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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lamination is the layering or very thin bedding of sedimentary rocks [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for season (Keyword) returned 296 results for the whole karstbase:
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Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973,
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Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

Geology and hydrogeology of the El Convento cave-spring system, Southwestern Puerto Rico., 1974,
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Beck Barry F.
Whereas the North Coast Tertiary Limestones of Puerto Rico are classic karst locales, their southern counterparts are almost devoid of karst development. The El Convento Cave-Spring System is the most prominent feature of the only large scale karst area developed on the South Coast Tertiary limestones. The karst topography is localized on the middle Juana Diaz Formation, which is a reef facies limestone, apparently because of the high density and low permeability of this zone as compared to the surrounding chalks and marls. In the El Convento System a sinking ephemeral stream combines with the flow from two perennial springs inside the cave. The surface drainage has been pirated from the Rio Tallaboa to the east into El Convento's subterranean course. The climate is generally semi-arid with 125-150 cm of rain falling principally as short, intense showers during Sept., Oct., and Nov. Sinking flood waters are absorbed by a small sinkhole and appear two to three hours later in the cave. In the dry season this input is absent. The two springs within the cave have a combined inflow to the system of 1.0 m3/min at low flow but half of this leaks back to the groundwater before it reaches the resurgence. The spring waters are saturated with CaCO3 and high in CO2 (26.4 ppm). As the water flows through the open cave it first becomes supersaturated by losing CO2 and then trends back toward saturation by precipitating CaCO3.

The ecology of a predaceous troglobitic beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae). I Seasonality of food input and early life history stages., 1975,
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Kane Thomas C. , Norton Russell M. , Poulson L. Thomas
The adaptations in the life history of the Carabid beetle Neaphaenops tellkampfii has been investigated in respect to seasonal food input. The following characters have been studied: copulations, egg production, larvae and pupae.

The ecology of a predaceous troglobitic beetle, Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae). II Adult seasonality, feeding and recruitment., 1975,
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Kane Thomas C. , Norton Russell M. , Poulson Thomas L.
In deep cave areas with loose substrate and sufficient moisture, the life history of Neaphaenops tellkampfii (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae) is synchronized with the seasonal pattern of its primary food sources, the eggs and first instar nymphs of the cave cricket Hadenoecus subterraneus (Orthoptera Gryllacridoidea, Rhaphidophoridae). Neaphaenops reproduction coincides with an order of magnitude increase in Hadenoecus egg input in the spring. Our 46 observations of predation by Neaphaenops suggest some switching to other cave animals as cricket egg and first instar nymph densities decrease during the summer. Neaphaenops life history in areas of Hadenoecus egg input is as follows: (1) female Neaphaenops reach maximum fecundity at the time of the maximum density of frst instar Hadenoecus nymphs; (2) early instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in late summer and fall; (3) last instar Neaphaenops larvae appear in early spring and pupation occurs shortly thereafter; (4) lightly coloured teneral adults emerge two to three months later, a time consistent with laboratory estimates of the length of the pupal stage. Seasonal changes in sex ratio due to differential mortality appear to be consistent with this seasonal pattern. A comparison of Neaphaenops with two other species of carabid cricket egg predators suggests the importance of seasonal food abundance in determining life history seasonality. Darlingtonea kentuckensis has a food resource pattern which appears identical to that of Neaphaenops, and the life history seasonality is also parallel. Rhadine subterranea, however, seems to have a much more equitable food input throughout the year, and appears to have an aseasonal life history.

Seasonal changes in a population of Pseudanopthalmus tenuis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Murray Spring cave, Indiana: a preliminary report., 1975,
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Keith James H.
A study of a population of Pseudanophthalmus tenuis is being conducted in Murray Spring Cave, Orange County, Indiana as one facet of a larger research project encompassing the entire terrestrial community of that cave. Changes in behaviour and abundance determined by census and mark-recapture methods and physiological changes determined from field-collected beetles indicates that these animals exhibit a seasonal reproductive rhythm probably mediated or controlled by winter and spring flooding of the cave.

Lethargy in the cavernicolous Chiroptera in Central Africa., 1976,
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De Faveaux Michel Anciaux
From his personal research undertaken in the subterranean field (natural and artificial cavities) in Shaba (ex-Katanga, in S.E. Zaire) and Rwanda, the author briefly defines the macroclimate of the prospected regions as well as the microclimate of the subterranean habitat (humidity and temperature). A reversible hypothermia has been noticed in the dry season only (from May till August) in eleven species of troglophile Chiroptera belonging to the following families: Rhinolophidae (7 species of Rhinolophus), Hipposideridae (only Hipposideros ruber) and Vespertilionidae (Miniopterus inflatus rufus, Miniopterus schreibersi arenarius & M.s. natalensis, Myotis tricolor). No sign of lethargy has been noticed in the Megachiroptera (Lissonycteris angolensis, Rousettus aegyptiacus leachi), Emballonuridae (Taphozous perforatus sudani), Hipposideridae (Cloeotis percivali australis) or Nycteridae (3 species of Nycteris). There could be correlations between lethargy and breeding if one takes into account the phenomena of late ovulation and delayed implantation. The entry into lethargy is not caused by the scarcity of food. It does not concern all the individuals of a colony or in various populations of a cave. The degree of humidity appears to be more important than the temperature as far as the conditions for hibernation are concerned.

Remarks on the biology and ecology of Stenasellus virei Dollfus (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters)., 1976,
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Magniez Guy
Recent observations indicate that a laying season seems to exist, in karstic as well as in phreatic populations. Nevertheless, a single female cannot lay each year, because the reproductive intermolt averages 15-16 months and is always followed by one (9-10 months) or several non-reproductive intermolts. So, the minimum laying rhythm of female St. virei is biennial. The cavernicolous population (St. v. virei) of the Padirac swallow-hole is not a relict, but a colony separated from the main settlement of the alluvial waters of the Dordogne river. On the contrary, it is possible to find, close to each other, karstic and phreatic populations which belong to different subspecies (St. v. hussoni and St. v. boui) and live independently.

Karst Geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula, Ontario, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Cowell, Daryl William

This is the first detailed examination of the karst geomorphology of the Bruce Peninsula. It attempts to review all aspects including pavement phenomena and formation (microkarst features), surface and subsurface karst hydrology (meso to macro scale) and water chemistry. The latter is based on over 250 samples collected in 1973 and 1974.
The dolomite pavement is the best example of its kind that has been described in the literature. It covers much of the northern and eastern parts of the peninsula and can be differentiated into three types based on karren assemblages. Two of these are a product of lithology and the third reflects local environmental controls. The Amabel Formation produces characteristic karren such as rundkarren, hohlkarren, meanderkarren, clint and grike, kamentizas and rillenkarren on glacially abraded biohermal structures. The Guelph Formation develops into a very irregular, often cavernous surface with clint and grike and pitkarren as the only common recognizable karren. The third assemblage is characterized by pitkarren and is found only in the Lake Huron littoral zone. Biological factors are believed to have played a major role in the formation of the pavement. Vegetation supplies humic acids which help boost the solution process and helps to maintain a wet surface. This tends to prolong solution and permit the development of karren with rounded lips and bottoms.
Three types of drainage other than normal surface runoff are found on the Bruce. These are partial underground capture of surface streams, complete underground capture (fluvio-karst), and wholly vertical drainage without stream action (holokarst). Holokarst covers most of the northern and eastern edge of the peninsula along the top of the escarpment. Inland it is replaced by fluvial drainage, some of which has been, or is in the process of being captured. Four perennial streams and one lake disappear into sinkholes. These range from very simple channel capture and resurgence, as shown by a creek east of Wiarton, to more mature and complex cave development of the St. Edmunds cave near Tobermory. Partial underground capture represents the first stage of karst drainage. This was found to occur in one major river well inland of the fluvio-karst and probably occurs in other streams as well. This chapter also examines the possible future karst development of the Bruce and other karst feature such as isolated sinks and sea caves.
The water chemistry presented in Chapter 5 represents the most complete data set from southern Ontario. It is examined on a seasonal basis as well as grouped into classes representing water types (streams, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay, inland lakes, swamps, diffuse springs and conduit springs). The spring analyses are also fitted into climatic models of limestone solution based on data from other regions of North America. It was found that solution rates in southern Ontario are very substantial. Total hardness ranges from 150 to 250 ppm (expressed as CaCO3) in most lakes and streams and up to 326 ppm in springs. These rates compare with more southerly latitudes. The theoretical equilibrium partial pressure of CO2 was found to be the most significant chemical variable for comparing solution on different kinds of carbonates and between glaciated and non-glaciated regions. Expect for diffuse flow springs and Lake Huron, the Bruce data do not separate easily into water types using either graphical or statistical (i.e. Linear Discriminant Analysis) analyses. This is partly because of the seasonality of the data and because of the intimate contact all waters have with bedrock.


A Geomorphological Assessment of the Chillagoe Karst Belt, Queensland, 1976,
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Marker, Margaret E.

The geomorphological characteristics of the Chillagoe karst belt are analysed in terms of an evolution controlled by seasonally arid climatic conditions and lithological variation in the metamorphosed host rock.


Variation among populations of the troglobitic Amphipod Crustacean Crangonyx antennatus Packard living in different habitats. I. Morphology., 1977,
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Dickson Gary W.
Populations of the troglobitic (i.e., obligatory cavernicole) amphipod Crangonyx antennatus living in two distinct aquatic habitats were examined for possible morphological variation. Collections were made seasonally for one year in six Lee Co., Virginia caves, three with mud-bottom pools and three with small gravel-bottom streams. Environmental parameters thought to influence population variation were recorded for each of the six caves. Body length of mature amphipods was found to be greater in the mud-bottom pool habitats, whereas stream amphipods possessed more first antennal segments per unit body length. Variation was also observed in integument coloration; stream amphipods were characterized by a brownish integument and pool amphipods a whitish integument. Differences in the type and amount of available food in the two habitats is considered the most important environmental parameter affecting morphological variation. The population variation noted between habitats is believed indicative of the adaptive flexibility of this vagile troglobitic species.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977,
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Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.


Ecological investigations of the influence of a polluted river on surrounding interstitial underground waters., 1978,
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Lattingerpenko Romana, Mestrov Milan
Because of the fundamental biological investigations and also of the practical importance, the authors investigated interstitial subterranean water (hyporheic) near a polluted river Sava in the plain where the underground waters are considered as potable. With the comparison of the physical, chemical, bacteriological, saprobiological and faunistic characteristics of the river and its hyporheic zone in different seasons their mutual relation is detected. The results show the influence of polluted river water on the hyporheic water within the river bed to at least 2 m depth.

Karst development in Ordovician carbonates: Western Platform of Newfoundland, Master of Science (MS) Thesis, 1978,
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Karolyi, Marika Sarolta

The Appalachian fold belt system in Newfoundland is divided into three tectonic divisions: Western Platform; Central Mobile Belt; Avalon Platform Rocks of the Western Platform range in age from Precambrian to Carboniferous. Major karst areas are found there is Ordovician and Carboniferous rocks. Karst features of the study area (Goose Arm to Bonne Bay Big Pond) are in the Ordovician carbonates of the undivided St. George and Table Head Formations, covering a few hundred square kilometers. Features include karren, sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst springs, caves and other solutional and collapse features.
In the study area multiple fold and faulting episodes complicate the geology. Extensive and probably repeated glaciations have produced rugged terrane with U-shaped valleys and as much as 300m relief on the carbonates. There is variable but thick till cover. A class or classes of ice-scoured closed depressions with internal drainage are recognized. Postglacial karst forms are limited to varieties of karren (mainly littoral), small sinkholes, and cave systems that are inaccessively small in most instances. Distribution of all karst features is highly irregular.
Hydrologic patterns follow fluvial, fluviokarstic and holokarstic drainage. Large number of sinking ponds have seasonal overflow channels. The ground water drainage routes are generally short and shallow, with varied hydraulic gradients. Few instances of ground water route integration to regional springs is found.
The water chemistry of the area displays a tight normal distribution of hardness. This is attributed to the ponding effect. Seasonal trends show an overall increase in total hardness and other parameters, with some ponds showing linear increases and others cyclic variations.
Karst type and distribution is complex and irregular, but both glaciokarstic and karstiglacial development is present. The majority of karst forms point to karstiglacial development where previous karst forms have been modified by ice. Karstification is controlled by geology, rock lithology, hydraulic gradients and glacial scour and infill. Karstic processes continue to operate today, modifying the scoured basins and creating new karst forms.


Variation among Populations of the Troglobitic Amphipod Crustacean Crangonyx antennatus Packard (Crangonyctidae) Living in Different Habitats, III: Population Dynamics and Stability., 1981,
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Dickson Gary W. , Holsinger John R.
Populations of the troglobitic amphipod Crangonyx antennatus from caves in Lee Co., Virginia (U.S.A.) were investigated on both a short and long term basis. The dynamics of populations living in two distinct aquatic cave habitats (mud-bottom pools and gravel-bottom streams) were compared seasonably for one year. Sex ratios indicated a larger number of females in both pool and stream habitats. The majority of males in both habitats were found to be sexually mature throughout the year investigated. Seasonal fluctuations in female maturity were observed in both habitats, with larger numbers collected in June and August. In addition, a larger number of ovigerous females were observed in the spring, indicating the possibility of a circannian reproductive cycle in both pools and streams. The structure of populations from the caves studied appears to reflect a controlled recruitment of females from immature to mature stages. In order to determine the stability of population structure, collection data from a pool and a stream habitat for a l0-year period were analyzed. Population structures were found to be relatively stable over long periods in both habitats, with immature females comprising the dominant population class.

Variation of Hardness in Cave Drips at Two Tasmanian Sites, 1981,
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Goede, Albert

Thirteen consecutive monthly samples were collected from two drip sites at each of two Tasmanian caves: Little Trimmer at Mole Creek and Frankcombe Cave in the Florentine Valley. At one of the two drip sites in Little Trimmer a positive relationship was found between the logarithm of precipitation and the total hardness without any detectable lag effect. No such relationship was detected at the other drip site despite its close proximity. At both drip sites the hardness values fail to show a seasonal pattern and are clearly unrelated to surface temperature variations. In strong contrast both drip sites in Frankcombe Cave showed significant seasonal variation and close positive correlation with mean monthly temperature with lag times of one and two months respectively. At one of the two drip sites the influence of monthly precipitation on variations in drip hardness could also be detected. The strong temperature dependence of cave drip hardness values at these sites may well be due to soil exposure to direct insolation following recent clearfelling and burning of vegetation in the area.


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