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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vugular pore space is void space due to solution cavities of small size [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for symbols (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
The 1976 NSS Standard Map Symbols, 1979,
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Hedges James, Russell Bill, Thrun Bob, White William B.

Overview of the Human Use of Caves in Virginia: A 10,500 Year History, 1997,
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Barber, M. B. , Hubbard Jr. , D. A.
The human utilization of caves within the Commonwealth of Virginia began early in prehistoric times and has extended to the present. Such use often has focused on the exploitation of removable resources; knappable lithic materials for the production of stone tools is an important prehistoric example. During historic times, the mining of saltpetre dominates although other natural resources also were removed. The human interaction with caves, however, extends well beyond raw material extraction into the realm of ceremonialism and supernaturalism. Within a Virginia context, Native American use of caves includes both human interments and the codification of symbols. Cave burials have long been known and appear to include attitudes of elaborate ceremonialism as well as less intricate body disposal systems. The mud glyph cave phenomenon has been recorded in Virginia with incised designs and anthropomorphic figures apparently mediating between the sacred and the mundane. Such symbols have roles in rites of passage. Historic use usually is framed in a more functional light. While resource extraction is an obvious utilization realm, the historic use of caves for other purposes is prevalent and includes resort recreation, scientific study, aesthetics, and general exploration. Caves can be discussed in terms of modern symbols and ceremonialism

Symbols for the cave topographic mapping, 2000,
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Baksic D. , Zeljeznjak R. , Kuhta M.

UIS Cave Symbols: The definitive List, 2002,
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Hä, Uselmann Philipp

A set of cave symbols used for underground mapping has been voted by national delegates of 12 countries in 1999. This symbol set is shown and, when necessary, explained. The UIS subcommission on topography is briefly presented and its aims outlined.


High-accuracy graphic representation of underground karst features and formations during cave mapping, 2004,
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Szunyogh Gá, Bor

We attempt to develop a new method of cave mapping, which would be superior in terms of the amount and quality of the documented information, relative to the "standard" methods of cave survey. The method envisages that everything that can be seen in the cave which is being surveyed, e.g., corrosional features, cave formations, water bodies, fallen rock blocks, fractures in cave walls, artificial (engineering) structures, etc., must be represented on the map. The method employs the traditional system of map symbols; the accuracy of the produced map, however, approaches the accuracy of the engineering survey maps. The maps accurately render positions, shapes and dimensions of cave features: for example all stalagmites with diameters greater than ca. 10 cm, and all rock blocks with linear sizes exceeding 0.5 m are shown on the maps individually. In the report we will elaborate on the most important aspects of this mapping method, including stages of survey and mapping, system of drawing, map symbols.


The History of Postojnska Jama: The 1748 Joseph Anton Nagel inscriptions in Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, 2006,
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Kempe Stephan, Hubrich Hanspeter Suckstorff Klaus
Jama near Predjama and Postojnska Jama, Slovenia, are known for their rich body of historic inscriptions spanning over several centuries. Early explorers and visitors left names, dates and symbols. Here we present the inscriptions by the mathematician Josef Anton Nagel (1717-1794). Nagel and the painter and engineer Alois Schaffenrath (1794-1836) are the only ones that we can trace in both of the caves. Nagel visited the caves in July 1748 on order of Emperor Franz I. The inscription in Jama near Predjama is (for cave inscriptions) rather long and written in Latin, giving name, profession, cause and date of the visit, while the inscription in Postojnska Jama is rather short, giving only name and date of visit. Unfortunately the inscription in Jama near Predjama is already partly obliterated by an incautious visitor.

NON-SPECIALISTS PERCEPTION ABOUT ENDOKARST AND EXOKARST SCENARIOS: VISIONS FROM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, 2007,
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Travasos L. E. P. , Travassos E. G. , Travassos L. P. , Travassos L. C. P.

The aim of this work is to recover some methodological aspects of the study about the mind representations of caves in Brazil. The basis of this research consisted of one essay, approaching the social representations of a particular group of high school students on the exokarst and the endokarst. The results showed that the meanings vary only slightly, however, the most inter­esting result was due to the fact that students, who had already visited caves in some period of their lives, still held “negative” concepts regarding this environment even before visual stimu­lations. About 640 words associated with the exokarst and the endokarst were mentioned, emphasizing: fear, dark, shadowy, skull, hidden places, fantastic and beauty, which helped iden­tifying relations between the cultural and psychological as­pects of the group, mainly general views about the obscure and mysterious aspects of this landscape and its prominence over natural beauties. Analyzed data showed that the development of new research on mind representations of caves is very impor­tant, mainly for environmental education programs promoting adequate concepts about caves and extending activities of edu­cational ecotourism in Brazilian caves.


The geomorphological map of the Castel de Britti area (Northern Apennines, Italy): an example of how teaching geomorphological mapping in a traditional and practical way, 2012,
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De Waele Jo, Anfossi Giulia, Campo Bruno, Cavalieri Francesco, Chiarini Veronica, Emanuelli Valeria, Grechi Umberto, Nanni Paolo, Savorelli Flavio

Teaching how to map the geomorphology of an area cannot be done in a satisfying manner in a lecture room only, but requires practical exercises both in the laboratory and in the field. A preliminary study of the existing geological maps, of the geomorphological legends and symbols used in Italy and of the landslide inventory has preceded a detailed four days long field mapping campaign carried out by students in the framework of their Msc. Course on “Geomorphological Mapping” at Bologna University. The Geomorphological Map in scale 1:5,000 produced by some of these students is presented in this paper.

The study area is located in the northern Apennines, a few kilometres East of Bologna, along the Idice Valley (N-Italy). Lithologies are mainly composed of clayey and marly sequences ranging in age from Cretaceous to Plio-Pleistocene, sands and sandstones of Pleistocene age, and Messinian gypsum, these last being the most resistant rocks.

Besides the greater scale used in this map, allowing for a more detailed representation of the mapped features, this map also shows the recent evolution of the landslides in this actively mass wasting area.


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