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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That porosity, tertiary is porosity caused by solutional enlargement of secondary porosity. see also pore; pore space; porosity; porosity, effective; porosity, primary; porosity, secondary.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for coast (Keyword) returned 353 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 353
Geology and hydrogeology of the El Convento cave-spring system, Southwestern Puerto Rico., 1974,
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Beck Barry F.
Whereas the North Coast Tertiary Limestones of Puerto Rico are classic karst locales, their southern counterparts are almost devoid of karst development. The El Convento Cave-Spring System is the most prominent feature of the only large scale karst area developed on the South Coast Tertiary limestones. The karst topography is localized on the middle Juana Diaz Formation, which is a reef facies limestone, apparently because of the high density and low permeability of this zone as compared to the surrounding chalks and marls. In the El Convento System a sinking ephemeral stream combines with the flow from two perennial springs inside the cave. The surface drainage has been pirated from the Rio Tallaboa to the east into El Convento's subterranean course. The climate is generally semi-arid with 125-150 cm of rain falling principally as short, intense showers during Sept., Oct., and Nov. Sinking flood waters are absorbed by a small sinkhole and appear two to three hours later in the cave. In the dry season this input is absent. The two springs within the cave have a combined inflow to the system of 1.0 m3/min at low flow but half of this leaks back to the groundwater before it reaches the resurgence. The spring waters are saturated with CaCO3 and high in CO2 (26.4 ppm). As the water flows through the open cave it first becomes supersaturated by losing CO2 and then trends back toward saturation by precipitating CaCO3.

Donnees geomorphologiques sur la region de Fresh Creek, Ile Andros (Bahama), 1974,
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Bourrouilh F,
A geomorphological study of the east coast of Andros (Fresh Creek area) shows the existence of a paleotopography represented by low-altitude hills (few metres). This paleotopography is protected by the presence of a calcitic Quaternary crust which covers Pleistocene calcarenite.In the western part of the area, there are long woody axes, oriented NE-SW, parallel to the channels of the creek. They end at two kilometres from the coast, along which is a second kind of lower hills, orthogonal to the first.The first axes can be interpreted as megaripples as seen at the present time on modern deposits (on the Great Bahama Bank) and fossilized by the upper crust. The second direction is made by accretion ripples along the coast.The surface of the Bahamian calcarenite has been studied. The Bahamian karst presents two topographical forms: “blue holes” like those outside the island, which are 60-80 m in diameter and both sparse and deep; and “washtub” dolines; these are numerous and shallow, and, from low altitude, exhibit a honeycombed aspect on the surface. This karstic topography with dolines and blue holes is also seen through the water of the Creek the hard bottom of which is covered only here and there with a few centimetres of sediments. Hence, there is a submerged karstic topography, made of the same elements as the aerial karst, but submerged by the Holocene transgression. The present karstic relief, in relation with the different eustatic levels of the Quaternary, has begun 120,000 years ago, according to the isotopic ages, and might be composed by different steps, difficult to show now, in the topography.The blue holes in the interior of the island of young and little evolved karst, were formed more by solution than by collapse of the karstic caves, because of the absence of a real river to drain the Andros shelf at the time of low sea levels. Blue holes of the inside of the island, as they are called, with submarine openings, have the same salinity as the water of the creek (17.5 g/l). The dolines with very low salinity (0.7 g/l to 3.8 g/l) are filled with stromatolites and charophytes, slowly forming sediments made up essentially of high-magnesian calcite.It seems that the Andros Island karst can be compared with that of the Yucatan, where there are round and deep open pits, called cenote, of which the Bahamian equivalent would be the blue holes which were drowned by the Holocene transgression.ResumeSur l'ile Andros, zone emergee du Grand Banc de Bahama, l'auteur montre l'existence d'une paleotopographie comprenant deux categories de rides d'orientation differente et semblant fossilisee par une croute calcitique recente et l'existence d'un karst aux formes jeunes, bien qu'heritage d'un karst holocene en voie de submersion. Ces formes sont des “blue holes” ou trous bleus circulaires (60 a 80 m de diametre) et peu nombreux, et des dolines, dites en baquet. Dans ces dolines se deposent actuellement des croutes stromatolithiques calcitiques dont l'etude est faite par diffractometrie de rayons X et microscopie electronique a balayage

A new species of Parajapygidae from the Caribbean shores of Cuba collected by Pr. L. Botosaneanu during the second cuban-romanian biospeleological expedition to Cuba 1973., 1975,
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Pages Jean.
P. (P.) botosaneanui n.sp. has been collected in the interstitial habitat of the Caribbean shores on the eastern coast of Cuba. This note is divided into 6 parts: 1) the description by L. Botusaneanu of the stations where this species has been collected and data on the possibility for the specimens of this taxa to swim and to creep between the grains of sand; 2) the description and the affinities of the n. sp., which is closely related to bonetianus Silv. from Mexico; 3) the study of the male genitalia made possible the definition of 4 instars (male 1 to male 4) which seem common to all the Parajapyx; 4) the study of the 9 genitalia, which possess always the same number of phanera, whatever the size may be, does not permit the identification of instars; 5) the study of the armature of the internal margin of the cerci shows for the first time among the Parajapygidae a striking dimorphismus both between the sexless and sexed instars and between male and female, these latter retaining, when "adult", an ornamentation identical to that of juvenil males: 6) the study of evolution and progressive complication of the chetotaxy from the sexless instars to the elder ones.

New data on the Foraminifera of the groundwaters of Middle Asia., 1976,
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Mikhalevich Valeria I.
New data obtained during the expedition to Middle Asia (1973) essentially enlarge our knowledge of foraminifera living in underground waters. Seven new species were discovered in the wells of the Kara-Kum and Ust-Urt deserts. All of them contain cytoplasma. The wells are situated in the region of bedding of underground waters of the heightened salinity in the zone of balance of runoff and evaporation. The majority of the species described in our work like many of the species recorded from the underground waters earlier (Brodsky, 1928; Nikoljuk, 1968; Jankovskaja and Mikhalevich, 1972) belong to the genera living in coastal brackish parts of tropical seas. This fact confirms the supposition of Brodsky about the transition of the marine coastal foraminiferal fauna to underground habitats after the regression of the sea. This fauna is a part of the underground fauna called by Nalivkin (1965) "the planetar fauna of the new type".

On karst phenomena occurring in the southern part of Spitsbergen. [in Polish], 1977,
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Pulina, Marian

Coastal karst. Chemical evolution of waters and the development of underground drainage in coastal limestone regions. [in Polish], 1977,
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Rudnicki, Jan

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology of the Sierra de El Abra and the Valles-San Luis Potosí Region, México, PhD Thesis, 1977,
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Fish, Johnnie Edward

The general objective of this work was to develop a basic understanding of the karst hydrology, the nature and origin of the caves, the water chemistry, the surface geomorphology, and relationships among these aspects for a high relief tropical karst region having a thick section of limestone. The Valles-San Luis Potosí region of northeastern México, and in particular, the Sierra de El Abra, was selected for the study. A Cretaceous Platform approximately 200 km wide and 300 km long (N-S) delimits the region of interest. A thick Lower Cretaceous deposit of gypsum and anydrite, and probably surrounded by Lower Cretaceous limestone facies, is overlain by more than 1000 m of the thick-bedded middle Cretaceous El Abra limestone, which has a thick platform-margin reef. The Sierra de El Abra is a greatly elongated range along the eastern margin of the Platform. During the late Cretaceous, the region was covered by thick deposits of impermeable rocks. During the early Tertiary, the area was folded, uplifted, and subjected to erosion. A high relief karst having a wide variety of geomorphic forms controlled by climate and structure has developed. Rainfall in the region varies from 250-2500 mm and is strongly concentrated in the months June-October, when very large rainfalls often occur.
A number of specific investigations were made to meet the general objective given above, with special emphasis on those that provide information concerning the nature of ground-water flow systems in the region. Most of the runoff from the region passes through the karstic subsurface. Large portions of the region have no surface runoff whatsoever. The El Abra Formation is continuous over nearly the whole Platform, and it defines a region of very active ground-water circulation. Discharge from the aquifer occurs at a number of large and many small springs. Two of them, the Coy and the Frío springs group, are among the largest springs in the world with average discharges of approximately 24 m³/sec and 28 m³/sec respectively. Most of the dry season regional discharge is from a few large springs at low elevations along the eastern margin of the Platform. The flow systems give extremely dynamic responses to large precipitation events; floods at springs usually crest roughly one day after the causal rainfall and most springs have discharge variations (0max/0min) of 25-100 times. These facts indicate well-developed conduit flow systems.
The hydrochemical and hydrologic evidence in combination with the hydrogeologic setting demonstrate the existence of regional ground-water flow to several of the large eastern springs. Hydrochemical mixing-model calculations show that the amount of regional flow is at least 12 m³/sec, that it has an approximately constant flux, and that the local flow systems provide the extremely variable component of spring discharge. The chemical and physical properties of the springs are explained in terms of local and regional flow systems.
Local studies carried out in the Sierra de El Abra show that large conduits have developed, and that large fluctuations of the water table occur. The large fossil caves in the range were part of great deep phreatic flow systems which circulated at least 300 m below ancient water tables and which discharged onto ancient coastal plains much higher than the present one. The western margin swallet caves are of the floodwater type. The cave are structurally controlled.
Knowledge gained in this study should provide a basis for planning future research, and in particular for water resource development. The aquifer has great potential for water supply, but little of that potential is presently used.


Caves Of Woodlark Island, Papua New Guinea, 1979,
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Ollier C. D. , Pain C. F.

Woodlark Island consists of folded Tertiary rocks with a cover of Quaternary coral limestone that contains caves of two kinds:- river passage caves and shallow coastal caves mainly at old spring sites. Many caves contain remains of human burials and associated pottery.


Sea Caves of King Island, 1979,
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Goede Albert, Harmon Russell, Kiernan Kevin

Investigation of two King Island sea caves developed in quartzitic rocks shows them to contain a wealth of clastic and chemical sediments. Clastic sediments consist of wave-rounded cobbles, debris cones, and angular rock fragments produced by frost weathering and crystal wedging. Chemical deposits include a variety of calcium carbonate speleothems and also gypsum occurring as wall crusts and blisters. The latter appear to be a speleothem type of rare occurrence. Growth of gypsum is responsible for some crystal wedging of the bedrock. Three basal stalagmite samples have been dated by the Th/U method indicating Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene speleothem growth. The caves are believed to have formed by preferential wave erosion during the Last Interglacial in altered and fractured quartzites. The evidence for pre-Holocene evolution of sea caves and geos in the Tasman region is summarised. Tasmania and the Bass Strait Islands provide a particularly favourable environment for the preservation of relict landforms on rocky coasts because of Late Quaternary uplift. The potential of further studies of sea caves to test two recently advanced archaeological hypotheses is discussed.


Distribution of Ostracods in the Groundwater of the North Western Coast of Euboea (Greece)., 1981,
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Danielopol Dan L.
Freshwater fauna from 20 wells located 15-200 m from the seashore as well as marine interstitial fauna from the coastal zone around the village Aghios Georghios (Cape Likhada) have been investigated. Freshwater hypogean ostracods live mainly in protected wells having clean bottom and little particulate organic matter from which the water is moderately pumped. Epigean freshwater ostracods dominate in unprotected wells with large amounts of organic matter on the bottom. There is a sharp difference between the ostracod fauna living in fresh groundwater (mainly Cypridids) and those living in coastal marine interstitial habitats (marine Cytherids and Polycopids). It is suggested that in the Mediterranean realm the hypogean fauna could be found easily in protected wells with little organic matter accumulation, where water is moderately pumped.

Lithification of peritidal carbonates by continental brines at Fisherman Bay, South Australia, to form a megapolygon/spelean limestone association, 1982,
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Ferguson J, Burne Rv, Chambers La,
Lithification, which commenced less than 3000 yrs BP is still active, and has formed a cavernous limestone containing megapolygons, tepees, and speleothems including pisoliths, floe aragonite, and aragonite pool deposits. The emerging waters evolved from low alkalinity waters of Pleistocene sand and clay coastal plain aquifers which passed through an underlying Tertiare marine carbonate aquifer, have high P CO2 , total carbonate, Ca, and sulfate concentrations. They are close to saturation with respect to aragonite, and their mMg (super 2) /mCa (super 2) ratios approach or exceed the critical aragonite precipitation value. Features which diagnose ancient examples of this process: primary aragonitic cements with high mSr (super 2) /mCa (super 2) values; nonmarine delta 34 S values in gypsum; two superimposed networks of surface polygons, one delineated by extensional boundaries, the other by tepees; high-water vadose-zone isopachous grain cements; interconnected, speleothem-lined cavities; and the presence of evaporites only in surface sediments. Possible ancient examples are recognized in West Texas, Lombardy, and the Atlas Mountains. The areal extent of each of these deposits suggests that the process may be a geologically important feature, and its products may be diagnostic of semi-arid or arid-zone paralic sedimentation.--Modified journal abstract

Relation dbit / niveau de la mer de l'mergence littorale d'Almyros Agios Nikolaos (Crte, Grce), 1983,
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Bezes C. , Joseph C.
RELATION FLOW-SEA LEVEL OF SALT KARSTIC RESURGENCE BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION WITH THE WATER TABLE - The Amlyros Agios Nikolaos spring is a brackish karstic resurgence on the eastern coast of Crete. Its flow varies in the reverse order versus the sea level. The circulation of the out effect recession curve of the spring was done with the building of a multiple regression between the sea level, the spring flow and the water table. An adjustment about the mean sea level ensures the preservation of outflow.

Nouvelles recherches gomorphologiques sur les karsts mditerranens, 1983,
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Nicod, J.
NEW RESEARCHES ON THE MEDITERRANEAN KARSTS - More precise measurements are now being used to establish the rates of which limestone dissolves and the corrosion processes (regular hydrochemical measurements, Iv. GAMS limestone tablets method). In the study of the morphological evolution, the role of the quaternary paleoclimate is estimated by dating on the speleothems and the meaning of the outer carbonate formations has been revealed. Bauxite and terra rossa and various weatings make it possible to specify the pre-quaternary evolution and the origin of paleokarsts. Thanks to new methods, the influence of neotectonic is taken into account, especially the effects of the rise of numerous massifs to which we can add the variations in the sea level with coastal limestone formations. By way of conclusions we must stress the importance of studying karstical surroundings and the problems of applied karstology studies.

Karst et littoral du Bec de Caux (Seine-Maritime), 1983,
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Rodet, J.
KARST AND COAST OF BEC DE CAUX, (SEINE-MARITIME, FRANCE) - The Pays de Caux seaside takes a preferential place in the importance of karstic features in the chalk of Normandy, because of the section of the sea cliffs. This exceptional frame allows three main observations. The first one is the investigation of springs, which places flooded paleo-karst in a prominent position. Those karstic phases, under the seal evel, have their counterpart above it. Study of development and the distribution of the passages in the Cap Fagnet underground pattern, shows these different karstic bases, and their relations, giving a true underground delta of active springs. The second aspect concerns the relations between dry caves and coastal-line carvings. It appears a typology, showing the influence of karstification in the morphology of caps. The third point is about quality of entrance infillings, as paleogeographic witness, and contributor in valuation of the shoreline evolution, in Etretat area, especially during the Flandrian transgression.

Palaeoenvironment of lateritic bauxites with vertical and lateral differentiation, 1983,
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Valeton Ida,
Formation of lateritic bauxites of the type described in this paper occurs world-wide in Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal plains. The bauxites form elongate belts, sometimes hundreds of kilometres long, parallel to Lower Tertiary shorelines in India and South America and their distribution is not related to a particular mineralogical composition of the parent rock. The lateral movement of the major elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti is dependent on a high level and flow of groundwater. Varying efficiency of subsurface drainage produces lateral facies variations. Interfingering of marine and continental facies indicate a sea-land transition zone where the type of sediments also varies with minor tectonic movements or sea-level changes. A typical sediment association is found in India, Africa, South and North America. It consists of (i) red beds rich in detrital and dissolved material of reworked laterites, (ii) lacustrine sediments and hypersaline precipitates, (iii) lignites intercalated with marine clays, layers of siderite, pyrite, marcasite and jarosite, and (iv) marine chemical sediments rich in oolitic iron ores or glauconite. A model is developed to account for element distributions in lateritic bauxites in terms of groundwater levels and flow. Finally it is shown that many high-level bauxites are formed in coastal plains and that they are subsequently uplifted to their present altitude

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