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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transmissibility coefficient is the use of the term transmissibility has been replaced by transmissivity [22]. see transmissivity.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for environment (Keyword) returned 1390 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 1390
The geographical distribution of Australian cave dwelling Chiroptera., 1966,
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Hamiltonsmith E.
Of the 56 species of bats currently recorded from Australia, 22 are known to occur in caves. The geographical distribution of each of these species is detailed, and from this data, the species are divided into four groups according to their pattern of distribution. Group I comprises those species found only North of 18S latitude, all of which either also occur in New Guinea or are closely related to New Guinea species. Group II, including both endemic Australian genera, occurs over that area North of 28S latitude. This area largely comprises desert or semi-desert terrain, with its characteristics of low humidity and a wide range between extremes of temperature. Group III occurs in the Eastern Coastal Region, with one species extending to a limited degree along both Northern and Southern Coasts. Although temperature is extremely varied over this range, there are common environmental factors of moderate to high humidity and a moderate to low range of temperature variation. Group IV species are all widespread, in many cases over the whole continent, are all members of the Vespertilionidae, and occur in caves only occasionally or only in certain parts of their range. These species are more commonly found in trees or buildings. The possible factors contributing to the origin of these distributional patterns are discussed, and some areas for future investigation suggested.

On cave living Mosses., 1966,
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Vajda Laszlo
Among the mosses collected by Dr. K. Verseghy in the caves of the environment of Lillafured Eucladium verticillatum (E.) Br. Eur. was found which had some peculiar bulbillae composed of two to many cells on the ends of the filaments. They may represent special reproductive organs as yet unknown in this genus. None of the mosses living in the caves developed sex organs.

Three new species of Cymbella from Mammoth cave, Kentucky., 1966,
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Van Landingham Sam L.
During an investigation of the diatom flora of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky three Cymbella species were noted which could not be identified with any yet described forms. This paper contains a taxonomic description of the three new species: Cymbella clausii, Cymbella gerloffii, Cymbella hohnii. A common feature of all three species is the rather broad central area which may have been the result of a special adaptation to the cave environment.

Breeding Caves and Maternity Colonies of the Bent-Winged Bat In South-Eastern Australia, 1966,
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Dwyer P. D. , Hamiltonsmith E.

Eight breeding Caves of Miniopterus schreibersi (Kuhl) are described from South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Southern Queensland, in terms of their structure, the location of nursery areas at which juveniles are deposited after birth, and their physical environments. Maternity colonies are found at these caves through spring, summer and early autumn. Established colonies range from about 15,000 to 200,000 bats at peak size. These individuals are predominantly adult females and their young. Adult males are conspicuous only at the single South Australian breeding cave. Births occur from approximately the beginning of December to mid-January at all colonies except that in South Australia, where a birth period is evident between mid-October to late-November. Artificial warming, as a consequence of bat activity, appears to be characteristic of these Miniopterus schreibersi breeding caves. It is suggested that this may have functional significance in facilitating adequate development of juveniles, and that the habit could be a reflection of the tropical ancestry of this species.


Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967,
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Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967,
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Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Study of the behaviour of Man in the subterranean environment (results of 5 experiments)., 1968,
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Saumande Pierre
In the course of live specially planned expeditions, the author studied the behaviour of man in the very special environment of caves. He explains the tests employed. The results obtained suggest that the human organism seems able to adapt to this uncommon environment but exhibits lethargy and reduced activity.

Study of the behaviour of Man in the subterranean environment (results of 5 experiments)., 1968,
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Saumande Pierre
In the course of live specially planned expeditions, the author studied the behaviour of man in the very special environment of caves. He explains the tests employed. The results obtained suggest that the human organism seems able to adapt to this uncommon environment but exhibits lethargy and reduced activity.

Parietal Art in Koonalda Cave, Nullarbor Plain, South Australia, 1968,
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Gallus, Alexander

This paper gives a first description of the engravings discovered on the walls of Koonalda Cave(N4), Nullarbor Plain, South Australia. It gives a typologic assessment with reference to known parietal art in the caves of Europe, and to cave engravings discovered in the Katherine area of the Northern Territory, Australia. It establishes the possibility of great antiquity and deals briefly with interpretation. This announcement lays no claim to conclusiveness in the argumentation offered as the facts relating to Australian Palaeolithic Man and his environment are as yet insufficiently known.


The Cave Environment, 1969,
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Poulson Thomas L. , White William B. ,

Contribution to the study of Mycetophilidae of Romanian caves with the description of two new species., 1971,
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Burghelebalacesco Anca
The study of Mycetophilidae collected in Romanian caves during these past years enables us to add 24 species to those already known from the country, among which two are new for science: Exechia dumitrescui n. sp. and Rhymosia matilei n. sp. Sixteen species belong to the Genus Macrocera, Zelmira, Leia, Exechia, Rhymosia, Allodia, Mycetophila, Zygomyia and Deolpsis have never been mentioned before for the subterranean environment. Some of these species are extremely rare: Exechia januari Lundst., E. parallela Edw., Rhymosia tarnani Dzeid., Phronia kowarzi Dzicd., Mycetophila rudis Winn.

The living environment of Stenasellus virei Dollfus, 1897 (Asellote troglobe Crustacean): preliminary results., 1971,
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Magniez Guy
Stenasellus virei is now known from 77 localities (caves, phreatic waters and underflow of some rivers) of the eastern Aquitanian basin, central and eastern Pyrenees, and of Spain. A classification of the different biotopes of the species is attempted herein, and some of their characteristics are summarily described. This cavernicolous species can now be viewed in a new light, as much ecological as systematic or biogeographic.

Contribution to the study of Mycetophilidae of Romanian caves with the description of two new species., 1971,
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Burghelebalacesco Anca
The study of Mycetophilidae collected in Romanian caves during these past years enables us to add 24 species to those already known from the country, among which two are new for science: Exechia dumitrescui n. sp. and Rhymosia matilei n. sp. Sixteen species belong to the Genus Macrocera, Zelmira, Leia, Exechia, Rhymosia, Allodia, Mycetophila, Zygomyia and Deolpsis have never been mentioned before for the subterranean environment. Some of these species are extremely rare: Exechia januari Lundst., E. parallela Edw., Rhymosia tarnani Dzeid., Phronia kowarzi Dzicd., Mycetophila rudis Winn.

The living environment of Stenasellus virei Dollfus, 1897 (Asellote troglobe Crustacean): preliminary results., 1971,
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Magniez Guy
Stenasellus virei is now known from 77 localities (caves, phreatic waters and underflow of some rivers) of the eastern Aquitanian basin, central and eastern Pyrenees, and of Spain. A classification of the different biotopes of the species is attempted herein, and some of their characteristics are summarily described. This cavernicolous species can now be viewed in a new light, as much ecological as systematic or biogeographic.

The Clastic Sediments of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales, 1971,
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Frank, R.

The Wellington Caves are about 8 km south of the town of Wellington, New South Wales. They were discovered in the 1820s and their long and varied history as a vertebrate palaeontological site began about 1830. Most of the early fossil collections were made by the explorer and surveyor-general, Major T.L. Mitchell, from an upper stratigraphic unit exposed in Mitchell's Cave and Cathedral Cave. Such venerable palaeontologists as Cuvier, Pentland, Jameson and Owen examined the material. Phosphate mining operations in the early 1900s exposed additional sedimentary sequences and most of the later vertebrate collections have come from these mines. A history of the discovery and exploration of the caves, as well as of the more important palaeontological aspects, is given by Lane and Richards (1963). A number of theories on the origin of the caves and especially on the depositional environment of the bone-bearing sediments, has been offered and some of these are summarised by Lane and Richards (1963). Most of these were conceived before 1900, none of them are detailed and they are generally speculations presented as minor portions of other articles dealing with a broader subject.


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