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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That calanque is (french.) 1. cove or small bay.2. a valley excavated in limestone or formed by collapse of the roof of a cave and subsequently submerged by a rise in sea level [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for so2 (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
Microbiology and geochemistry in a hydrogen-sulphide-rich karst environment, 2000,
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Hose Louise D. , Palmer Arthur N. , Palmer Margaret V. , Northup Diana E. , Boston Penelope J. , Duchene Harvey R. ,
Cueva de Villa Luz, a hypogenic cave in Tabasco, Mexico, offers a remarkable opportunity to observe chemotrophic microbial interactions within a karst environment. The cave water and atmosphere are both rich in hydrogen sulphide. Measured H2S levels in the cave atmosphere reach 210 ppm, and SO2 commonly exceeds 35 ppm. These gases, plus oxygen from the cave air, are absorbed by freshwater that accumulates on cave walls from infiltration and condensation. Oxidation of sulphur and hydrogen sulphide forms concentrated sulphuric acid. Drip waters contain mean pH values of 1.4, with minimum values as low as 0.1.The cave is fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets with a combined flow of 200-300 l/s. Inlet waters fall into two categories: those with high H2S content (300-500 mg/l), mean PCO2=0.03-0.1 atm, and no measurable O2; and those with less than 0.1 mg/l H2S, mean PCO2=0.02 atm, and modest O2 content (up to 4.3 mg/l). Both water types have a similar source, as shown by their dissolved solid content. However, the oxygenated water has been exposed to aerated conditions upstream from the inlets so that original H2S has been largely lost due to outgassing and oxidation to sulphate, increasing the sulphate concentration by about 4%. Chemical modelling of the water shows that it can be produced by the dissolution of common sulphate, carbonate, and chloride minerals.Redox reactions in the cave appear to be microbially mediated. Sequence analysis of small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA genes of 19 bacterial clones from microbial colonies associated with water drips revealed that 18 were most similar to three Thiobacilli spp., a genus that often obtains its energy from the oxidation of sulphur compounds. The other clone was most similar to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, a moderately thermophilic, mineral-sulphide-oxidizing bacterium. Oxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphuric acid, and hence the cave enlargement, is probably enhanced by these bacteria.Two cave-enlarging processes were identified. (1) Sulphuric acid derived from oxidation of the hydrogen sulphide converts subaerial limestone surfaces to gypsum. The gypsum falls into the cave stream and is dissolved. (2) Strongly acidic droplets form on the gypsum and on microbial filaments, dissolving limestone where they drip onto the cave floors.The source of the H2S in the spring waters has not been positively identified. The Villahermosa petroleum basin within 50 km to the northwest, or the El Chichon volcano [small tilde]50 km to the west, may serve as source areas for the rising water. Depletion of 34S values (-11.7[per mille sign] for sulphur stabilized from H2S in the cave atmosphere), along with the hydrochemistry of the spring waters, favour a basinal source

The processes dominating Ca dissolution of limestone when exposed to ambient atmospheric conditions as determined by comparing dissolution models, 2002,
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Cardellfernandez C, Vleugels G, Torfs K, Van Grieken R,
In order to gain a clearer understanding of the decay mechanisms operating in limestones, and to determine the main damage factors at different exposure environments, calcite-dissolution models from the literature were compared. The models recognise three major stone decay mechanisms: attack by air pollutants (dry deposition), dissolution in clean rain (karst effect) and dissolution caused by neutralisation of rain acidity (acidity effect), These models were fitted to experimental data obtained from the run-off water analysis running over the so-called Massangis limestone, exposed under ambient conditions in five sites in Belgium. The models demonstrate that different processes dominate the limestone dissolution at the different sites, with dry deposition of air pollutants (especially SO2) being the principal process involved

Isotopic archives of sulphate in speleothems, 2008,
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Wynn Peter M. , Fairchild Ian J. , Baker Andy, Baldini James U. L, Mcdermott Frank

The hemispheric impact of industrial emissions upon atmospheric sulphur loading is reflected in the sulphur depositional history recorded in cores from ice sheets. However, these do not reveal regional variations. Recently deposited speleothems are used here as archives of regional sulphur depositional history at two locations within the United Kingdom and Ireland. d34S-SO4 and d18O-SO4 present within speleothem carbonate are measured for the first time as part of a dual isotope approach to decode the speleothem sulphur record. The largely refractory nature of d34S-SO4 under oxidising conditions enables source provenance of atmospheric SO2, whereas the complex cycles of isotopic exchange and fractionation during incorporation of oxygen into sulphate molecules enable d18O-SO4 signatures to yield insights into ambient environmental conditions and biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem above the cave. d34S-SO4 values extracted from speleothem carbonate formed within
Browns Folly Mine, UK, range from +3.5 to +5.5& and d18O-SO4 +10.3 to +13.7&. Both signatures lie within the range expected from sulphate deposition in industrial locations and reflect the transfer of sulphate into speleothem calcite with little fractionation. However, d18O-SO4 signatures at Crag Cave, western Ireland, are isotopically heavier than expected and approach isotopic equilibrium with d18O-H2O under reducing conditions. Dual isotope analysis of d34S-SO4 and d18O-SO4 optimises
the correct identification of sulphur sources and biogeochemical cycling prior to incorporation into the speleothem record. At carefully selected cave sites where drip water flowpaths into the cave remain oxic, speleothems hold the potential to retain records of atmospheric sulphur loading at the local and regional scale.

Geochemical and statistical evidence of recharge, mixing, and controls on spring discharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer, 2009,
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Moore Paul J. , Martin Jonathan B. , Screaton Elizabeth J.

Information about sources of recharge, distributions of flow paths, and the extent of water–rock reactions in karst aquifers commonly result from monitoring spring chemistry and discharge. To investigate the relationship between spring characteristics and the complexities of karst aquifers, we couple variations in surface- and groundwater chemistry to physical conditions including river stage, precipitation, and  evapotranspiration (ET) within a sink-rise system through a 6-km portion of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) in north-central Florida. Principal component analysis (PCA) of time series major-element compositions suggests that at least three sources of water affect spring discharge, including allogenic recharge into a swallet, diffuse recharge through a thin vadose zone, and water upwelling from deep within the aquifer. The deep-water source exerts the strongest influence on water chemistry by providing a majority of Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl, and SO2 4 to the system. Anomalously high temperature at one of several monitoring wells reflects vertical flow of about 1 m/year. Mass-balance calculations suggest diffuse recharge and deep-water upwelling can provide up to 50% of the spring discharge; however, their contributions depend on head gradients between the conduit and surrounding aquifer matrix, which are influenced
by variations in precipitation, ET, and river stage. Our results indicate that upwelling from deep flow paths may provide significant contributions of water to spring discharge, and that monitoring only springs limits interpretations of karst systems by masking critical components of the aquifer, such as water sources and flow paths. These results also suggest the matrix in eogenetic aquifers is a major pathway for flow even in a system dominated by conduits.

Regionalization Based on water Chemistry and Physicochemical Traits in the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico, 2012,
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Prezceballos R. , Pachecovila J. , Eunvila J. I. , Hernndezarana H.


Assessing water quality in aquifers has become increasingly important as water demand and pollution concerns rise. In the Yucatan Peninsula, sinkholes, locally known as cenotes, are karst formations that intercept the water table. Cenotes are distributed across the peninsula, but are particularly dense and aligned along a semicircular formation called the Ring of Cenotes. This area exhibits particular hydrogeological properties because it concentrates, channels, and discharges fresh water toward the coasts. In this study, we identify spatial and temporal variations in chemical and physical variables at twenty-two cenotes to identify groups that share similar characteristics. Water samples from each cenotes were taken at three depths (0.5, 5.5, and 10.5 m) and during three seasons (dry, rainy, and cold-fronts season). Field measurements of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and dissolved oxygen were taken, and the concentrations of major ions (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO{ 3 , SO2{ 4 , Cl2 and NO{ 3 ) were quantified. Identifying regions of the cenotes were done by applying multivariate statistical techniques (PCA, PERMANOVA, CAP). The chemical variables revealed spatial trends among the cenotes. We identified three main regions. Region 1 is associated with sea-water encroachment and high levels of sulfate that travel through preferential groundwater flowpaths from evaporites in the southern Yucatan Peninsula; Region 2 is a recharge zone, and Region 3 is characterized by sea water encroachment and by the high chemical and physical variability associated with groundwater flow from the east.

Isotopic and hydrochemical data as indicators of recharge areas, flow paths and waterrock interaction in the Caldas da RainhaQuinta das Janelas thermomineral carbonate rock aquif, 2013,
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Marques J. M. , Graa H. , Eggenkamp H. G. M. , Neves O. , Carreira P. M. , Matias M. J. , Mayer B. , Nunes D. , Trancoso V. N.

An updated conceptual circulation model for the Caldas da Rainha and Quinta das Janelas thermomineralwaters was developed. These thermomineral waters (T _ 33 _C) are related to a huge syncline ascribed tothe regional flow paths. Two diapiric structures were responsible for the uplift and subsequent folding ofregional Jurassic carbonate rocks. Environmental isotopic (d2H and d18O) data indicates that the mainrecharge area of the thermomineral system is linked to the Jurassic limestones (Candeeiros Mountains,E border of the syncline). The thermomineral waters belong to the Cl–Na sulphurous-type, with a totalmineralization of about 3000 mg/L. The thermomineral aquifer system seems to be ‘‘isolated’’ fromanthropogenic contamination, which is typical for the local shallow groundwater systems, due to theexistence of impermeable layers composed of a series of loamy and detritic rocks of the Upper Jurassic.The presence of 3H in some thermomineral borehole waters, not accompanied by an increase in SO2_4 andNO_3 , could be ascribed to different underground flow paths and different mean residence time. Thed34S(SO4) and d18O(SO4) values of dissolved sulphate of groundwaters of the Caldas da Rainha Spas indicatethat the sulphate is the result of water–rock interaction with evaporitic rocks (e.g. gypsum and anhydrite)ascribed to the regional synclinal structure.

Volcanism-induced karst landforms and speleogenesis, in the Ankarana Plateau (Madagascar). Hypothesis and preliminary research., 2014,
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The Ankarana is a limestone plateau in the northern part of Madagascar, where a cave system, more than 120 km long, has been explored. The plateau is bordered by volcanoes and is cut across by several canyons. An analysis of surface landforms and caves suggests that the karst genesis was probably initiated by volcanism beneath an impervious cover. Volcanic bulging and magma intrusions may have favored a basalt-limestone assimilation process and metamorphism. The ascent of deep volcanic fluids (CO2 and SO2) from magma degassing and from limestone metamorphism, may explain the speleogenesis. Once denuded, the karst evolved classically, but the selective erosion of metamorphosed rocks (more likely to be weathered than pure limestone), resulted in the creation of unusual landforms such as canyons and large circular basins.

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