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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That table mountain is a flat topped mountain (mesa) [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for activity (Keyword) returned 366 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 366
Observations on marked and unmarked Trichoptera in the Barehohle in Lonetal (Swabian Jura)., 1973,
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Dobat Klaus
1.The Brenhhle, one of the ten caves situated in the episodically water-bearing valley of the Lone (Swabian Jura), serves as summer quarters for the total of ten species of Trichoptera, most of which are Micropterna nycterobia and Stenophylax permistus. 2.Counts carried out in this cave from 1967-1972 and observations of flood and dry-periods of the Lone during the same years make evident that the number of Trichoptera flying into the cave seems to depend in a large measure on the seasonal activity of the creek: a steady flow of water makes the undisturbed development of larvae possible and results in high numbers of individuals entering by air, while intermittent water-flow disturbs the development of the larvae and results in few individuals entering. 3.Such factors as darkness, humidity, and temperature which cause or favour the active entrance by air of Trichoptera into the cave as well as the "diapause" taking place in the subterranean region are considered. 4.Dynamically climatized caves or caves which are too small are rarely occupied by Trichoptera; they evidently prefer larger caves with climatically balanced regions (comparatively low temperatures and high atmospheric moisture) not too far from the entrance. 5.Trichoptera start flying into the Barenhohle generally in May; the highest number of individuals and copulating couples may be found as early as July. They start flying out by the end of July or in August/September, the last of them leaving the cave generally in September or October. 6.Two attempts at marking (on 28th June all Trichoptera to be found in the cave were marked with black ink, on 4th July all yet unmarked with red ink) gave better evidence of their disposition and time of copulation as well as of the number of arriving unmarked and departing marked specimens. 7.The Trichoptera marked with black ink stayed in the cave for a maximum of 85 days, the ones marked with red ink for a maximum of 79 days. Food intake was not observed during this period, and there was no indication of the insects' leaving the cave during their diapause. 8.Trichoptera are characterized by a remarkably long time of copulation: a specimen marked twice was in copula for 22 days, and before copulation it had been in the cave for 49 days.

Karst processes of the eastern upper Galilee, Northern Israel, 1974,
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Gerson R,
Karst processes dominate most of the geomorphic activity in the Upper Galilee, consisting mainly of dolomites and limestones. Study of the chemical evolution of water passing through the karst hydrologic cycle clearly shows that the major portion of its carbonate solute is gained subaerially and in the upper part of the vadose zone. Most cave and spring water is already saturated with respect to aragonite and calcite.The karst depressions typical to surface morphology are mostly associated with fault-line traces. Their evolution is possible mainly in areas sloping initially less that 5[deg].The absence of evolved caves, representing well-developed karst of an earlier period, is attributed mainly to the marginal climate throughout the past combined with tectonic, and hence hydrologic, instability of the region.The discharge of the karst prings shows clearly dependence on annual precipitation, with a lag of about 2 years of the response to drought or more humid periods. Long-term fluctuations are larger in the smaller T'eo Spring than in the affluent 'Enan Springs.Most of the denuded material is extracted from the region as dissolved load via underground conduits and only small amounts as clastics. Mean long-term denudation is approximately 20 mm/1000 years, averaged for the surface area contributing to the springs.In spite of the above, most topographic forms are shaped by runoff erosion, active during medium to high intensity rainstorms. Solution processes prevail during low to medium rainfall intensities, while different parts of the region are denuded at similar rates. Even in karst depressions, erosion becomes dominant after their bottoms are covered by almost impervious terra-rossa mantle

Investigations into the watertightness of the proposed Gordon-above-Olga hydro-electric storage South-west Tasmania, 1974,
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Roberts Glyn T. , Andric Miodrag,
The Gordon-above-Olga scheme is one of several major hydro-electric developments under investigation in the south-west of Tasmania. The proposed storage area includes a zone of Palaeozoic limestone forming part of the eastern limb of a synclinal structure which provided a potential for the existence of leakage paths capable of threatening the viability of the scheme. The geology of the area is described and the methods used in assessing the likelihood of existence of subjacent karst are detailed. The conclusion is drawn on several grounds that neither recent nor ancient activity is likely to have markedly affected the limestone through the synclinorium. In consequence the water-tightness of the proposed reservoir is predicted

Observations on the biology of Stenasellus virei (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of subterranean waters), 1975,
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Magniez Guy
St. virei has been bred in the laboratory for many years (1960-1974). Most of the St.v.hussoni were captured in karstic waters, near the Moulis subterranean laboratory. Some St.v.virei from the Padirac sink-hole; St.v.buchneri from Cantabrian caves; St.v.boui and St.v.virei from phreatic waters; and St.buili and St.breuili have also been bred. Since Stenasellids are unable to swim, very low aquariums are used, with a bed of cave clay, some calcareous stones, dead wood and dead elm tree leaves. Little depth of water is necessary. Stenasellus was originally carnivorous, being able to capture and devour living prey, such as Chironomid larvae, but the populations of cave waters have developed a different diet: silt, guano, plant remains..., because they have been often insulated from their original phreatic biocenosis. Nevertheless, the existence of cannibalism among them points out that the predatory behaviour has not completely disappeared. Adult St.virei can be fed with Cerophyl. Some observations on the burrowing activity and on the reactions to light, temperature and salt water have been made. All postmarsupial molts of Stenasellus occur in two steps (isopodian molts). The intramolt is extremely long (from 83 h 30 mi for the first molt of the free young), to 8-12 days, for the adult male and female, 14 days for female reproductive molts and 16-21 days for the molts of aged or senile individuals). The intermolts last from 2 1/2 months (first intermolt of the free young), to 9-12 months (non-reproductive ones of the adult) and 12-18 months (average: 15-16), for reproductive 9 intermolts. The normal lifespan of karstic subspecies of St.virei and related species must be estimated as 12 years (males) and 15 years (females). All these values are 10-20 times longer than these of an epigean Asellid of the same size (Asellus aquaticus). The reproductive cycle has been studied. The adult female is larger than the male. There is no precopulatory pairing ("nuptial ride"d 6-7 years or more, fur the female. In the juvenile male, the morphogenesis of I and Il pleopods takes place normally on intermolts 4-9 and lasts 3 years or more. On intermolt 10, it seems that the male is able to mate.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Microflora and activity of functional groups in the sediments of three caves of Central Italy., 1978,
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Fumanti B. , Pasqualini A. , Vison L.
A comparative study is presented of the microflora of sediments in three caves with different trophic characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative variations of microflora were investigated for one year by studying the total microflora and the activity of the nitrogen cycle functional groups. Data were compared with those of other works of previous authors. Results show that the quantity and kind of organic matter of sediment are most important factors regulating the abundance and activity of cavernicolous microflora. The experimental part of this paper is prefaced by a digest of investigations previously carried out on cavernicolous microflora and by a report of topographic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and trophic characteristics of the caves examined.

Spontaneous and induced acivity patterns in troglobite beetles (Genera Aphaenops, Geotrechus,Speonomus)., 1978,
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Lamprecht G. , Weber F.
In Constant temperature the troglobite beetles Aphaenops cerberus and pluto, Geotrechus orpheus and Speonomus diecki are aperiodically active. By periodogram analysis neither circadian nor ultradian or infradian periodic components can be found. Moreover there are no relevant correlations between the lengths of successive activity bursts and rest pauses. Consequently the activity patterns are stochasticly structured.; In cases with constancy of activity respectively rest behaviour the probabilities for the transition from activity to rest and from rest to activity are computed using the Frequency histograms of lengths of activity bursts and rest pauses. The transition probability is time-invariant if the observed histogram can be approximated to the negative exponential function. Y=ae -fx . The transition probability increases continuously if the observed histogram can be approximated to the Poisson or normal function. -74% of the investigated frequency histograms of the length of activity bursts and 57% of the histograms of the lengths of rest pauses can be approximated to one of the tested functions. -Aphaenops and Geotrechus specimens do not react to changes of the illumination intensity. Conversely temperature cycles induce distinct activity periodicities. In Aphaenops the mean length of activity bursts is -on the average; less temperature dependent than the mean length of rest pauses. Moreover, in this species the mean length of bursts is weakly negatively correlated with the mean length of pauses.; The evolution and adaptive reactions of the random mechanism of activity control in troglobite animals are discussed.

Locomotor responses of the cave fish Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) to periodic and aperiodic light and temperature signals., 1978,
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Thins Georges, Weyers M.
The locomotory activity of adult cave fishes Astyanax jordani was recorded in isolation in the following light and temperature conditions: constant conditions (100 Lx; 200C), in a light cycle (LD:11/11 -10 Lx -100 Lx) and in a temperature cycle (11/11; 17/20, 19/22, 20/23, 27/30 C). All longitudinal time series extended for a minimum of 30 days. Results show: (1) That no circadian regulation appears in constant conditions; (2) that passive entrainment occurs in LD (Amplitude: 90 Lx) and in periodic temperature conditions (Amplitude: 3C). The entrainment effect damps out and varies individually; (3) that the mean activity increases with temperature; (4) The adjustment of activity to periodic signals is individually stable. These results suggest that A. Jordani is devoid of any endogenous oscillator of the circadian type. The observed thermal adaptation could have the following functions: (1) To increase the level of activity in function of the thermal level under the form of passive entrainment; (2) To enhance the exploratory behaviour of the fish in search of a thermal preference allowing the animal to keep inside a well defined zone of the subterranean biotope in relation to small local temperature changes.

Notes on Summer Bat Activity at Michigan Caves, 1980,
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Kurta, Allen

Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchung der Bakterienflora und Bestimmung ihrer heterotrophen Aktivitt in organisch belastetem und unbelastetem Grundwasser sandig-kiesiger Ablagerungen., 1981,
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Marxsen Jurgen
Bacteriological investigations were carried out in the groundwater of sandy and gravelly deposits of the river Fulda valley in an area named Johannesaue near the town Fulda (Hesse, Fed. Rep. of Germany). In January 1979 water samples were collected from 16 pumping tubes distributed in organically polluted and unpolluted areas. For characterizing the bacterial populations, methods used for surface waters were modified and, as far as the author is aware, these methods were used for the first time for investigations pertaining subterranean waters. The bacteria were counted by means of epifluorescence microscopy after staining the bacteria with the fluorochrome acridine orange. This technique renders possible the simultaneous registration of shape and size of bacteria. Parameters characterizing the heterotrophic bacterial activity were measured with 14C-labelled glucose. The number of bacteria in the groundwater collected through pumping tubes, varied from 1.4 to 11.3 million bacteria per ml. The relative glucose uptake potential vr, which was measured at one substrate concentration (600 microg glucose .1-1) where the maximum uptake velocity is almost reached, was 0.12; 0.74 microg glucose 1-1 .h-1. The corresponding specific potential was 0.02-0.18 microg glucose h-1 cell-1. The results agreed with the values of maximum uptake velocity Vmax which was measured at the same time in some of the groundwater samples. The data give first information about distribution of the number of bacteria and of heterotrophic bacterial activity in the groundwater of the investigation area. Relationships could be shown between the bacteriological parameters on the one hand and the concentration of oxygen and the values of COD measured with KMnO4 on the other hand.

Paleohydrogeologic reconstructions, 1982,
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Pinneker E. V.

Effect of mining activity on thermal karst springs (Transdanubian Range, Hungary), 1984,
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Mller Pal, Sarvary Istvan

Karst groundwater activity and landform genesis in modern permafrost regions of Canada, 1984,
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Ford D. C.

L'accident de Tchernobyl : une retombe positive en hydrogologie, 1986,
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Sesiano J. , Bueche M.
THE TCHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: A POSITIVE HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASPECT - As a continuation of dye-tracing studies of underground waters in Haute-Savoie, France, over the last few years, we have used the radioactive elements released by the Chernobyl nuclear accident as artificial tracers. The event happened simultaneously with the onset of the spring high waters. The response of the system was thus delayed by more than two weeks, the time for the water to percolate and for the aquifer to recharge. On the third week, a very faint signal was detected by gammametry and by liquid scintillation counters at the two surveyed springs.

Subsidence and foundering of strata caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire, 1986,
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Cooper Ah,
Underground dissolution of thick gypsum beds in the Edlington Formation and Roxby Formation of the Zechstein sequence in North Yorkshire, England, has resulted in a 3 km-wide and 100 km-long belt of ground susceptible to foundering. Within this belt a large subsidence depression at Snape Mires, near Bedale, was largely filled with lacustrine deposits in the later part of the Late Devensian and during the Flandrian. South of Snape Mires the Nosterfield-Ripon-Bishop Monkton area has suffered about 40 episodes of subsidence in the past 150 years, and the presence of several hundred other subsidence hollows indicates considerable activity from the later part of the Devensian onwards. The linear and grid-like arrangement of these subsidence hollows indicates collapse at intersections in a joint-controlled cave system. Linear subsidence features at Snape Mires are also joint-controlled. The transition from anhydrite at depth to secondary gypsum near surface marks the down-dip limit of the subsidence-prone belt. Cavities are propagated upwards by roof collapse of caverns in the gypsum, leading to the formation of breccia pipes. Choking of the pipes can reduce the surface expression of the underground collapse, but the larger cavities are liable to produce pipes that reach the surface even at the eastern boundary of the 3 km-wide belt described. Further subsidence in the Ripon area is predicted and some suggestions for remedial measures are given

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