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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That nominal is used to describe standard sizes for pipe from 1/8 inch to 12 inches (3.2 mm to 304 mm.) the nominal size is specified on the basis of the inside diameter. depending on the wall thickness, the inside diameter may be less than or greater than the number indicated [6].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for catchment (Keyword) returned 211 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 211
Rsultats de deux traages dans l'amphithtre d'Ozania (Picos de Europa, Espagne), 1984, Fabre J. P. , Fabriol R.
RESULTS OF TWO WATER TRACINGS IN THE OZANIA AMPHITHEATRE (PICOS DE EUROPA, SPAIN) - The Picos de Europa is a high mountain karst with an underground flow organisation poorly known. Two water tracings with uranine have been carried out in the Ozania amphitheatre. These tracings have led to the identification of two separate systems: 900g of tracer injected in the Sima de Los Gorrinos emerged at the Fuente Prieta resurgence 20h later; 10kg of tracer injected in the Sima del Jou Luengu emerged at the Reo Molin and Dobra Seca resurgences 9 days later. The latter system appears to be the most interesting, due to its complexity and to the vast catchment.

Towards a Forestry Commission Karst and Karst Catchment Management Policy, 1984, Kiernan K.

Drainage Evolution in a Tasmanian Glaciokarst, 1989, Kiernan, Kevin

The intensively glaciated mountains of the Picton Range - Mt. Bobs area in southwestern Tasmania contain prominent karst features that have been developed in carbonate formations of Devonian, Ordovician and possibly Precambrian age. This paper reviews the extent of the karst and glacial features and records the tracing of the underground drainage from the alpine Lake Sydney. Glacial erosion has exposed areas of limestone to karstification and glacial diversion of drainage has played a critical role in the evolution of the present underground drainage patterns. Prior to the late Last Glacial Stage the deflection of marginal meltwaters from the former Farmhouse Creek Glacier against the Burgess - Bobs Saddle led to the development of an underground breach of a major surface drainage divide. Subglacial or submarginal meltwaters associated with a much smaller glacier that developed in the same valley during the late Last Glacial Stage probably played a significant role in the breaching of a minor divide within the Farmhouse Creek catchment. This led to the development of an underground anabranch of Farmhouse Creek that by-passes the glacial Pine Lake. However, it is possible that the latter diversion is entirely Holocene in age and is related to postglacial dilation of the limestone rather than meltwater flows.

Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990, Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

Notectonique dans le karst du N-O du lac de Thoune (Suisse), 1990, Jeannin, P. Y.
Neotectonic in the karst north of Lake Thoune (Switzerland) - The karstic area north of Lake Thoune is part of the "Border Chain" of the Swiss Alps (Cretaceous, Helvetic). It comprises large caves coming from two catchments. The first one pours out at the Beatushhle; more than 15 km of galleries are known in this area. The second one contains the Sieben Hengste - Hohgant - Hohlaub - Schrattenfluh region, it pours out at the Btterich and Gelberbrunnen springs, by Lake Thoune. It includes the very large "Sieben Hengste - Hohgant cave System" (length: 115 km; depth: 1050 m); the Brenschacht (length: >10 km; depth: 950 m), as well as several other important caves more than 1 km length. Recent shifts along faults were mainly measured in the Sieben Hengste Cave System. Neotectonic indication were of the following types: gallery sections displaced by the fault shifts, displaced pillar structures or shifted, inclined or broken speleothems. The fault movements were placed on a time scale according to the genetic evolution of the region. It indicates that there were three phases of movement, which greatly affected the underground flows and karstification. The geometric and dynamic analysis of the measured shifts and slikken-slides also indicates three phases of movements. The strain direction, causing these movements, was determined. Thus, three plio-quaternary tectonic phases were found: an alpine compressive SSE-NNW phase, followed by an extensive SSE-NNW phase and then again by a compressive one.

Le karst du massif Moucherotte / Pic Saint-Michel (Isre, Vercors), 1991, Audra, Ph.
The karst of Moucherotte/Pic Saint-Michel (Vercors, Isre, France) - The massif of Moucherotte-Pic Saint Michel is located in the northeastern corner of the Vercors, in the area of Lans-en-Vercors and Saint-Nizier-du-Moucherotte. As anywhere in Vercors, this area is strongly marked by a dense karst relief. It harbours underground systems. Recent dye tracings (respectively from Sierre shaft, Choucas shaft, and Ira's Hole) allowed to determinate precisely the boundary of the catchment of the source called Bruyant. This basin spreads out from the Moucherotte to the Pic Saint-Michel, thus including a surface of 12km2. This is confirmed through the water balance. Of the 1600mm of yearly rainfall, 70% is infiltrated toward the source of the Bruyant. The water is conveyed through a main drain, probably mostly vadose, at the base of the recumbent fold. The landscape is due to the Quaternary processes. The two great landslides of "col de l'Arc" and of "Peuil" date back to this time. The glaciers have sculptured huge "combes" where many caves open, ancient places where sub-glacial waters were swallowing. These sub-vertical caves (which can measure up to 300m deep) with shafts and meanders, flow through large horizontal galleries older than the Quaternary (Combe Oursire shaft, Vallier cave). These galleries, hidden away in this huge limestone mass, are the witnesses of an earlier and very elaborate subterranean drainage. This system is entirely different from our present drainage system.

Le karst alpin des Mts. Retezat (Carpathes mridionales, Roumanie), 1991, Badescu, D.
THE ALPINE KARST 0F RETEZAT M0UNTAINS (ROMANIA) - The limestone area of the Retezat Mountains (2079 m), in the Carpathian range (Transylvania), is the principal alpine karst of Romania. It is formed by a syncline structure of jurassic limestone covering a crystalline precambrian basement. The mountain climate is wet (1400 mm/year) and continental. The glacio-karstic morphology (glacial cirque, dry valleys) is developed on a tertiary polygenic surface folded and uplifted since the Oligocene and Neogene. The catchment basin (85 km2) feeds the Izvorul Cernei karst spring (0,5-10 m3/s), the most important of Romania. Water tracings (s = 55 m/h) and statistical studies on caves suggest the development of a complex karst system. 50% of underground waters come from the running off on the precambrian basement and explain the rate of sodium. The majority of the potholes and glacires are situated above 1700m; the deepest is Stna Tomii cave (-136m) with a 115m direct pit.

Le karst de Vaucluse (Haute Provence), 1991, Mudry J. , Puig J. M.
The catchment area of the Fontaine de Vaucluse system is more than 1100km2 wide, with an average altitude of 870m. The thickness of the Lower Cretaceous limestone (1500m) gives the system a very thick (800m) unsaturated zone. Karstification is highly developed (four shafts are more than 500m deep) as well as on the valley (pit of 300m depth inside the spring). The bottom of the shafts of the Plateau does not reach the saturated zone of the karst, as their flows are the chemical content of the seepage water. The maximum hydraulic gradient from the Plateau to the spring is low, only 0.3%. Dye tracings permit the assignment of the Ventoux-Lure rang (including its calcareous northern slope with a southward dipping) and the Vaucluse Plateau in the catchment area. The water balance computed by altitude belts shows that the rainfall strongly increases with altitude: 120mm at 200m, 1380mm over 1800m. The dynamic of the system, studied by discharge and physical and chemical content, shows of a well karstified media, that reacts with slight inertia upon the rainy periods, and that is made up of important reserves, particularly within the unsaturated zone, that supply long decline and depletion episodes.

Pertes du Gave d'Ossau et naissance du Neez (Pyr.-Atl., Fr.), 1992, Bauer J. , Oller G. , Sabrier R.
SINKS OF THE OSSAU GAVE AND SOURCE OF THE NEEZ RIVER (PYRENEES) - A Gave is a mountain torrent in the Pyrenees. The water supply of the city of Pau is depending almost entirely on a karstic spring called Oeil du Neez (the Neez Eye, which means spring of the Neez). LOeil du Neez is the main resurgence - among several others - of water sinks in the Gave bed across the urgonian limestone ridge of Arudy. Development of this karstic system through the complex structural setting of a frontal thrust has been favoured by the geomorphic evolution of the Arudy basin, dammed to the north by a morainic loop, but also by the presence of highly suitable hydrodynamic and tectonic conditions (water head and fractures network). Water quality of the Oeil du Neez is closely depending on Gave water quality. However, the catchment area proper, of this resurgence, exerts its own chemical influence.

Traages en bordure du systme karstique de Vaucluse, 1992, Couturaud A. , Puig J. M.
TRACING AT THE EDGE OF THE KARST SYSTEM OF THE VAUCLUSE - A double tracing was carried out in 1989 at the edge of the large karst system of the Vaucluse: 25 kg of fluorescein were poured into the trou du Vent, 1335m up on the north side of mont Ventoux and 20kg of sulforhodamin into the sinkhole of a stream at Mthamis, at an altitude of 280m, during high water. Some 20 outlets or boreholes were watched for 6 months (9 months at the Fontaine de Vaucluse). 2000 analyses were carried out on 400 charcoal detectors and 700 samples. Only the fluorescein showed up at the Fontaine de Vaucluse, involving a part of the north side of mont Ventoux in the catchment area. The maximum speed is of about 20m/h over a distance of 31km and a relief difference of 1250m. The experiment was carried out at exceptionally low water.

Measurements of tritium and O-18 concentrations in precipitation and runoff were used to provide further insight into the groundwater storage properties of the Wimbachtal Valley, a catchment area of 33.4 km2, extending between 636 and 2713 m a.s.l. in the Berchtesgaden Alps. The catchment includes three aquifer types: a dominant porous aquifer; a fractured dolomite; a karstic limestone aquifer. Employing a simple hydrological model, information about mean transit times of environmental tracers is derived for the groundwater runoff component and several karst springs from the application of the exponential and dispersion flow models to the isotopic input and output data. The mean transit times calculated from a dispersion model with transit times of 4.1 years for O-18 and 4.2 years for tritium, which agree well, allow calculation of total (mobile stagnant) groundwater storage volume, which is equivalent to 6.6 m of water depth. Direct runoff appears negligible as in many other cases

Carbonate chemistry of surface waters in a temperate karst region: the southern Yorkshire Dales, UK, 1992, Pentecost Allan,
A detailed study of surface water chemistry is described from an important limestone region in northern England. Major ions and pH were determined for 485 sites (springs, seeps, streams, rivers and lakes) during summertime. The saturation state of the waters with respect to calcite was determined as the calcite saturation ratio ([Omega]). An unexpectedly large number of samples were found to be supersaturated (65.5% of the 268 km of watercourses surveyed). As a consequence, several streams entering major cave systems were incapable of further limestone solution, at least during periods of low flow. Many waters were supersaturated from their source and some deposited travertine. A significant negative correlation was found between spring discharge and both ([Omega]) and pH. Supersaturation was caused primarily by atmospheric degassing, with some contribution from aquatic plant photosynthesis.The median total dissolved inorganic carbon and Ca concentrations were 2.49 and 1.35 millimoles 1-1 respectively. Calcium originated exclusively from limestone, and carbon dioxide mainly from the soil and dissolved limestone. South facing catchments provided springwaters with significantly higher levels of TDIC and Ca when compared with north facing catchments. The study suggests that acid rain made a measurable contribution to limestone dissolution.Carboniferous limestone denudation rates were estimated as 54 to 63 m3 km-2 a-1 (54 to 63 mm 1000 years-1). About 50% of the Mg came from limestone and the remainder, together with most K, Na, SO4 and Cl from precipitation.Concentrations of dissolved nutrients were low, medians for NO3, NH4, total PO4 and SiO3 were 24 [mu]mol, 1.4 [mu]mol, 0.64 [mu]mol and 15.5 [mu]mol 1-1 respectively. The concentration of a further 23 trace elements was determined

This paper establishes statistical relationships describing the morphology of three contrasting drainage areas in the karst plateau of Guizhou. A landscape model proposed takes as its basis a two-tiered morphology: an upper tier of peaks and cols which maintains a dynamic equilibrium; and a lower tier defined by depression or valley bases which can evolve differentially in time and space. Thus equilibrium and evolutionary processes coexist in this type of karst landscape within the same timespan. The evlution of subcatchments is shown to be not necessarily the same as that of the total catchment because of tectonic factors

The anthropogenic impact on karst in Papua New Guinea is briefly introduced and a specific case is presented detailing the effect of road erosion sediments on a small karst. The karst is in the perennially humid tropics and covered with primary rain forest. The road was placed high above the karst on steep friable rock and traverses several of its catchments. The changes to and the rate of burial of parts of the karst and the infilling of the caves are described. The karst drainage has altered, and there is increased water storage. The sediment build-up ceased in less than a year due to vegetation and stabilization of the road embankments. It is concluded that any construction within a catchment leading to a karst should be assessed as to its impact on the karst

This paper discusses the results of a geological, hydrogeological, and hydrological analysis of the catchment boundaries and area of the Sv. Ivan karst spring. The underground watershed has been determined by geological and hydrogeological methods. The control used was the hydrologic water budget analysis appropriate for karst basins with limited data (Turc, 1954). The Sv. Ivan spring includes one main spring and several intermittent springs. The water in the main spring penetrates the flysch layers which limit the spring's discharge; therefore, the discharge of the main spring is fairly uniform. The ratio between minimum and maximum yearly discharges ranges from 1:3.3 to 1:12.8. Only a part of the water flows through the main spring while the other springs in the zone are overflows. The catchment area of Sv. Ivan spring zone is defined as 65 km2

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