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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That flood-water zone is see epiphreas.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for morocco (Keyword) returned 23 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 23 of 23
Paleoseismic phenomena in karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco, 2003,
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Angelova Dora, Belfoul M'hamed Alaeddin, Bouzid Sophia, Filahi Mustapha, Faik Farid

During the recent years there has been a growing interest in recording and investigating the effects of paleoseismic events in surface and underground karst in almost all countries. Karst represents a reliable reference marker for understanding the potential seismicity in regions with instrumentally established low to moderate seismicity. The karst errains in Bulgaria and Morocco occupy considerable areas. The disturbances in surface and underground karst had usually been provoked by catastrophic one-act events or by repeatedly activated movements by earthquakes. The catastrophic seismic events had disturbed the naturally interrelated karst ecosystems and were the reason for rejuvenation, reactivation or attenuation of karst processes. The natural surface and underground relief had been partially or entirely destroyed; a new type of relief had been formed; the geological environment had been disturbed; changes occurred in the flowrate and direction of surface and underground karst water; wetlands of the gravitation type had been formed; natural caves, local grabens, rock-falls and landslides collapsed partially or entirely and terrains were subjected to subsidence and destruction; the ecological balance in urbanized territories had been disturbed. The present work considers the different types of paleoseismic phenomena in the karst terrains in Bulgaria and Morocco. Recommendations are given for the protection of these areas.


Vulnerability mapping of the Turonian limestone aquifer in the Phosphates Plateau (Morocco), 2004,
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Ettazarini S. , Mahmouhi El. N.

Karst and cave systems in Bosnek region (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco), 2005,
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Angelova Dora, Beloul M'hamed Alaeddine, Bouzid Sophia, Faik Farid

The study of both endokarstic systems Bosnek (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco) is presented in this work. Both regions are standard for the study of geodynamic processes in Bulgaria and Morocco, and they could be used as geodynamic polygons in the Mediterranean region. The karst is developed in Triassic and Jurassic limestones. The karst processes in both endokarstic systems occur under the conditions of active Quaternary and recent tectonics. A typical structural karst is formed. The present work shows also the results of the comprehensive studies performed in the field of geology, tectonics, geomorpholody, hydrology, climatology, etc., of the karst. It is accented on the genesis and the evolution of the greatest cave systems in Bulgaria (Duhlata cave ý more than 17 km) and Morocco (Wintimdouine cave ý more than 19 km long). Both cave systems are situated in zones with high seismicity, with open surface and sud-surfase paleoseismic disruptions. The karst study and monitoring of its processes has great practical value in Bulgaria and Morocco because they are related to one of the largest urbanized territories ( Pernik and Sofia for Bulgaria, and Agadir for Morocco) and they are protected natural objectives as well.


Sedimentary manganese metallogenesis in response to the evolution of the Earth system, 2006,
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Roy Supriya,
The concentration of manganese in solution and its precipitation in inorganic systems are primarily redox-controlled, guided by several Earth processes most of which were tectonically induced. The Early Archean atmosphere-hydrosphere system was extremely O2-deficient. Thus, the very high mantle heat flux producing superplumes, severe outgassing and high-temperature hydrothermal activity introduced substantial Mn2 in anoxic oceans but prevented its precipitation. During the Late Archean, centered at ca. 2.75[no-break space]Ga, the introduction of Photosystem II and decrease of the oxygen sinks led to a limited buildup of surface O2-content locally, initiating modest deposition of manganese in shallow basin-margin oxygenated niches (e.g., deposits in India and Brazil). Rapid burial of organic matter, decline of reduced gases from a progressively oxygenated mantle and a net increase in photosynthetic oxygen marked the Archean-Proterozoic transition. Concurrently, a massive drawdown of atmospheric CO2 owing to increased weathering rates on the tectonically expanded freeboard of the assembled supercontinents caused Paleoproterozoic glaciations (2.45-2.22[no-break space]Ga). The spectacular sedimentary manganese deposits (at ca. 2.4[no-break space]Ga) of Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa, were formed by oxidation of hydrothermally derived Mn2 transferred from a stratified ocean to the continental shelf by transgression. Episodes of increased burial rate of organic matter during ca. 2.4 and 2.06[no-break space]Ga are correlatable to ocean stratification and further rise of oxygen in the atmosphere. Black shale-hosted Mn carbonate deposits in the Birimian sequence (ca. 2.3-2.0[no-break space]Ga), West Africa, its equivalents in South America and those in the Francevillian sequence (ca. 2.2-2.1[no-break space]Ga), Gabon are correlatable to this period. Tectonically forced doming-up, attenuation and substantial increase in freeboard areas prompted increased silicate weathering and atmospheric CO2 drawdown causing glaciation on the Neoproterozoic Rodinia supercontinent. Tectonic rifting and mantle outgassing led to deglaciation. Dissolved Mn2 and Fe2 concentrated earlier in highly saline stagnant seawater below the ice cover were exported to shallow shelves by transgression during deglaciation. During the Sturtian glacial-interglacial event (ca. 750-700[no-break space]Ma), interstratified Mn oxide and BIF deposits of Damara sequence, Namibia, was formed. The Varangian ([identical to] Marinoan; ca. 600[no-break space]Ma) cryogenic event produced Mn oxide and BIF deposits at Urucum, Jacadigo Group, Brazil. The Datangpo interglacial sequence, South China (Liantuo-Nantuo [identical to] Varangian event) contains black shale-hosted Mn carbonate deposits. The Early Paleozoic witnessed several glacioeustatic sea level changes producing small Mn carbonate deposits of Tiantaishan (Early Cambrian) and Taojiang (Mid-Ordovician) in black shale sequences, China, and the major Mn oxide-carbonate deposits of Karadzhal-type, Central Kazakhstan (Late Devonian). The Mesozoic period of intense plate movements and volcanism produced greenhouse climate and stratified oceans. During the Early Jurassic OAE, organic-rich sediments host many Mn carbonate deposits in Europe (e.g., Urkut, Hungary) in black shale sequences. The Late Jurassic giant Mn Carbonate deposit at Molango, Mexico, was also genetically related to sea level change. Mn carbonates were always derived from Mn oxyhydroxides during early diagenesis. Large Mn oxide deposits of Cretaceous age at Groote Eylandt, Australia and Imini-Tasdremt, Morocco, were also formed during transgression-regression in greenhouse climate. The Early Oligocene giant Mn oxide-carbonate deposit of Chiatura (Georgia) and Nikopol (Ukraine) were developed in a similar situation. Thereafter, manganese sedimentation was entirely shifted to the deep seafloor and since ca. 15[no-break space]Ma B.P. was climatically controlled (glaciation-deglaciation) assisted by oxygenated polar bottom currents (AABW, NADW). The changes in climate and the sea level were mainly tectonically forced

Cretaceous Karstic Cave-Fill Manganese-Lead-Barium Deposits of Imini, Morocco, 2006,
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Gutzmer J. , Beukes N. J. , Rhalmi M. , Mukhopadhyay J. ,
The economically important high-grade manganese ores of the Imini district, Morocco, are exceptional because of their unusually high Mn/Fe ratios and exceptional enrichment in Ba and Pb. There is ample evidence that the three strata-bound manganese orebodies of the Imini district formed in a laterally extensive karst cave system, associated with internal sediment, and developed in a shallow marine dolostone succession of Cretaceous age. The manganese ores occur in dolostone breccias and ferruginous clays that represent the earliest phase of internal sediment in the cave system. Later phases of cave fill are ferruginous without manganese enrichment. Ore formation, karstification, and meteoric dolomitization are all related to an extended period of exposure and terrestrial weathering, prior to the deposition of terrestrial red beds and evaporites of Upper Cretaceous age that overlie the ore-bearing dolostone succession above an erosional unconformity. The manganese ores formed when warm, acidic Mn2?? meteoric water migrated from the elevated regions of the Anti Atlas region into the exposed carbonate succession. Alkali feldspar-rich igneous basement rocks were the source for Mn, Pb, and Ba. Metals were deposited in a zone of mixing between metal-bearing, reducing meteoric water and oxygenated ground water resident in the cave system

How much did climate force the Messinian salinity crisis? Quantified climatic conditions from pollen records in the Mediterranean region, 2006,
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Fauquette S, Suc Jp, Bertini A, Popescu Sm, Warny S, Bachiri Taoufiq N, Perez Villa Mj, Chikhi H, Feddi N, Subally D,
The latest Miocene (5.96 to 5.33[no-break space]Ma) is characterised by an outstanding event: the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (Messinian salinity crisis). It has been suggested that this was caused by a tectonic event, with no climatic change playing a role in desiccation. Quantifying the climate of the region during this period will help support or refute this hypothesis. An effective method for reconstructing the climate from Neogene pollen data is the 'Climatic Amplitude Method' based on the modern climatic requirements of plants to interpret fossil data. It has been conceived especially for periods devoid of modern vegetation analogue.Twenty Messinian to Lower Zanclean pollen sequences are now available in the peri-Mediterranean region. Most of them do not cover the whole Messinian interval, particularly those along the Mediterranean shorelines where sedimentation was interrupted during the sea's desiccation. In contrast, sedimentation was almost continuous in such areas as the Atlantic side of Morocco, along the Adriatic coast (including the Po Valley), and to a lesser extent the Black Sea. The Mediterranean sites nonetheless provide a reliable if not a discontinuous record of vegetation variability in time and space.A first examination of the pollen diagrams reveals a high regional variability controlled by local conditions, and throughout the interval a southward increase in herb pollen frequency in contrast to the tree pollen frequency. This indicates that open and probably dry environments existed in the southern Mediterranean region prior to, during and after the salinity crisis. Trees developed in areas close to mountains such as in the Po Valley, in Cerdanya and in the Black Sea region. Most variations observed in the pollen diagrams are constrained by fluctuations of Pinus pollen amounts, indicating eustatic variations. Climatic quantification from pollen data does not show obvious climatic changes due to the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the dry and warm southwestern Mediterranean area (Sicily, southern Spain and North Africa). At Maccarone, along the Adriatic Sea, a decrease in temperatures of the coldest month and, less importantly, a decrease in mean annual temperatures, corresponding to a drastic vegetation change, are reconstructed. These temperature variations are assumed to be controlled by regional environmental changes (massive arrival of waters in this basin) rather than to reflect cooling, because some authors link the second phase of evaporite deposition to a period of global warming. Some migrations of plants probably occurred as a response to Mediterranean desiccation. But the climatic contrast which has probably existed at that time between the central Mediterranean and the peripheral areas might be amplified.Climatic reconstruction from pollen data in the western Mediterranean area shows that climate is not the direct cause of the Mediterranean desiccation, as the Mediterranean region had experienced continuously high evaporation long before the crisis. Therefore the main factor leading to this event seems to be the successive closures of the Betic and Rifian corridors, isolating the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean

Analyse spatiale de l´infiltration en domaine karstique méditerranéen de type semi-aride: cas du massif des Béni Snassen (MaAnalyse spatiale de l´infiltration en domaine karstique méditerranéen de type semi-aride: cas du, 2010,
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Tayebi A. , Jaillet S. , Gasquet D. , Bouabdellah M.


The genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928an Iberian-N African outlier of a mainly tropical tribe of millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae), 2013,
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Reboleira A. S. P. S. , Enghoff H.

The genus Boreviulisoma Brolemann, 1928, is revised. The synonymy of Liliputia Attems, 1952, under Boreviulisoma is confirmed, but L. badia Attems, 1951, from Spain, is resurrected, as Boreviulisoma badium, from synonymy under B. li-ouvilleiBrolemann, 1928 (the type species of Boreviulisoma) from Morocco. Boreviulisoma barrocalense n. sp. is de-scribed from the subterranean environment of the Algarve, the southernmost province of Portugal. The distribution of the three known species ofBoreviulisoma is mapped, main characters of the genus and its species are reviewed and a key to species of the genus is included. The isolated occurrence of Boreviulisoma badium and B. barrocalense n. sp. in the south-ern Iberian Peninsula, together with B. liouvillei and Eviulisoma abadi Mauriès, 1985, in Morocco, as northern outposts of the chiefly Afrotropical-Neotropical tribe Eviulisomatini, is discussed.


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