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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That tower karst, towerkarst, turmkarst is 1. a spectacular variety of karst landscape dominated by steep or vertical sided limestone towers each 30-300m high. by far the most extensive and best developed tower karst is the guangxi province of southern china. towers originate as residual cones and are then steepened by water table undercutting from surround alluviated plains. tectonic uplift matched by karst erosion then increases tower heights, but if uplift exceeds surface lowering the towers are raised to hillside locations and the landscape is rejuvenated to form a new generation of dolines and cone karst. many towers are riddled with relict caves at high levels, and with active caves through their bases [9]. 2. karst topography characterized by isolated residual limestone hills displaying numerous shapes (e.g., cone shaped, steep-sided) separated by areas of alluvium or other detrital sand; towers are generally forest-covered hills, and many have flat tops. they may form as isolated hills or in groups. 3. a type of karst topography, common in the tropics, in which the residual hills rise in steep-sided but flat-topped mounds (resembling towers) from intervening depressions or dolinas (sinkholes) [20]. synonyms: (french.) karst a tourelles, karst a tours; (german.) turmkarst, kegelkarst; (italian.) carsismo con forme residuali a torre; (spanish.) karst de torres; (turkish.) kuleli karst. see also cone karst; cupola karst; pinnacle karst; fengcong; fenglin.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for pleistocene (Keyword) returned 385 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 385
Pleistocene Bone Caves with special reference to the Mendips, Somerset, 1968,
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Tratman E. K.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968,
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Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

Ecological studies in the Mamoth Cave System of Kentucky. I. The Biota., 1968,
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Barr Thomas C.
The Mammoth Cave system includes more than 175 kilometers of explored passages in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Although biologists have explored the caves intermittently since 1822, the inventory of living organisms in the system is still incomplete. The present study lists approximately 200 species of animals, 67 species of algae, 27 species of fungi, and 7 species of twilight-zone bryophytes. The fauna is composed of 22% troglobites, 36% troglophiles, 22% trogloxenes, and 20% accidentals, and includes protozoans, sponges, triclads, nematodes, nematomorphs, rotifers, oligochaetes, gastropods, cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, isopods, amphipods, decapods, pseudoscorpions, opilionids, spiders, mites and ticks, tardigrades, millipedes, centipedes, collembolans, diplurans, thysanurans, cave crickets, hemipterans, psocids, moths, flies, fleas, beetles, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals. The Mammoth Cave community has evolved throughout the Pleistocene concomitantly with development of the cave system. The troglobitic fauna is derived from 4 sources: (1) troglobite speciation in situ in the system itself; (2) dispersal along a north Pennyroyal plateau corridor; (3) dispersal along a south Pennyroyal plateau corridor; and (4) dispersal across the southwest slope of the Cumberland saddle merokarst.

River Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, And Its Hydrological Relationships, 1969,
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Jennings, J. N.

River Cave is a Zwischenhohle (between-cave) in which the active river passage is reached through a former tributary stream passage from a dry valley. Now vadose in character, it is of gentle gradient, with some normally and some temporarily water-filled reaches of shallow phreatic nature. There is only a single level of development. Water tracing has confirmed previous inferences that it is mainly fed from the South Branch watersink, that its normal flow goes to the Blue Waterholes, the main rising of the Plain, and that there is flood overflow to Murray Cave, which is shown to have been formerly the normal outflow cave of the system. In the changeover from one outflow point (Vorfluter) to another, a shorter, steeper cave and longer surface course has been replaced by a longer cave of shorter gradient. Ev's Cave, a flood inflow cave of the South Branch, may also feed River Cave and Keith's Faint Cave is inferred to be part of the link between South Branch Sink and River Cave. It has the aspect of an early stage of vadose development from phreatic conditions. Previous interpretation of Glop Pot as a true phreatic relic is maintained in the light of new facts. Evidence is lacking with which to date the caves at all reliably. Glop Pot possibly belongs to a phase of surface planation of Tertiary age whereas the other caves are likely to be consequent on Pleistocene dissection. The tributary passage of River Cave and its associated dry valley may have lost their stream in the Holocene when Murray Cave became intermittent in action also. The Murray Cave event is due to subterranean piracy associated with rejuvenation whereas the loss of the tributary stream is probably in part due to increasing warmth and less effective precipitation.


The Origin and Development of Mullamullang Cave N37, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, 1970,
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Hunt, G. S.

Mullamullang Cave N37 is the longest and most complex cave on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia. Unlike the other caves, it possesses extensive levels of phreatic solution tube passages which permit stronger inferences to be made on the development of the collapse passages constituting the bulk of Mullamullang Cave and other deep Nullarbor caves. These passages have been formed by collapse through overlying belts of solution tube networks along an elongated zone of cavitation in the limestone. Massive breakdown was probably initiated at depth within the zone, at least 50 feet below the present watertable level. Upward stoping of the collapse would have been facilitated by the higher network levels in the zone, such as the Ezam and Easter Extension. Channelling of groundwater flow under the Plain is suggested by the belt-like nature of the networks. An epiphreatic origin is proposed for the network levels though convincing morphological evidence is wanting. Eustatic changes in sea level have been of fundamental importance in the development of the multiple levels. Wetter periods in the past were probably important as little development is taking place under present-day dry conditions. Correlation of wetter periods with Pleistocene glacials would help explain the development of huge collapse passages, but such correlatien cannot be assumed on present evidence. Massive collapse and doline formation were followed by subaerial weathering and vadose activity which modified the cave - especially near the entrance. Correlation of levels in Mullamullang with those in other Nullarbor deep caves is attempted. However, Mullamullang Cave is unique probably due to the lithology of the Abrakurrie Limestone in which it is developed.


Effect of late Pleistocene karst topography on Holocene sedimentation and biota, lower Florida Keys, 1971,
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Dodd Jr, Siemers Ct,

Chronology of the Black Sea over the last 25,000 years, 1972,
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Degens Et, Ross Da,
Deep-water sediments of the Black Sea deposited during Late Pleistocene and Holocene time are distinguished by three sedimentary units: (1) a microlaminated coccolith ooze mainly consisting of Emiliania huxleyi; (2) a sapropel; and (3) a banded lutite. The base of the first unit lies at 3,000 years B.P., that of the second at 7,000 years B.P., and that of the third at least at about 25,000 years B.P. Fossils and geochemical criteria are used to decipher the environmental events of this time period. Beginning with the base of the section dated at about 25,000 years B.P. we witness the final stage of metamorphosis from anoxic marine to oxic freshwater conditions. By the time this stage ended, about 22,000 years B.P., the Black Sea had become a truly freshwater habitat. The lake phase lasted about 12,000 to 13,000 years. Sedimentation rates were in the order of 1 m/103 years, but began to decrease as sea level rose during the last 5,000 years of this phase (9,000-15,000 years B.P.). Starting at about 9,000 years B.P. and continuing to 7,000 years B.P., Mediterranean waters occasionally spilled over the Bosporus as a consequence of ice retreat and sea level rise. This marked the beginning of a gradual shift from freshwater to marine, and from well aerated to stagnant conditions. At about 7,000 years B.P. when deposition of unit 2 started, the H2S zone was well established. Sedimentation rates dropped to 10 cm/103 years. Environmental conditions similar to those of today finally became established around 3,000 years B.P., almost exactly the time when Jason and the Argonauts sailed through the Bosporus in search of the Golden Fleece

Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna of Bat Cave, Pulaski County, Missouri, 1973,
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Hawksley Oscar, Reynolds Jack F. , Foley Robert L.

Evolution of the Wellington Caves Landscape, 1973,
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Francis, G.

Wellington Caves, New South Wales (figure 1), have attracted scientific attention for more than a century, largely through discoveries in the cave sediments of bones from extinct animals. These bone discoveries provided impetus for a number of early speculations about the geomorphology of the caves area and its relationship to the caves. Notable among these was the conjecture of Mitchell (1839) that the valley floor sediments of the Bell River and the cave fills had been deposited during a marine transgression about one million years ago. The first systematic geomorphological work was carried out by Colditz (1943), who argued for two distinct relict erosion levels in the Bell Valley; the older level was assigned to the Lower Pliocene and the younger to the Upper Pliocene. Colditz considered that these levels provided evidence for two phases of uplift in late Tertiary times. More recently Frank (1971) made detailed studies of the cave sediments, and devoted some attention to landscape evolution. He believed that the Bell River had been captured by Catombal Creek, during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.


Donnees geomorphologiques sur la region de Fresh Creek, Ile Andros (Bahama), 1974,
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Bourrouilh F,
A geomorphological study of the east coast of Andros (Fresh Creek area) shows the existence of a paleotopography represented by low-altitude hills (few metres). This paleotopography is protected by the presence of a calcitic Quaternary crust which covers Pleistocene calcarenite.In the western part of the area, there are long woody axes, oriented NE-SW, parallel to the channels of the creek. They end at two kilometres from the coast, along which is a second kind of lower hills, orthogonal to the first.The first axes can be interpreted as megaripples as seen at the present time on modern deposits (on the Great Bahama Bank) and fossilized by the upper crust. The second direction is made by accretion ripples along the coast.The surface of the Bahamian calcarenite has been studied. The Bahamian karst presents two topographical forms: “blue holes” like those outside the island, which are 60-80 m in diameter and both sparse and deep; and “washtub” dolines; these are numerous and shallow, and, from low altitude, exhibit a honeycombed aspect on the surface. This karstic topography with dolines and blue holes is also seen through the water of the Creek the hard bottom of which is covered only here and there with a few centimetres of sediments. Hence, there is a submerged karstic topography, made of the same elements as the aerial karst, but submerged by the Holocene transgression. The present karstic relief, in relation with the different eustatic levels of the Quaternary, has begun 120,000 years ago, according to the isotopic ages, and might be composed by different steps, difficult to show now, in the topography.The blue holes in the interior of the island of young and little evolved karst, were formed more by solution than by collapse of the karstic caves, because of the absence of a real river to drain the Andros shelf at the time of low sea levels. Blue holes of the inside of the island, as they are called, with submarine openings, have the same salinity as the water of the creek (17.5 g/l). The dolines with very low salinity (0.7 g/l to 3.8 g/l) are filled with stromatolites and charophytes, slowly forming sediments made up essentially of high-magnesian calcite.It seems that the Andros Island karst can be compared with that of the Yucatan, where there are round and deep open pits, called cenote, of which the Bahamian equivalent would be the blue holes which were drowned by the Holocene transgression.ResumeSur l'ile Andros, zone emergee du Grand Banc de Bahama, l'auteur montre l'existence d'une paleotopographie comprenant deux categories de rides d'orientation differente et semblant fossilisee par une croute calcitique recente et l'existence d'un karst aux formes jeunes, bien qu'heritage d'un karst holocene en voie de submersion. Ces formes sont des “blue holes” ou trous bleus circulaires (60 a 80 m de diametre) et peu nombreux, et des dolines, dites en baquet. Dans ces dolines se deposent actuellement des croutes stromatolithiques calcitiques dont l'etude est faite par diffractometrie de rayons X et microscopie electronique a balayage

Continental Pleistocene Climatic Variations from Speleothem Age and Isotopic Data, 1974,
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Thompson Peter, Schwarcz Henry P. , Ford Derek C. ,
Speleothems from continental North American caves have been dated by means of the 230Th/234U method. Oxygen isotopic variations in the dated samples and phases of speleothem deposition can be interpreted in terms of climatic change. A glacial chronology constructed from the age and isotopic data lends support to the astronomical theory of climatic change

Remains of Pleistocene Man in Paviland and Pontnewydd Caves, Wales, 1976,
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Molleson Theya

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976,
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Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.


Old Pleistocene cave deposits with fauna at Kozi Grzbiet (Holy Cross Mts, Central Poland) - a geological interpretation. [in Polish], 1977,
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G?azek Jerzy, Lindner Leszek, Wysocza?skiminkowicz Tadeusz

Fossil karst with Middle Pleistocene vertebrates at Draby near Dzia?oszyn (Central Poland). [in Polish], 1977,
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G?azek Jerzy, Sulimski Andrzej, Szynkiewicz Adam, Wysocza?skiminkowicz Tadeusz

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