Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms
Based on "A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special to Environmental Karst Hydrology" EPA/600/R-02/003, 2002, EPA: Washington, DC., Speleogenesis Glossary includes 2699 cave & karst terms
1. Synonym for a sump, or a section of flooded cave passage, in common parlance. True siphons, where water flows first up and then down are rare in caves, as the fractures in limestone tend to disrupt the required hydraulics. They are, however, the origin of such intermittent springs as the Fontestorbes spring in France, and the Ebbing and Flowing Well at Giggleswick Yorkshire. Both flow in regular pulses when the siphon is full and working, only to cease when the siphon input is broken by air, as the upstream reservoir level drops. Their operation depends on critical flows and both operate only in favorable weather conditions . 2. Gallery in form of an inverted 'U' with water moving only under pressure when the siphon has completely filled up; the water head at the input end being higher than at the drainage point . 3. In speleology, a cave passage in which the ceiling dips below a water surface . Synonyms: (French.) siphon; (German.) Siphon; (Greek.) siphon; (Italian.) sifone; (Russian.) sifon; (Spanish.) sifon; (Turkish.) sifon; (Yugoslavian.) sifon, smrk. See also water trap.