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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That polje is (slavic word for field.) 1. a large, flat floored depression in karst limestone, whose long axis is developed parallel to major structural trends and can reach tens of kilometers in length. superficial deposits tend to accumulate on the floor. drainage may be by either surface watercourses (when the polje is said to be open) or swallow holes (a 'closed' polje.) their development is encouraged by any impedance in the karst drainage [19]. 2. polje or karst polje signifies the flatbottomed lands of closed basins which may extend over large areas, as much as 1,000 km2. the flat floor of the polje may consist of bare limestone, of a nonsoluble formation (and so with rolling topography), or of soil. the polje will show complex hydrogeological characteristics such as exsurgences, swallow holes, estavelles, and lost rivers. in colloquial use, the term polje is applied to flat-bottomed lands which are overgrown or are under cultivation [20]. 3. large flat-floored closed karst depression, with sharp slope breaks between the commonly alluviated floor and the marginal limestone. streams or springs drain into poljes and outflow is underground through ponors. commonly the ponors cannot transmit flood flows, so many poljes turn into wet-season lakes. the form of some poljes is related to the geological structure, but others are purely the projects of lateral dissolution and planation. the dinaric karst has many poljes; the livansko polje is around 60km long and 7km wide. the word is slovene (common also to other slav languages) for a field, reflecting the agricultural value of the alluvial polje floor soils [9]. synonym: interior valley; (french.) polje; (german.) polje; (greek.) polye; (italian.) polje; (russian.) polje; (spanish.) polje; (turkish.) golova, polye; (yugoslavian.) polje. see also karst polje.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for reduction (Keyword) returned 119 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 119
Why All Cave Animals Do Not Look Alike-A Discussion on Adaptive Value of Reduction Processes, 1985, Sket, Boris

A Survey Data Reduction Program Aid for Radio Direction Finding Work, 1985, Martin, D. J.

A computer program that calculates the horizontal distance, magnetic bearing and difference in elevation between the current point on a survey traverse and a specified end point is described. It has been designed to assist in the survey location of surface points designated for radio direction finding work in difficult terrain. The program has been adapted from a conventional cave survey data reduction program and is suitable for field use on a hand-held microcomputer.


The role of gradualism and punctuation in cave adaptation., 1987, Culver David C.
The theory of punctuated equilibrium, offers a potential explanation for the profound morphological changes that accompany isolation in caves. I consider three aspects of punctuation theory: the association of morphological change with speciation; periods of stasis; and the number of genes controlling a trait. If the evolution of cave organisms is associated with speciation, then speciose groups and cave species derived from other cave-limited species should show increased adaptation. Analysis of Kane and Barr's data on the subspecies of Neaphaenops tellkampfi and Holsinger's data on crangonyctid amphipods fails to provide any support for the hypothesis. If the evolution is characterized by long periods of stasis, then directional selection should be rare. An estimate of selection in a cave population of Gammarus minus indicates that directional selection is occurring. Third, if punctuation is important, characters associated with isolation in caves should be controlled by a single gene. Wilkens and others have found most characters in cave Astyanax to be controlled by between 3 and 7 genes. It is more useful to frame the question of evolutionary change accompanying cave invasion in terms of adaptive topographies. Several examples of its use are discussed, including assessing the role in selection in structural reduction, and the role of isolation in adaptation to cave life.

Genetic analysis of evolutionary processes, 1987, Wilkens Horst
Epigean and cave populations of A. fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces) differ in a series of morphological physiological, and ethological features. The interfertility of these populations made possible a genetic analysis of organs characteristic of interspecific divergence. The study of the regressive organs "eye" and "melanophore system" on the one hand and that of the constructively improved "gustatory equipment and feeding behaviour" on the other yielded identical principles of genetic manifestation: (1) All features have a polygenic basis with an at least di- to hexahybrid inheritance. (2) All polygenes have the same amount of expressivity. (3) After recombination of a minimum number of genes, discontinuous distributions (threshold effects) develop. (4) All features are independently inherited. (5) The genes responsible for a feature are unspecific. In the case of the eye this means that no "lens-" or "retinagenes" are analyzed; due to developmentally physiological interdependence within complex structures, only so-called "eye-genes" have as yet been described. Because of the developmentally physiological interdependence of complex organs, the process of reduction proceeds as a diminution in size, that of constructive evolution as enlargement. In both cases different allometric correlations of the single structures can be found. The convergent reduction of eyes in cave animals is caused by the loss of stabilizing selection which normally keeps the eye in its appropriate adapted form. It is not directional selection pressure, like f. ex. energy economy, but mutation pressure that causes eye reduction. By this, random mutations, which are mostly of deleterious character, are accumulated. The principles of regressive evolution are not restricted to the development of cave species. The absence of stabilizing selection regularly occurs during transitional evolutionary phases. These are f. ex. initial stages of speciation which may be observed when biotopes with little or no interspecific competition are colonized by an invader. Genotypic and phenotypic variability now arise and equilibria become punctuated, because stabilizing selection for a specific ecological niche which has once been acquired by the invading species is no longer acting. Examples include the evolution of species flocks in geologically young lakes or oceanic islands. Rapidly increasing variability now secondarily provides the material for directional selection which radiates such species into vacant niches. Genetic threshold effects as described above may accelerate this process. Variability will finally become lower again under the influence of inter- and intraspecific competition. A new equilibrium is attained.

The Least Squares Method of Cave Survey Data Reduction based on a Micro Computer, 1988, Kelly S. , Warren P. B.

Subsidence associated with the abstraction of fluids, 1988, Bell Fg,
Subsidence of the ground surface due to the withdrawal of groundwater, oil, gas or brine from sedimentary deposits has ccurred in many parts of the world. The abstraction of groundwater has been the principal cause of subsidence, primarily because more groundwater is abstracted than all the other liquids put together. Subsidences of several metres have been recorded, for example, in California due to the exploitation of oil, as well as groundwater. Such ground movements represent a notable problem in engineering geology. Generally these subsidences take place slowly but the occurrence at the surface of sinkholes as a result of water tables being lowered in limestone terrains is a rapid process. In the case of groundwater, gas or oil abstraction the reduction in pore pressure in the voids due to the decline in head leads to an increase in effective load on the sediments concerned, bringing about consolidation, which is reflected at the surface as subsidence. On the other hand when mineral deposits are worked by solution mining the rock material itself is removed which, if uncontrolled, resultsin subsidence. The removal of fluids from sediments frequently has resulted in the formation of fissures at the surface. Indeed there are cases on record where faults are alleged to have been formed. Such fissures often occur around the periphery of the subsidence trough

HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFORESTATION OF THE STONE FOREST KARST AQUIFERS OF SOUTH CHINA, 1992, Huntoon P. W. ,
Stone forest aquifers comprise an important class of shallow, unconfined karstic aquifers in the south China karst belt. They occur under flat areas such as floors of karst depressions, stream valleys, and karst plains. The frameworks for the aquifers are the undissolved carbonate spires and ribs in epikarst zones developed on carbonate strata. The ground water occurs within clastic sediments which infill the dissolution voids. The aquifers are thin, generally less than 100 meters thick, and are characterized by large lateral permeabilities and small storage. The result is that the aquifers are difficult to manage because recharge during the rainy season moves rapidly out of the aquifers. Water levels fall sharply as the dry season progresses and the ground-water supply falls off accordingly. The magnitude and duration of the seasonal recharge pulse that replenishes the stone forest aquifers have been severely impacted by massive post-1958 deforestation in the south China karst region. Water that was formerly retained beyond the wet season in the forested uplands, later to be released to the stone forest aquifers under the lowland plains, now passes quickly through the system during the wet season. The loss of this seasonal upland storage has resulted in both a reduction in the volume of recharge to the lowland stone forest aquifers and a shortening of the seasonal recharge event. The result is accelerated water-level declines in the stone forest aquifers as the dry season progresses which, in turn, causes premature dewatering of wells and decreased spring discharges. This response is compounded by increased ground-water withdrawals as the people attempt to offset the declining supply. Management of the total water-supply system requires not only tinkering with the aquifer, but massive reforestation efforts to restore dry season water retention in the upland parts of the watersheds

DISLOCATION OF THE EVAPORITIC FORMATIONS UNDER TECTONIC AND DISSOLUTION CONTROLS - THE MODEL OF THE DINANTIAN EVAPORITES FROM VARISCAN AREA (NORTHERN FRANCE AND BELGIUM), 1993, Rouchy J. M. , Groessens E. , Laumondais A. ,
Within the Franco-Belgian segment of the Hercynian orogen, two thick Dinantian anhydritic formations are known, respectively in the Saint-Ghislain (765 m) and Epinoy 1 (904 m) wells. Nevertheless, occurrences of widespread extended breccias and of numerous pseudomorphs of gypsum/anhydrite in stratigraphically equivalent carbonate deposits (boreholes and outcrops), suggest a larger extent of the evaporitic conditions (fig. 1, 2). The present distribution of evaporites is controlled by palaeogeographical differentiation and post-depositional parameters such as tectonics and dissolution. These latter have dissected the deposits formerly present in all the structural units. By using depositional, diagenetic and deformational characters of these formations, the article provides a model for the reconstruction of a dislocated evaporitic basin. This segment of the Hercynian chain is schematically composed of two main units (fig. 1, 3) : (1) the autochthonous or parautochthonous deposits of the Namur synclinorium, (2) the Dinant nappe thrusted northward over the synclinorium of Namur. The major thrust surface is underlined by a complex fault bundle (faille du Midi) seismically recognized over more than 100 km. A complex system of thrust slices occurs at the Hercynian front. Except for local Cretaceous deposits, most of the studied area has been submitted to a long period of denudation since the Permian. Sedimentary, faunistic and geochemical data argue for a marine origin of the brines which have generated the evaporites interbedded with marine limestones. Sedimentary structures. - The thick evaporitic formations are composed of calcium-sulfates without any clear evidence of the former presence of more soluble salts (with the exception of a possible carbonate-sulfate breccia in the upper part of the Saint-Ghislain formation). As in all the deeply buried evaporitic formations, the anhydrite is the main sulfate component which displays all the usual facies : pseudomorphs after gypsum (fig. 4A, B), nodular and mosaic (fig. 4C), laminated. The gypsum was probably an important component during the depositional phase despite the predominant nodular pattern of the anhydrite. Early diagenetic nodular anhydrite may have grown during temporary emersion of the carbonates (sabkha environments), but this mechanism cannot explain the formation of the whole anhydrite. So, most of the anhydrite structures result from burial-controlled gypsum --> anhydrite conversion and from mechanical deformations. Moreover, a complex set of diagenetic processes leads to various authigenic minerals (celestite, fluorite, albite, native sulfur, quartz and fibrous silica) and to multistaged carbonate <> sulfate replacements (calcite and dolomite after sulfate, replacive anhydrite as idiomorphic poeciloblasts, veinlets, domino-like or stairstep monocrystals...). These mineral transformations observed ill boreholes and in outcrops have diversely been controlled during the complex evolution of the series as : depositional and diagenetic pore-fluid composition, pressure and temperature changes with burial, bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction, deep circulations favored by mechanical brecciation, mechanical stresses, role of groundwater during exhumation of the series. Deformational structures. - A great variety of deformational structures as rotational elongation, stretching, lamination, isoclinal microfolding, augen-like and mylonitic structures are generated by compressive tectonic stresses (fig. 4D to J). The similarities between tectonic-generated structures and sedimentary (lamination) or diagenetic (pseudo-nodules) features could lead lo misinterpretations. The calcareous interbeds have undergone brittle deformation the style and the importance of which depend of their relative thickness. Stretching, boudins, microfolds and augen structures F, H. I) affect the thin layers while thicker beds may be broken as large fractured blocks dragged within flown anhydrite leading to a mylonitic-like structure (fig, 4G). In such an inhomogeneous formation made of interlayered ductile (anhydrite) and brittle (carbonate) beds, the style and the intensity of the deformation vary with respect to the relative thickness of each of these components. Such deformational features of anhydrite may have an ubiquitous significance and can result either from compressive constraints or geostatic movements (halokinesis). Nevertheless, some data evidence a relation with regional tangential stresses: (1) increase of the deformation toward the bottom of the Saint-Ghislain Formation which is marked by a deep karst suggesting the presence of a mechanical discontinuity used as a drain for dissolving solutions (fig. 3, 4); (2) structural setting (reversed series, internal slidings) of the Epinoy 1 formation under the Midi thrust. However, tectonic stresses also induce flowing deformations which have contributed to cause their present discontinuity. It can be assumed that the evaporites played an active role for the buckling of the regional structure as detachment or gliding layers and more specifically for the genesis of duplex structures. Breccia genesis. - Great breccia horizons are widely distributed in outcrops as well as in the subsurface throughout the greater part of the Dinant and Namur units (fig. 2). The wide distribution of pseudomorphosed sulfates in outcrops and the stratigraphical correlation between breccia and Saint-Ghislain evaporitic masses (fig. 2) suggest that some breccia (although not all) have been originated from collapse after evaporites solution. Although some breccia may result from synsedimentary dissolution, studied occurrences show that most of dissolution processes started after the Hercynian deformation and, in some cases, were active until recently : elements made of lithified and fractured limestones (Llandelies quarries) (fig. 5A), preservation of pseudomorphs of late replacive anhydrite (Yves-Gomezee) (fig. 5B, C), deep karst associated with breccia (Douvrain, Saint Ghislain, Ghlin boreholes) (fig. 3, 4, 5D)). Locally, the final brecciation may have been favored by a mechanical fragmentation which controlled water circulations (fig. 5E). As postulated by De Magnee et al. [19861, the dissolution started mostly after the Permian denudation and continued until now in relation with deep circulations and surface weathering (fig. 6). So, the above-mentioned occurrences of the breccia are logically explained by collapse after dissolution of calcium-sulfates interbeds of significant thickness (the presence of salt is not yet demonstrated), but other Visean breccia may have a different origin (fig. 5F). So, these data prove the extension of thick evaporitic beds in all the structural units including the Dinant nappe, before dissolution and deformation. Implications. - Distribution of Visean evaporites in northern France and Belgium is inherited from a complicated paleogeographic, tectonic and post-tectonic history which has strongly modified their former facies, thicknesses and limits (fig. IA, 6). Diversified environments of deposition controlled by both a palaeogeographical differentiation and water level fluctuations led to the deposition of subaqueous (gypsum) or interstitial (gypsum, anhydrite) crystallization. Nevertheless, most of the anhydrite structures can be interpreted as resulting from burial conversion of gypsum to anhydrite rather than a generalized early diagenesis in sabkha-like conditions. Deformation of anhydrite caused by Hercynian tangential stresses and subsequent flow mechanisms, have completed the destruction of depositional and diagenetic features. The tectonic deformations allow us to consider the role of the evaporites in the Hercynian deformations. The evaporites supplied detachment and gliding planes as suggested for the base of the Saint-Ghislain Formation and demonstrated by the structural setting of Epinoy 1 evaporites in reverse position and in a multi-system of thrust-slices below the Midi overthrust (fig. 7). So, although the area in which evaporation and precipitation took place cannot be exactly delineated in geographic extent, all the data evidence that the isolated thick anhydritic deposits represent relics of more widespread evaporites extending more or less throughout the different structural units of this Hercynian segment (fig. 1B). Their present discontinuity results from the combination of a depositional differentiation, mechanical deformations and/or dissolution

THE OCCURRENCE AND EFFECT OF SULFATE REDUCTION AND SULFIDE OXIDATION ON COASTAL LIMESTONE DISSOLUTION IN YUCATAN CENOTES, 1993, Stoessell R. K. , Moore Y. H. , Coke J. G. ,
Dissolution of carbonate minerals in the coastal halocline is taking place in the karst terrain along the northeastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The dissolution is being accelerated in cenotes (sinkholes) where sulfate reduction and oxidation of the produced sulfide is occurring. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 4 mmolal within the halocline in two sinkholes. Relative to concentrations expected by conservative mixing, fluids with high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with low sulfate concentrations, high alkalinities, low pH values, and heavy sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were less than those predicted from sulfate reduction, calculated from deficiencies in measured sulfate concentrations, indicating mobility and loss of aqueous sulfide. Fluids with low hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with very high calcium concentrations, high strontium and sulfate concentrations, slightly elevated alkalinities, low pH values, and sea-water sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Gypsum dissolution is supported by the sulfur isotopes as the major process producing high sulfate concentrations. However, oxidation of aqueous sulfide to sulfuric acid, resulting in carbonate-mineral dissolution is needed to explain the calcium concentrations, low pH values, and only slightly elevated alkalinities. The halocline may trap hydrogen sulfide that has been stripped from the underlying anoxic salt water. The halocline can act as a stable, physical boundary, holding some of the hydrogen sulfide until it is oxidized back to sulfuric acid through interaction with the overlying, oxygenated fresh water or through the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria

CHEMICAL-REACTION PATH MODELING OF ORE DEPOSITION IN MISSISSIPPI VALLEY-TYPE PB-ZN DEPOSITS OF THE OZARK REGION UNITED-STATES MIDCONTINENT, 1994, Plumlee G. S. , Leach D. L. , Hofstra A. H. , Landis G. P. , Rowan E. L. , Viets J. G. ,
The Ozark region of the U.S. midcontinent is host to a number of Mississippi Valley-type districts, including the world-class Viburnum Trend, Old Lead Belt, and Tri-State districts and the smaller Southeast Missouri barite, Northern Arkansas, and Central Missouri districts. There is increasing evidence that the Ozark Mississippi Valley-type districts formed locally within a large, interconnected hydrothermal system that also produced broad fringing areas of trace mineralization, extensive subtle hydrothermal alteration, broad thermal anomalies, and regional deposition of hydrothermal dolomite cement. The fluid drive was provided by gravity flow accompanying uplift of foreland thrust belts during the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Ouachita orogeny. In this study, we use chemical speciation and reaction path calculations, based on quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions, to constrain likely hydrothermal brine compositions and to determine which precipitation mechanisms are consistent with the hydrothermal mineral assemblages observed regionally and locally within each Mississippi Valley-type district in the Ozark region. Deposition of the regional hydrothermal dolomite cement with trace sulfides likely occurred in response to near-isothermal effervescence of CO2 from basinal brines as they migrated to shallower crustal levels and lower confining pressures. In contrast, our calculations indicate that no one depositional process can reproduce the mineral assemblages and proportions of minerals observed in each Ozark ore district; rather, individual districts require specific depositional mechanisms that reflect the local host-rock composition, structural setting, and hydrology. Both the Northern Arkansas and Tri-State districts are localized by normal faults that likely allowed brines to rise from deeper Cambrian-Ordovician dolostone aquifers into shallower carbonate sequences dominated by limestones. In the Northern Arkansas district, jasperoid preferentially replaced limestones in the mixed dolostone-limestone sedimentary packages. Modeling results indicate that the ore and alteration assemblages in the Tri-State and Northern Arkansas districts resulted from the flow of initially dolomite-saturated brines into cooler limestones. Adjacent to fluid conduits where water/rock ratios were the highest, the limestone was replaced by dolomite. As the fluids moved outward into cooler limestone, jasperoid and sulfide replaced limestone. Isothermal boiling of the ore fluids may have produced open-space filling of hydrothermal dolomite with minor sulfides in breccia and fault zones. Local mixing of the regional brine with locally derived sulfur undoubtedly played a role in the development of sulfide-rich ore runs. Sulfide ores of the Central Missouri district are largely open-space filling of sphalerite plus minor galena in dolostone karst features localized along a broad anticline. Hydrothermal solution collapse during ore deposition was a minor process, indicating dolomite was slightly undersaturated during ore deposition. No silicification and only minor hydrothermal dolomite is present in the ore deposits. The reaction path that best explains the features of the Central Missouri sulfide deposits is the near-isothermal mixing of two dolomite-saturated fluids with different H2S and metal contents. Paleokarst features may have allowed the regional brine to rise stratigraphically and mix with locally derived, H2S-rich fluids

MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN THERMOGLACIAL KARST SPRINGS, SOUTH SPITSBERGEN, 1994, Lauritzen S. E. , Bottrell S. ,
Along the Hornsund fault zone, South Spitsbergen (76-degrees-60'N), thermokarstic springs smell of H2S and display either growth of, or eject fragments of, organic slime. The temperature in individual springs varies between 4 and 15-degrees-C. Their rate of discharge is approximately 1 L s-1 to 18 m3 s-1, corresponding to a minimum temperature of 30-degrees-C within the base of the aquifer. The water, which contains a few ppm SO4(2-), 0.5 ppm S2-, and several thousand ppm NaCl, appears to be a mixture of turbid glacial meltwater and hot brine. Water chemistry and stable isotopes indicate that the salinity is not the result of simple dilution of modern seawater from the brackish zone beneath the coastal karst aquifer, but rather originates from a deep thermal brine component where concentrations and isotopic composition of various species are controlled by water-rock interaction in the source area of the brine. A value of DELTAdeltaS-34 of up to about 30 parts per thousand indicates that sulfide is a bioreduction product of sulfate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies revealed bacteria and fungal hypha in the organic slime, and larger spherical particles (approximately 3.8 mum diameter) that display high concentrations of Fe and S. These findings demonstrate the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria within the subpermafrost aquifer

Strategic ground water management for the reduction of karst land collapse hazard in Tangshan, China, 1997, Wang H. T. , Li Y. X. , Wang E. Z. , Zhao Z. Z. ,
Karst land collapse is a geological hazard caused mainly by human activities such as the pumping of ground water. The present study is aimed at determining a management strategy to minimize the risk of karst land collapse in the urban area of Tangshan, China. A method of groundwater management for multi-aquifer systems with groundwater confined and unconfined interchange properties has been developed. A groundwater simulation model and a management model are constructed for the studied area. The data used by the simulation and management models include the geometry of the aquifer systems, the parameters of hydrogeology, the distribution of recharge, and discharge in the simulation period and the historical water table elevations. The results of the model calculations show that the total balance between recharge and discharge for both Quaternary and bedrock aquifers is 4.7 x 106 m(3) in the period from November 1989 to October 1990. The optimal annual average pumping rate from the underlying bedrock aquifer is some 25.8 x 10(6) m(3), which is 54.4% of that which was pumped out of the aquifer in the hydrological year of 1990. If the management plan is carried out, the groundwater level in the bedrock aquifer will recover its confined state in most of the areas at risk of land collapse. This is the most resistant state to collapse in terms of groundwater flow.

Thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, activation barriers, and reaction mechanisms for chemical reactions in Karst Terrains, 1997, White W. B. ,
Chemical reactions pertinent to karst systems divide broadly into (a) speciation reactions within aqueous solutions, (b) dissolution/precipitation and other acid/base reactions between aqueous solutions and solid minerals, and (c) redox reactions involving various carbon and sulfur-bearing species. As a backdrop against which other chemistry can be evaluated, selected phase diagrams and equilibrium speciation diagrams were calculated for the system Ca--Mg--O--H--C--S. The kinetics of reactions within this system span time scales from milliseconds for homogeneous reactions in solution through hundreds of hours for carbonate mineral dissolution reactions, to geologic time scales for reactions such as the aragonite/calcite inversion or the oxidation/reduction of native sulfur. In purely inorganic systems, kinetic barriers, typically on the order of tens of kJ/mole, are set by nucleation processes and by activated complex formation. Biological processes impact the purely inorganic chemistry by the following mechanisms: (a) Secretions and waste products from biological activity or consumption of CO2 by organisms changes the chemistry in the microenvironments of reaction surfaces. Oxidation potentials, pH, and ion activities may be modified, thus shifting equilibria. (b) Reaction rates may be increased due to modification of activated complexes and thus the activation barriers to reaction. (c) Organic compounds or microorganisms may act as substrates, thus lowering nucleation barriers. The preservation of microorganisms in cave deposits does not necessarily prove a cause and effect relationship

The detection of cavities using the microgravity technique: case histories from mining and karstic environments, 1997, Bishop I, Styles P, Emsley Sj, Ferguson Ns,
The presence of mining-related cavities (workings, shafts and tunnels) or karstic (solution cavities and sinkholes in limestone) within the top 100 m in the rock mass restricts land utilisation, and their migration to the surface may damage property or services or cause loss of life. Confirmation of features marked on existing plans prior to design and construction may be sufficient but it is often necessary to determine the detailed sub-surface structure. The standard method of siteinvestigation is to drill a pattern of boreholes to locate the spatial extent of any cavities. However, unless the spacing is less than the cavity dimensions it is possible to miss it completely. A cavity may be filled with air, water, or collapse material resulting in a contrast in physical properties which may be detected using appropriate geophysical methods. One powerful technique is microgravity which locates areas of contrasting sub-surface density from surface measurements of the earth's gravity. Although the method is fundamentally simple, measurement of the minute variations in gravity (1 in 108) requires sensitive instruments, careful data acquisition, and data reduction and digital data analysis. Final interpretation must be performed in conjunction with independent information about the site's history and geology. This paper presents three examples in both mining and karstic environments demonstrating that microgravity is a very effective technique for detectingand delineating cavities in the sub-surface

Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River Basin, Florida, 1997, Katz B. G. , Dehan R. S. , Hirten J. J. , Catches J. S. ,
Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in most parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karst features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where around water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River

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