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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That artesian well is a well deriving its water from a confined aquifer in which the water level stands above the ground surface [6]. synonym: flowing artesian well.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for wisconsin (Keyword) returned 32 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 32
On the Geology of the Western States of North America, 0000,
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Owen David Dale,
The remarks here submitted will be confined chiefly to that part of the Western States of North America watered by the rivers Ohio, Wabash, Illinois, Rock, Wisconsin, Cumberland and Tennessee, lying between the 35th and 43rd degree of N. latitude and the 81st and 91st of W. longitude. The district includes the states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Du Buque and Mineral Point districts of Iowa and Wisconsin. This territory occupies an area of about half a million of square miles, but its geological features are remarkably uniform, belonging, with a few partial exceptions, to the periods of the bituminous coal and carboniferous limestone as found in Europe, and the Silurian rocks as described by Sir R. Murchison; the exceptions are the superficial deposits which occasionally cover up these from view over considerable tracts, and these must either be referred to the age of gigantic mammalia and formations of a much newer date, or belong to a marl and greensand found in the western district of Tennessee, probably a portion of the greensand and other members of the cretaceous group. A general idea of the geological formations of the whole tract may be obtained from the annexed diagram. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Paleotemperatures and Chronology at Archeological Cave Site Revealed by Thermoluminescence, 1965,
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Dort W, Zeller Ej, Turner Md, Vaz Je,
Contrasting values of remnant thermoluminescence of limestone samples from Jaguar Cave, eastcentral Idaho, reveal temperature differences attributable to position within the cave microenvironment. Absence of recorded temperature change during cave-filling by rock and human debris indicates brevity of human occupation, which was near the end of Wisconsin (Pinedale) time

Stalactites and Helictites of Marcasite, Galena, and Sphalerite in Illinois and Wisconsin, 1979,
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Peck, Stewart B

Carbonate erosion rates in southwestern Wisconsin, 1984,
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Day M. J.

Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin, 1990,
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Johnson Scot B. , Stieglitz Ronald D. ,
A geologic investigation of the northern part of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin for a state funded water quality project revealed that karstification of the Silurian aquifer is more extensive than previously believed. Sinkholes and small insurgent features, solution modified crevices, pavements, caves and springs were inventories and mapped. These features are generally smaller and less densely developed than those in most limestone terranes; however, they are important to the geomorphology and water quality of the peninsula.Continental glaciation has strongly influenced both the distribution and the present surface morphology of the karst features. Ice scour has formed a stepped bedrock topography, contributed to pavement formation and may have removed some preglacial features. Deposition has plugged and masked features in places. In addition, subglacial water circulation, and ice loading and unloading may have influenced karst development

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Hawk K. , Stieglitz R. D. , Norman J. C. ,
A statewide survey by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services with U.S.E.P.A. assistance reported an anomalously high percentage of homes in Door County with radon concentrations in excess of 20 pCi/L. The results were of interest because the county is underlain by marine sedimentary rocks rather than the igneous and metamorphic crystalline types usually associated with elevated radon concentrations. A voluntary population of 55 homes was tested for radon using activated charcoal canisters. This population was also asked to provide questionnaire response data on family, home, and socioeconomic aspects. The data were separated into socioeconomic, energy efficiency, radon access, and karst level categories and statistically analyzed. A subpopulation was selected from the larger population for detailed site investigation, which included additional in-home air testing and, at some sites, water supply analysis and in-ground testing for radon. The field investigations collected information on the geology, soil, topography, and home construction and use. The results of the investigation verified and characterized the radon occurrences iu Door County. The presence or absence of karst features is shown to be statistically significant to radon levels

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Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

Karst Geomorphology and Hydrogeology of the Northeastern Mackenzie Mountains, District of Mackenzie, N.W.T., PhD Thesis, 1995,
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Hamilton, James P.

This thesis describes the geomorphology and hydrogeology of karst systems in portions of the northeastern Canyon Ranges of the Mackenzie Mountains and the Norman Range of the Franklin Mountains. N.W.T. In the region, mean annual temperatures are -6 to -8°C, total annual precipitation is 325 to 500 mm, and permafrost has a widespread to continuous distribution. The area was glaciated in the Late Wisconsinan by the Laurentide Ice Sheet.
The Canyon Ranges and Norman Range are composed of a sequence of faulted and folded miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks that span the Proterozoic to Eocene. The geology is reviewed with an emphasis on strata that display karst. Included are several dolomite and limestone formations, two of which are interbedded with evaporites in the subsurface. The principal groundwater aquifer is the Lower Devonian Bear Rock Formation. In subcrop, the Bear Rock Formation is dolomite and anhydrite, outcrops are massive calcareous solution breccias. This is the primary karst rock.
The regional distribution and range of karst landforms and drainage systems are described. Detailed mapping is presented from four field sites. These data were collected from aerial photography and ground surveys. The karst has examples of pavement, single and compound dolines, subsidence troughs, polje, sinking streams and lakes. and spring deposits. The main types of depressions are subsidence and collapse dolines. Doline density is highest on the Bear Rock Formation. Surficial karst is absent of less frequent in the zone of continuous permafrost or outside the glacial limit.
At the field sites, water samples were collected at recharge and discharge locations. Samples were analyzed for a full range of ionic constituents and many for natural isotopes. In addition, several springs were monitored continuously for discharge, temperature, and conductivity. Dye tracing established linkages between recharge and discharge at some sites. These data are summarized for each site, as is the role of permafrost in site hydrology.
The relationships between geological structure, topography, ,and groundwater systems are described. Conduit aquifers are present in both dolomite and limestone. These systems are characterized by discharge waters of low hardness and dissolved ion content. Aquifers in the Bear Rock Formation have a fixed flow regime and often have highly mineralized discharge. At the principal field site. there was a time lag of 40 to 60 days between infiltration and discharge in this unit. At a second site, flow through times were on the order of years. Variability in these systems is attributed to bedrock properties and boundary conditions.
Preliminary rates of denudation are calculated from the available hydrochemical data. Total solutional denudation at the primary field site is approximately 45 m³ kmˉ² aˉ¹ (mm kaˉ¹). The majority is attributed to the subsurface dissolution of halite and anhydrite. The predominance of subsurface dissolution is linked to the high frequency of collapse and subsidence dolines and depressions.
The karst features and drainage systems of the northern Mackenzie Mountains date to the Tertiary. Glaciation has had a stimulative effect on karst development through the subglacial degradation of permafrost and the altering of boundary conditions by canyon incision.

Late Wisconsinan deglaciation of Alberta: Processes and paleogeography, 1996,
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Mandryk C. A. S. ,
The scarcity of lake basins in Alberta dating earlier than 11,000 BP has been interpreted as indicating the continued presence of active glacial ice. Because of the related implication that the presence of ice precludes the existence of an ice-free corridor, it is useful to examine this issue more closely. Due to the effects of deglaciation, many areas of Alberta were dominated by chaotic ice-stagnation conditions, with continual reversal of topography and rapid transformation of the surface. The dynamic nature of the environment affects arguments regarding the existence of an ice-free corridor as well as having implications for archeological site formation, preservation and discovery. Deglaciation models utilizing paradigms of active ice retreat may result in dichotomous depictions of the land surface as either ice covered or deglaciated. Due to the insulating properties of supraglacial debris, stagnant ice results in a situation that is simultaneously neither and both of the above conditions. While the landscape is ice covered and thus not 'ice-free', an accessible landscape characterized by glacial karst topography exists on top of the stagnating ice surface. General reconstructions of the impact of stagnant ice and glacial karst topography on the paleogeography of Alberta are presented for discussion. Copyright (C) 1996 INQUA/Elsevier Science Ltd

Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada, 1997,
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Ford Dc,
Outcrops of sulfate arid mixed sulfate-carbonate rocks are common everywhere in Canada outside of the Shield province. Interstratal salt deposits are abundant in the interior lowlands. Types of karst that occur are determined chiefly by relations between (i) formation thickness and purity, (ii) regional topography and hydraulic gradient (iii) effects of receding Wisconsinan and earlier glaciers, and (iv) extent of modern permafrost. Exposures of bare karst on thick, pure sulfate formations are comparatively rare. Two principal landform types found on them are: (1) high-density polygonal karst (micro-sinkhole densities of thousands per km(2)); where hydraulic gradients are high and tills are thin; (2) hills and ridges of blocks uplifted and fractured by hydration (anhydrite) tectonics at paleo-icefront positions where hydraulic gradients are low. Deeply till-mantled karst dominated by collapse and suffosion sinkholes in the mantling detritus is well developed in southwestern Newfoundland and in central and northern Nova Scotia. Covered karst is abundant on sulfates conformably overlain by carbonate br elastic strata; collapse sinkholes ale the principal landform. Very large breccia pipes (up to 25 x 15 km) ale associated with deep subrosion of salt during glacier recessions. Syngenetic breccia karst is a fourth, distinct category created in some formations of thin, interbedded dolostones and sulfates. Where these are exposed td high hydraulic gradients, deep calcite-cemented breccias were formed in a first generation, upon which sinkhole and pinnacle karsts and dissolution drape topographies were able to develop rapidly in late-glacial and post-glacial conditions

A second Pre-Wisconsin locality for the extinct Jamaican rodent, Clidomys (Rodentia; Heptaxodontidae)., 1998,
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Mcfarlane, D. A. , Lundberg, J. , Flemming, C. Macphee, R, D. E. And Lauritzen, S. E

A Speleogenic Origin for Five-Column Rock, Wisconsin?, 1999,
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Day, M. , Jeff, K.
Five-Column Rock is among the most impressive of several notable fragile rock formations in southwestern Wisconsins unglaciated Driftless Area. Consisting of a basal sandstone plinth, a set of columns enclosing windows, and a tabular dolostone summit, the entire structure is over 6 m high. The Rock has not been previously studied in detail, and its origin has only generally been ascribed to weathering and eolian processes. Closer examination suggests that the feature originated as a phreatic cave developed in carbonate rocks transitional between the underlying Cambrian sandstone and the overlying Ordovician dolostones. The morphology of the feature, its stratigraphic context and its relationship to extant cave passage in the adjoining interfluvial ridge all point to a speleogenic origin, which may have broader significance for the development of similar features throughout the region.

Dating of Speleothems in Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, 1999,
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Ford, D. C. , Hill, C. A.
Uranium-series dates on calcite travertine samples collected from Kartchner Caverns range from ~200- 40 Ka. These dates span from the Illinoian glacial to the Wisconsin glacial, but the majority cluster within the wetter Sangamon interglacial. Petromorphic vein quartz (>35 Ka from alpha spectrometry and >1 Ma from 234U/238U ratios) dates from an earlier thermal episode associated with Basin and Range faulting. All that can be surmised about the time of cave dissolution from these dates is that it happened >200 Ka

Speleothem evidence for Holocene fluctuations of the prairie-forest ecotone, north-central USA, 1999,
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Denniston Rf, Gonzalez La, Baker Rg, Asmerom Y, Reagan Mk, Edwards Rl, Alexander Ec,
Carbon and oxygen isotopic trends from seven Midwestern speleothems record significant offsets in the timing of middle-Holocene vegetation change. Interactions of dry Pacific and moist Gulf of Mexico air masses maintained a sharp moisture gradient across Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin such that the arrival of prairie was offset by 2000 years between caves and pollen sites located only 50 km apart. Oxygen isotopes shift concomitantly with carbon in most cases, although these changes are believed to represent increased evaporative enrichment of 18O prior to infiltration during the prairie period

Results of a Speleothem U/Th Dating Reconnaissance from the Helderberg Plateau, New York, 2000,
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Lauritzen, S. E. , Mylroie, J. E.
The Helderberg Plateau consists of Silurian-Devonian carbonates that crop out across central New York State, supporting a well-developed, multiply glaciated karst. Stalagmites and flowstone were collected from five caves spread across a 60 km long traverse of the Plateau from Albany west-northwest to Schoharie County. Subsamples from these spleothems yielded 36 U/Th alpha count dates ranging from 3 ka to >350 ka. While the data reported here are only a reconnaissance study, they represent the most comprehensive geochronologic data base for any karst area in the northeastern United States. Hollyhock Hollow, southern Albany County: two cave-fill samples yielded three dates of 70-56 ka and four dates of 41-35 ka; the mid-Wisconsin dates may reflect the caves southerly position. Onesquethaw Cave, central Albany County: two stalagmites yielded 5 dates, all Holocene (<9 ka); the dates suggest that Onesquethaw Cave may be post-glacial in origin. Caboose Cave, eastern Schoharie County: five stalagmite and flowstone samples provided 13 dates, ranging from 207-56 ka, with distinct clusters at 100-56 ka and 207-172 ka; the dates support the cave being older than the last glaciation. Schoharie Caverns, 2 km west of Caboose Cave: six samples from one flowstone all dated to >350 ka; the dates indicate that the cave has survived more than one glaciation. Barrack Zourie Cave, western Schoharie County: two stalagmites yielded four dates, which cluster at 161-158 ka, with a younger overgrowth at 61 ka (two previously reported dates were 165 ka and 277 ka); the dates support the cave being older than the last glaciation. The U/Th dates indicate that both pre- and post-glacial caves exist in New York. The dates cluster in the 100-56 ka and 207-158 ka range, and there are a surprising lack of dates from the last interglacial (130-120 ka), possibly an artifact of the sampling regime.

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