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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


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Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That wave karren is wavy karren surfaces that appear similar to corrugated tin. when denuded they are a disposition for the formation of rinnenkarren [3]. see also covered karren; rinnenkarren; root karren.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for zr (Keyword) returned 43 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 43
The Inscriptions of the Tartarus Panel and the 1833 Fercher-survey, Postojnska jama, 2005,
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Kempe, S.

The history of the discovery of the main parts of Postojnska jama that began in 1818 is not well documented. The article reports about the most interesting inscriptions of the "Idrianer" left on February 7th, 1833, including Johann Fercher, Aloys Urbas, Valentin Tracha, and Johann Wruss near the end of the then known main passage. Fercher was a mine supervisor at Idria. He conducted the first thorough survey of the cave, published first by Schaffenrath (1834). In the archives of Postojnska jama, kept by the Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU in Postojna four documents survive illustrating the background of this survey. These documents, written in the 19th century German Current handwriting are transcribed here for the first time. They not only list the participants of the survey (which also included surveyor Michael Glantschnigg and coachman Johann Leskovitz) but also report costs.


Acta Carsologica (new format). (Kranjc A. (Editor), Gabrovsek F. (Co-Editor), Karst Research Institute ZRC SAZU ISSN 0583-6050), 2007,
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Cigna, Arrigo

Underground meteorology - Whats the weather underground?, 2010,
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Badino, Giovanni

The aim of this work is to provide a synthetic outline of some of the processes of transient nature occurring in caves, focusing on poorly studied general aspects of underground physics and mainly making use of original experimental data. In the first part, the average climatic conditions of a caves, their connection to the external climate, and the general role played by rock, water, air and external morphology are discussed. The variation of the internal temperature with the altitude is a key parameter for the cave physics: the related energetic consequences are briefly discussed. In the second part, transient processes are considered, and a general overview of main meteorological phenomena occurring underground is given. The physics of thermal sedimentation, of underground temperature ranges, of infrasonic oscillations of cave atmospheres and, above all, of water vapour condensation in caves is synthetically described. The experimental study of these processes is extremely difficult, because they are time dependent and have very small amplitude; the first measurements show, however, that their variability from one cave to another, and from point to point inside a cave, is surprisingly high. To provide a more correct interpretation of underground climatic measurements, for their speleogenetic role and importance in cave environment protection, a better understanding of the processes described here is essential.


Contributions of geophysical techniques to the exploration of the Molnár János Cave (Budapest, Hungary), 2010,
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Surá, Nyi Gergely, Dombrá, Di Endre, Leé, LŐ, Ssy Szabolcs

Located in the centre of the Pannonian, one of the hottest basins in Europe with high average heat flow values, Hungary has long been famous for hot water springs and frequent cave occurrences. The Molnár János Cave, an active thermokarstic cave, belonging to the Buda Hills karst system, lies beneath a highly populated district of Budapest. Its large passages are almost completely filled by lukewarm water. Only the upper part of its largest known chamber rises above the water level, which offers an excellent site to examine recent cave generation processes. However, hitherto, no dry subsurface gateway existed towards this chamber; it was only accessible underwater. In this paper, we present the results of various geophysical investigations including GPR, magnetic and seismic methods, carried out in a close cooperation between geophysicists and speleologists. The aim of the measurements was to determine the precise position of the hall relative to a nearby drift. Based upon the successful seismic survey and first break analysis, a precise and efficient boring could be designed to realise the connection. Finally, a passage between the two cavities has been established and, thus, the chamber of the cave is now accessible to the whole scientific community.


Speleothems and speleogenesis of the hypogenic Santa Barbara Cave System (South-West Sardinia, Italy), 2010,
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Pagliara Antonio, De Waele Jo, Forti Paolo, Galli Ermanno, Rossi Antonio

This paper presents the results of a study on the peleogenesis and the speleothems and secondary mineralisations of the Santa Barbara Cave System in the Iglesiente Mining District (South-West Sardinia, Cagliari). This cave system, hosted in Cambrian carbonate rocks, has a very long geological history and its main voids have formed in hypogenic conditions. Nine speleogenetic phases can be recognised ranging in age between Cambrian and Holocene. Optical microscope and diffractometric analysis of active flowstone deposits have shown them being composed of alternating calcite and aragonite layers. The textural and chemical characteristics of these layers, obtained by SEM and EDAX analysis, suggest them to be related to variations in the depositional environment inside the cave, which in turn are probably correlated to external climatic oscillations.


CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCOLATION THROUGH THE KARST VADOSE ZONE, 2010,
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Kogovš, Ek Janja

The study of the vadose zone has been based on 35 years research of underground water circulation and the transfer of contaminants in karst and on continuous long-term measurements and analyses of precipitation on the surface and of several representative trickles in the vadose zone of Postojna Cave over consecutive hydrological years and it offers an explanation of the dynamics of the percolation of water and simultaneous transfer of contaminants and their impact on the dissolution of carbonate rock in the vadose zone. Emphasis is placed on a multi-parameter approach based on the simultaneous use of a number of different methods, not only tracing natural tracers but also tests with artificial tracers using different methods of injection. The research contributs to the understanding of the role of the vadose zone in the karst aquifer.


Do Karst Rivers deserve their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia, 2010,
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Ra?a B. , Puljas S.
In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, rnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P.) scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index) suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.

DYNAMICS OF UNDERGROUND WATER IN THE KARST CATCHMENT AREA OF THE LJUBLJANICA SPRINGS, 2010,
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Turk, Janez

The book is based on a several years long record of water levels and temperatures in caves between Planinsko polje and the springs of Ljubljanica. Correlation between the data, the discharge of the Unica river and the meteorological data gave new insights into the groundwater dynamics in relation to the recharge events as well as into the hydrological role of Planinsko polje. The work clearly demonstrates caves as important observation points in karst hydrology.


Do Karst Rivers deserve their own biotic index? A ten years study on macrozoobenthos in Croatia, 2010,
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Rađ, A B. , Puljas S.

In this study we present the results of a ten year survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along four karst rivers: Jadro, rnovnica, Grab and Ruda, all of them situated in the Middle Dalmatia region of Croatia, in an attempt to construct the Iliric Biotic Index, which will be more applicable for the water quality analysis than the most frequently applied biotic index in Croatia, the Italian Modification of Extended Biotic Index. The rivers geologically belong to the Dinaric karst, unique geological phenomena in Europe. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along each river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling along with several physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness and pH. Univariate and multivariate techniques revealed differences in the macroinvertebrate community structure as well as in physicochemical parameters between the Karst rivers and continental rivers. Based on those differences, the Iliric Biotic Index was proposed as the standard of karst river water quality in Croatia in accordance with the EU Water Framework Directive. Differences between the Iliric Biotic Index and the most commonly used biotic indices in the European Community and the USA (The Biological Monitoring Working Party (B.M.W.P.) scores, i.e. Extended Biotic Index, Indice Biotique, Family Biotic Index) suggest that karst rivers need a new biotic index.


SOUTH CHINA KARST II, 2011,
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ADAPTING TO FLOODING ON KARST, 2011,
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Kovač, Ič, G. , Ravbar N.


Recent developments on morphometric analysis of karst caves, 2011,
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Piccini, Leonardo

Nowadays, the use of computers and the digital techniques for survey processing easily allows to carry out morphometric analysis of caves and karst systems. Morphometric indices have been proposed by many authors in order to describe the genetic features of some particular types of caves, such as coastal ones, maze caves or isolated voids. Large cave systems can be analyzed through the reconstruction of a 3D model. The digital model can be used to evaluate the role of the structural setting or the evolution stages through the recognizing of particular levels where epi-phreatic passages are more developed. These levels are particularly significant when a lithological or structural control can be excluded. Some morphometric indices, obtained by the ratios of simple dimension parameters of caves, allow the statistical analysis of large databases, collected in the regional speleological inventories, in the attempt to recognize different geomorphic populations of caves. Further studies and a greater number of analysis could allow to use these morphometric indices to distinguish genetic categories of caves and to get a useful instrument for the study of the evolution of karst areas.


Hypogenic caves in western Umbria (central Italy), 2011,
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Menichetti, Marco

Three karst areas located in the western sector of the Umbria Region (Central Italy) are here described: one north of Perugia, and the others to the south, close to Todi. All the end members of karst processes, from solution caves to quaternary travertine deposits, are present in this region, associated with CO2 and H2S emissions. The geological and hydrogeological aspects of the main karst systems are analyzed and their underground morphologies and patterns taken into account. Caves have different sizes and vary from a single conduit to complex systems, where the passages show features related to a possible hypogenic speleogenesis. In the area north of Perugia there are small horizontal and vertical solution caves developed in poorly karstified marly limestone, along fracture systems, where phreatic morphologies are prevalent. The endogenic CO2 emissions seem to drive the underground karst evolution. Pozzi della Piana, located west of the town of Todi, is a fossil branchform network cave system developed in a quaternary travertine and extending for more than 2500 m. The cave passages are arranged on at least two levels, with phreatic morphologies, cupola ceilings, and blind pits. Microcrystalline spalled gypsum blocks are associated with cusp features and wall pockets. The cave-forming process is believed to be linked to travertine deposition by supersaturated carbonate hydrothermal water rich in H2S. In the Parrano area, the underground karst system consists of solution caves extending for many hundreds of meters at different elevations in both sides of a small gorge. The cave patterns vary from single conduits to ramiform passages with anastomotic galleries and pits that intercept the water table with a temperature of 26°C, pCO2 of 0.1 atm, and H2S concentrations of 10 mg/l. Spongework, corrosion pockets, and cupola ceilings are common morphologies, with gypsum replacing limestone wall deposits. Cave formation by hypogenic speleogenesis is also well known in the Apennine karst system of M. Cucco and Frasassi, where both fossil and active processes are observable. The same processes are responsible for the genesis of these karst systems in different geological and hydrogeological contexts.


Preliminary U/Th dating and the evolution of gypsum crystals in Naica caves (Mexico), 2011,
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Sanna Laura, Forti Paolo, Lauritzen Steinerik

The origin and the evolution of giant selenite crystals in Naica caves, together with the understanding of their growth mechanisms, is one of the aims of the international multidisciplinary research, called the “Naica Project”. In this context, the exact timing of when the gypsum nucleation started and whether its growth has been constant over time, have been investigated. The preliminary data obtained with the U–Th disequilibrium method show significant differences in ages for gypsum (between 191 ± 13 kyr for one of the Ojo de la Reina cave crystals and 57 ± 1.7 kyr for the base of Espadas cave’s spar) and have produced a coarse chronological interval of growth. The crystal depositional rates vary from 0.56 to 1.22 mm/kyr, in excellent agreement with the laboratory tests for gypsum deposition under present conditions performed in the deepest part of the mine. These results are also consistent with a multistage precipitation started at different times in the Naica caves (first in caves at the upper level, where gypsum was subsequently dissolved, and only later in the deeper part of the aquifer under stable conditions) and allow us to improve the knowledge on the speleogenetic evolution of these caves.


Interview with Wolfgang Dreybrodt To understand the environment, which gave so much admiration and adventure , 2011,
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Lucić, Ivo

The series of interviews continues with Wolfgang Dreybrodt, an emeritus professor of experimental physics at the University of Bremen. As his student and a friend I am particularly happy that his unique life story, that brought him into the karst research, is now published in our journal. His book “Processes in Karst systems”, published by Springer in 1988, brought a new view on karst based on the basic principles of physics and chemistry. Numerous publications on dissolution kinetics, speleogenesis, growth of speleothems and related isotopic evolution, that he has published with his coworkers, are presenting important foundations of our current understanding of karst systems.
Seven years after being retired, Wolfgang is still active and devoted to high scientific and ethical standards as he has ever been.


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