schwartz Benjamin F. , Engel Annette S.

Karst aquifer phreatic zones are energy limited habitats supported by organic matter (OM) flow across physical and geochemical boundaries. Photosynthetic OM enters the Edwards Aquifer of Central Texas via streams sinking along its northeastern border. The southeastern boundary is marked by a rapid transition between oxygenated freshwaters and anoxic saline waters where OM is likely produced by chemolithoautotrophic microbes. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in OM composition at these boundaries was investigated using isotopic and geochemical analyses. δ13C values for stream fine particulate OM (FPOM) (−33.34‰ to −11.47‰) decreased during regional drought between fall 2010 and spring 2012 (p<0.001), and were positively related to FPOM C:N ratios (r2 =0.47, p<0.001), possibly due to an increasing contribution of periphyton. Along the freshwater-saline water interface (FwSwI), δ 13CFPOM values (−7.23‰ to −58.18‰) correlated to δ13C values for dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C DIC) (−0.55‰ to −7.91‰) (r2 =0.33, p=0.005) and were depleted relative to δ13C DIC values by 28.44‰, similar to fractionation values attributed to chemolithoautotrophic carbon fixation pathways using DIC as the substrate. δ13CFPOM values also became enriched through time (p<0.001), and δ13C DIC values (r2 =0.43, p<0.001) and δ13CFPOM values (r2 =0.35, p=0.004) at FwSwI sites increased with distance along the southwest-northeast flowpath of the aquifer. Spatial variability in FwSwI δ13C DIC values is likely due to variable sources of acidity driving carbonate dissolution, and the temporal relationship is explained by changes to recharge and aquifer level that affected transport of chemolithoautotrophic OM across the FwSwI.


Insights into Cave Architecture and the Role of Bacterial Biofilm, 2013,

Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside conditions. They lend living proof of the presence of minute life forms that delve deep within the earth’s crust where the possibility of life seems impossible. Devoid of all light sources and lacking the most common source of energy supplied through photosynthesis, the mysterious microbial kingdom in caves are consequently dependent upon alternative sources of energy derived from the surrounding atmosphere, minerals and rocks. There are a number of features that can be observed within a cave that may serve as evidence of microbial activity, for example, formation of biofilms comprised of multiple layers of microbial communities held together by protective gel-like polymers which form complex structures. Different bacterial biofilms can develop on the walls of the cave which can be visually distinguished by their colorations. Moreover, the pH generated by the metabolism of bacterial biofilm on the cave environment can lead to precipitation or dissolution of minerals in caves. Caves also offer an excellent scenario for studying biomineralization processes. The findings on the association of bacteria with secondary minerals as mentioned in this review will help to expand the existing knowledge in geomicrobiology and specifically on the influence of microorganisms in the formation of cave deposits. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of biospeleology of caves and the associated bacterial biofilms. Recommendations for future research are mentioned to encourage a drift from qualitative studies to more experimental studies.


Biospeleogenesis, 2013,

Microorganisms have shaped the world around us, yet their role in karst processes and speleogenesis remains poorly understood. Biospeleogenesis is the formation of subsurface cavities and caves through the activities of microorganisms, by either respiratory (redox) or metabolic chemistries. In carrying out energy acquisition and the metabolic processes of growth, microorganisms change the local geochemistry of the environment. Such activities can dramatically accelerate speleogenesis and even lead to cave formation in geochemical environments that would otherwise not be conducive to dissolution. The aim of this chapter is to help the reader understand the importance of microbial activity in geochemistry and how such activity can lead to the formation and morphology of caves. The chapter then describes the role that microorganisms are known to have in speleogenesis (carbonic and sulfuric acid biospeleogenesis), hints that such activity may be occurring in newly described cave systems (iron biospeleogenesis), and a potential role in other cave systems (quartzite biospeleogenesis). It is hoped that the reader will gain an understanding of what motivates microorganisms to dramatically change their environment, understand the potential geochemical conditions where such activity could occur, and allow the informed geologist to make predictive statements as to the potential of, and for, biospeleogenesis


EARTH TIDE, A POTENTIAL DRIVER FOR HYPOGENIC FLUID FLOW: OBSERVATIONS FROM A SUBMARINE CAVE IN SW TURKEY, 2014, Bayari C. S. , Ozyurt N. N.

Initiation and development of karstification requires a con­tinuous flushing of pore water in equilibrium with carbon­ate minerals. Under confined flow conditions, the energy required for pore water transport is supplied by external pressure sources in addition to the by earth’s gravity. Earth tides and water loads over the confined flow system are the main sources of ex­ternal pressure that drives the pore water. Earth tides, created by the sum of the horizontal components of tide generation forces of moon and sun, causes expansion and contraction of the crust in horizontal direction. Water load on top of the confined flow system causes vertical loading/unloading and may be in the form of recharge load or ocean loading in the inland and sub-oceanic settings, respectively. Increasing and decreasing tide generating force results in pore water transport in the confined system by means of contraction and expansion, respectively. Since these forces operate in perpendicular directions, pore water flushing by earth tides becomes less effective when water load on top of the confined flow system increases. Temporal variation of fresh­water content in a submarine cave is presented as an example of groundwater discharge driven by earth tides and recharge load.


The process of ghost-rock karstification and its role in the formation of caves, 2014, Dubois C. , Quinif Y. , Baele J. M. , Barriquand L. , Bini A. , Bruxelles L. , Dandurand G. , Havron C. , Kaufmann O. , Lans B. , Maire R. , Martin J. , Rodet J. , Rowberry M. D. , Tognini P. , Vergari A. ,

This paper presents an extensive review of the process of ghost-rock karstification and highlights its role in the formation of cave systems. The process integrates chemical weathering and mechanical erosion and extends a number of existing theories pertaining to continental landscape development. It is a two stage process that differs in many respects from the traditional single-stage process of karstification by total removal. The first stage is characterised by chemical dissolution and removal of the soluble species. It requires low hydrodynamic energy and creates a ghost-rock feature filled with residual alterite. The second stage is characterised by mechanical erosion of the undissolved particles. It requires high hydrodynamic energy and it is only then that open galleries are created. The transition from the first stage to the second is driven by the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The process is illustrated by detailed field observations and the results of the laboratory analyses of samples taken from the karstotype area around Soignies in southern Belgium. Thereafter, a series of case studies provide a synthesis of field observations and laboratory analyses from across western Europe. These studies come from geologically distinct parts of Belgium, France, Italy, and United Kingdom. The process of ghost-rock karstification challenges a number of axioms associated the process of karstification by total removal. On the basis of the evidence presented it is argued that it is no longer acceptable to use karst morphologies as a basis with which to infer specific karstogenetic processes and it is no longer necessary for a karst system to relate to base level as ghost-rock karstification proceeds along transmissive pathways in the rock. There is also some evidence to suggest that ghost-rock karstification may be superseded by karstification by total removal, and vice versa, according to the amount of energy within the thermodynamic system. The proposed chemical weathering and subsequent mechanical erosion of limestone suggests that the development of karst terrain is related far more closely to the geomorphological development of aluminosilicate and siliceous terrains than is generally supposed. It is now necessary to reconsider the origin of many karst systems in light of the outlined process of ghost-rock karstification.


The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy), 2014, Catalano M. , Bloise A. , Miriello D. , Apollaro C. , Critelli T. , Muto F. , Cazzanelli E. , Barrese E.

In the present work, thirteen samples collected from the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo near the town of Cassano allo Jonio (Calabria region, southern Italy) were analyzed for their mineralogy. The Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo is made up of subhorizontal, interlinked galleries between 400 and 450 meters above sea level. The floor is littered with deposits such as bat-guano, gypsum, and many speleothems that also cover the walls. The samples were identified and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer, microthermometry, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The ten primary minerals identified in this study belong to six different groups: carbonate, sulfate, apatite, oxide and hydroxide, halide, and silicate. Clay minerals and eight other detrital minerals were also found: enstatite, rutile, magnesite, pyrite, chrysotile, quartz, dolomite, and chlorite. Characterization of cave minerals could be useful to improve the knowledge of the relation between them and the lithology of the host rocks


Evaluation of the US DOE’s conceptual model of hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 2014, Dublyansky, Y. V.

A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 _C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 _C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.


Transferring the concept of minimum energy dissipation from river networks to subsurface flow patterns, 2014, Hergarte Stefan, Winkler Gerfried, Birk Steffen

Principles of optimality provide an interesting alternative to modeling hydrological processes in detail on small scales and have received growing interest in the last years. Inspired by the more than 20 years old concept of minimum energy dissipation in river networks, we present a corresponding theory for subsurface flow in order to obtain a better understanding of preferential flow patterns in the subsurface. The concept describes flow patterns which are optimal in the sense of minimizing the total energy dissipation at a given recharge under the constraint of a given total porosity. Results are illustrated using two examples: two-dimensional flow towards a spring with a radial symmetric distribution of the porosity and dendritic flow patterns. The latter are found to be similar to river networks in their structure and, as a main result, the model predicts a power-law distribution of the spring discharges. In combination with two data sets from the Austrian Alps, this result is used for validating the model. Both data sets reveal power-law-distributed spring discharges with similar scaling exponents. These are, however, slightly larger than the exponent predicted by the model. As a further result, the distributions of the residence times strongly differ between homogeneous porous media and optimized flow patterns, while the mean residence times are similar in both cases.


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