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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That interstitial water is water held in small wedge like interstices at grain contact [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bank (Keyword) returned 61 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 61
Discussion on 'The Chalk as a karstic aquifer: evidence from a tracer test at Stanford Dingley, Berkshire, UK': Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 28, S31-S38, 1996,
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Banks D, Davies C, Davies W,
M. Price writes: Banks et al. (1995) address the nature of the permeability of parts of the Chalk aquifer, provide useful data from a tracer test, and draw attention to the potential dangers of disposing of agricultural and road run-off to swallow holes. The paper includes a calculation of fissure conductivity and aperture from the results of the tracer test. In this it has to be emphasized that the calculations relate to Darcian flow in an equivalent smooth, plane, parallel-plate opening, not the more likely turbulent flow in a natural fissure. The true average aperture of the fissure is therefore likely to be significantly greater than that calculated (Price 1987, 1996). The situation described at Stanford Dingely is one where drainage originating from impermeable Tertiary strata flows onto the Chalk and sinks into the aquifer. The majority of active Chalk sinks appear to be of this type; the drainage sinking into them originates as run-off from other strata. Rain falling anywhere on the outcrop of the Chalk is normally able to infiltrate, so water flowing across the Chalk outcrop is almost invariably allogenic drainage or water that has infiltrated the Chalk and emerged as baseflow. Drainage to sinks is therefore a minor component of recharge to the Chalk. The tracer test undertaken into at Stanford Dingley involved introducing tracer into a known point of entry in the aquifer, and observing its arrival at a known point of emergence. Such tests almost inevitably measure the speed of groundwater movement along a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Hydrogeological study and discharge features of the Niksar karst springs (Tokat-Turkey), 1997,
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Syed M. A. , Afsin M. , Celik M. ,
The exposed Paleozoic and Recent units in the study area have various hydrogeological characteristics such as pervious, semipervious, and impervious. Pervious limestones and associated impervious formations that were not influenced by tectonic movement are connected to produce karst springs. This paper presents the relationship between the discharge coefficient and other aquifer properties by using the hydrograph analyses of the karst springs. The magnitude of the discharge of the spring apparently controls the character of flow (such as laminar) and conduit in the aquifer. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between Q(0)-Q(t), Q(0)-storage capacity, Q(t)-storage capacity, and alpha-discharge change, These results enhances the properties of the karst springs. Both monthly and annual rainfall contribute to spring discharge. All karst springwaters are suitable for household and food industry uses

The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, Victoria, 1997,
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Bennett Lt, Attiwill Pm,
Banksia integrifolia L.f. has been in decline an calcareous sands of the Yanakie Isthmus, southern Victoria, since early 1980. Early studies indicated that the decline is associated with a particular soil condition possibly a nutritional imbalance involving Fe. However, in foliage samples collected from the three main soil types of the Isthmus, declining trees had similar concentrations of Fe but lower concentrations of Ca than healthy trees. Comparisons were made of seasonal variation in concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients in foliage and litterfall from healthy trees (to minimise secondary changes associated with decline) within healthy and declining sites on the same soil type. On average, litterfall and the nutrient content of litterfall was greatest within the canopy area of B. integrifolia of the healthy stand. Banksias of the healthy stand also had greater concentrations of N, P, K and Na in fully-expanded leaves, resorbed greater proportions of phloem-mobile nutrients from senescent leaves and accumulated more Ca in senescent leaves. However, there was no evidence of nutritional imbalance in healthy trees within declining stands. It is argued that the lower foliar Ca in declining trees on three soil types and lower nutritional status of healthy trees within declining stands were due to lower productivity and lower water use and were therefore a result or an indication of decline rather than a cause

Chapter 11 Southern Svalbard:Bjornoya and submarine geology, 1997,
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Harland W. Brian, Geddes Isobel, Doubleday Paul A. ,
The area south of Spitsbergen (about 76{degrees}31'N) to latitude 74{degrees}N, and between longitudes 10{degrees}E and 35{degrees}E, by which Svalbard was first defined, contains the small island of Bjornoya (Bear Island, Baren Insel) and the rest is sea (Fig. 11.1). The 500 m isobath conveniently separates the edge of the Barents shelf from the Norwegian Sea Basin which runs south from Spitsbergen between 14{degrees} and 16{degrees}30'E. To the east, the large shallow area, Spitsbergenbanken, less than 100 m deep, supports Bjornoya at its southwestern end, extends northeast to Hopen and joins Edge{degrees}ya. It is separated from Spitsbergen to the north by the Storfjordyrenna and to the east by Hopendjupet. These submarine valleys appear to drain westwards into the ocean deep with deltaic fronts convex westward. This chapter focuses first on Bjornoya which though small is a key outcrop in the Barents Sea and distinct in many respects from Spitsbergen being about 250 km distant. The chapter then surveys a little of what is known of the surrounding sub-sea area. Bjornoya (20 km N-S and 15 km E-W), as the southern outpost of Svalbard, has long been a key to Svalbard geology since it is generally free all year from tight sea ice. But though its location is convenient, its cliffs generally bar access. Indeed there are very few places where landing by other than inflatable dinghy are feasible. After the island had been claimed by a Norwegian syndicate in 1915 mining of Tournaisian coal began in 1916 and exported over 116000 ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Groundwater circulation and geochemistry of a karstified bank-marginal fracture system, South Andros Island, Bahamas, 1997,
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Whitaker Fiona F. , Smart Peter L. ,
On the east coast of South Andros Island, Bahamas, a major bank-marginal fracture system characterised by vertically extensive cavern systems (blue holes) is developed sub-parallel to the steep-sided deep-water re-entrant of the Tongue of the Ocean. In addition to providing a discharge route for meteoric, mixed and geochemically evolved saline groundwaters, a strong local circulation occurs along the fracture system. This generates enhanced vertical mixing within voids of the fracture system, evidenced by the increasing mixing zone thickness, and the thinning and increasing salinity of brackish lens waters from north to south along the fracture system. Furthermore, tidally driven pumping of groundwaters occurs between the fracture and adjacent carbonate aquifer affecting a zone up to 200 m either side of the fracture.The resultant mixing of groundwaters of contrasting salinity and within and along the fracture system and with the surrounding aquifer waters, together with bacterial oxidation of organic matter, generates significant potential for locally enhanced diagenesis. Undersaturation with respect to calcite within the fresh (or brackish)-salt water mixing zone is observed in the fracture system and predicted in the adjacent aquifer, while mixing between the brackish fracture lens and surrounding high fresh waters causes dissolution of aragonite but not calcite. The latter gives rise to considerable secondary porosity development, because active tidal pumping ensures continued renewal of dissolutional potential. This is evidenced by calcium and strontium enrichment in the brackish lens which indicates porosity generation by aragonite dissolution at a maximum rate of 0.35% ka-1, up to twice the average estimated for the fresh water lens. In contrast saline groundwaters are depleted in calcium relative to open ocean waters suggesting the formation of calcite cements.The development of a major laterally continuous cavernous fracture zone along the margin of the carbonate platform permits enhanced groundwater flow and mixing which may result in generation of a diagenetic `halo' at a scale larger than that generally recognised around syn-sedimentary fractures in fossil carbonates. This may be characterised by increased secondary porosity where a relative fall in sea-level results in exposure and formation of a meteoric groundwater system, or cementation by `marine' calcite both below this meteoric system, and where the bank surface is flooded by seawater

The role of high-energy events (hurricanes and/or tsunamis) in the sedimentation, diagenesis and karst initiation of tropical shallow water carbonate platforms and atolls, 1998,
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Jan F. G. B. L. ,
Karst morphology appears early, even during carbonate sediment deposition. Examples from modern to 125-ka-old sub-, inter- and supratidal sediments are given from the Bahamas (Atlantic Ocean) and from Tuamotuan atolls (southeastern Pacific Ocean), with mineralogical and hydrological analyses. Karstification is favoured by the aragonitic composition of bioclasts coming from the shallow marine bio-factory. Lithification by aragonite cements appears as a rim around carbonate deposits and dissolution and non-cementation start at the same time on modern supratidal deposits (Andros micrite or atoll coral rudite) and provoke the formation of a central depression on small or large carbonate platforms. In fact, this early solution of the centre of platforms is closely related to the location of each of the studied examples on hurricane tracks. High-energy events, such as hurricanes and tsunamis, affect sediment transport but hurricanes also affect diagenesis as a result of the enormous volume of freshwater carried and discharged along their paths. This couple, lithification- solution, is localised at sea level and accompanies sea-level fluctuations along the eustatic curve. Because of the precise location of hurricane action all around the Earth, early karstification by aragonite solution, cementation and supratidal carbonate sediment accumulations thigh-energy trails) act together on all the platforms and atolls located inside the Tropics (23 degrees 27') between roughly 5 degrees-10 degrees and 25 degrees on both hemispheres. However, early karstification acts alone on shallow carbonate platforms including atolls along the equatorial belt between 5 degrees-10 degrees N and 5 degrees-10 degrees S. These early steps of karstification are linked to the ocean-atmosphere interface due to the bathymetrical position of shallow carbonate platforms, including atolls. They lead to complex karstified emerged platforms, called high carbonate islands, where carbonate diagenesis, together with the development of bauxite- and/or a phosphate-rich cover and phreatic lens, will occur. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Lutilisation des rserves hydrauliques karstiques : lexemple de la commune de Penne-de-Tarn, 1999,
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Bou, Claude
Water collecting in the commune of Penne was meant to offer an option to the polluted and scarce water resources of the liasic limestone aquifer layer through a planned and reasonable exploitation of the Jurassic reserves. Three underground streams actually supply the whole commune territory - the largest in the Tarn department - with good water which does not suffer any summer depletion. The civil engineering work, the electro-mechanical fittings, the proper fixtures which followed the preliminary surveys were made by unpaid amateur cavers from several clubs of the caving district committee gathered in the ATEK (Association Tarnaise d'Etudes Karstiques). Different methods and techniques have been used to collect water on the following three sites: - the underground stream of Cabeou and the building of a storage dam of 500 m3 which was put into service in 1984 on the limestone plateau of the Garrigue; - the undergroung stream of Amiel where a 25 meter deep well was drilled through hard rock and which has supplied the village with water since 1985; - and the underground stream of Madeleine whose pumping station protected by a dam has increased the water resources of the right bank of the Aveyron river since 1989.

Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution at Ripon, North Yorkshire, 1999,
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Cooper Ah, Waltham Ac,
In the afternoon of Wednesday 23 April 1997, a large subsidence crater opened up in front of a house on Ure Bank Terrace, on the northern outskirts of Ripon in North Yorkshire. Overnight its sides collapsed inwards, so that the hole had doubled in size by the next morning (Fig. 1). The subsidence crater was then 10 m in diam- eter, and 5.5 m deep to a choke of debris overlain by water 1 m deep. Its sudden appearance was the cause of considerable concern to the occupants of the adjacent house, and the event was widely reported in the national press and media. A subsidence hollow was mapped at this site by the 1856 Ordnance Survey and documented by Cooper (1986). More subsidence had occurred at the Ure Bank site in previous years, but this latest collapse had rather more impact. Creeping movement of the soil towards the new hole meant that the adjacent house was destined for demolition. The event was the latest of a series of ground collapses that have occurred, at an average rate of about one per year, in and around the city of Ripon. While they are little more than an inconvenience in farmland, they have the potential to cause serious damage when they occur in built-up areas. The immediate cause of the Ure Bank subsidence was the downward movement of soil, drift and recent fill into actively expanding voids within the ground. Ultimately, it was caused by the partial collapse of a cave ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Drainage-basin-scale geomorphic analysis to determine reference conditions for ecologic restoration--Kissimmee River, Florida, 2000,
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Warne Andrew G. , Toth Louis A. , White William A. ,
Major controls on the retention, distribution, and discharge of surface water in the historic (precanal) Kissimmee drainage basin and river were investigated to determine reference conditions for ecosystem restoration. Precanal Kissimmee drainage-basin hydrology was largely controlled by landforms derived from relict, coastal ridge, lagoon, and shallow-shelf features; widespread carbonate solution depressions; and a poorly developed fluvial drainage network. Prior to channelization for flood control, the Kissimmee River was a very low gradient, moderately meandering river that flowed from Lake Kissimmee to Lake Okeechobee through the lower drainage basin. We infer that during normal wet seasons, river discharge rapidly exceeded Lake Okeechobee outflow capacity, and excess surface water backed up into the low-gradient Kissimmee River. This backwater effect induced bankfull and peak discharge early in the flood cycle and transformed the flood plain into a shallow aquatic system with both lacustrine and riverine characteristics. The large volumes of surface water retained in the lakes and wetlands of the upper basin maintained overbank flow conditions for several months after peak discharge. Analysis indicates that most of the geomorphic work on the channel and flood plain occurred during the frequently recurring extended periods of overbank discharge and that discharge volume may have been significant in determining channel dimensions. Comparison of hydrogeomorphic relationships with other river systems identified links between geomorphology and hydrology of the precanal Kissimmee River. However, drainage-basin and hydraulic geometry models derived solely from general populations of river systems may produce spurious reference conditions for restoration design criteria

Dolomitization of Holocene Shallow-Marine Deposits Mediated by Sulfate Reduction and Methanogenesis in Normal-Salinity Seawater, Northern Belize, 2000,
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Teal Chellie S. , Mazzullo S. J. , Bischoff William D. ,
Dolomite constitutes an average of 12% of the Holocene organic-rich sediments over a 15 km2 area of the Cangrejo Shoals mudbank in northern Belize. Although it defines a laterally persistent stratiform body that averages 3 m thick, it is present throughout the 7.6-m-thick sediment section. These transgressive sediments are less than [~]6400 years old and were deposited in shallow-marine environments of normal salinity. The dolomite is dominantly cement, and average crystal size is 7 m. There are no significant correlations among amount of dolomite vs. sediment texture, mineralogy, porosity, or mole % MgCO3 in associated particulate high-Mg calcite, depth, or location on the shoals. The dolomites are poorly ordered and calcic (39.5-44.5 mole % MgCO3), with low mean Mn (210 ppm) and relatively high mean Sr (1034 ppm) concentrations. There is no evidence of recrystallization or geochemical alteration of the dolomite. {delta}18O values of the dolomites range from 0.5 to 2.8{per thousand}PDB, and the mean value (2.1{per thousand}) suggests that the dolomite precipitated from normal-salinity pore water. Dolomite {delta}13C values range from -5.2{per thousand} to .6{per thousand}PDB (mean seawater {delta}13C = 0.5{per thousand}), which suggests dolomitization promoted by both bacterial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in environments with anoxic pore water. Dolomitization attending these organodiagenetic reactions apparently was reversible over time, and episodic rather than continual precipitation is indicated. Requisite Mg and Ca were provided by seawater and by some dissolution of host sediments. The most rapid period of dolomitization may have been during early transgression, when relatively high sedimentation rates sustained high levels of organodiagenesis and pore-water alkalinities

Upper Quaternary water level history and sedimentation in the northwestern Black Sea, 2000,
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Winguth C. , Wong H. K. , Panin N. , Dinu C. , Georgescu P. , Ungureanu G. , Krugliakov V. V. , Podshuveit V. ,
A regional water level curve for the northwestern Black Sea covering lowstands of the past 900 ka has been inferred from shelf terraces and coastal onlaps identified in seismic data. Corrections for sediment compaction, isostatic response to sediment load and thermal subsidence were included. A water level lowstand of -151 m was found for the last glaciation, ca 30 m lower than the global sea level stand at the Last Glacial Maximum. Water level could develop independently in the Black Sea due to its isolation from the global oceans when the water level of the Black Sea was lower than its outlet.In addition, a deepsea fan complex in the northwestern Black Sea was investigated by seismic reflection, showing that it can be divided into the Danube fan and the Dniepr fan (also fed by the rivers Dniestr and Southern Bug). Eight seismic sequences were distinguished in the northwestern Black Sea and their thicknesses and facies distributions mapped. The two lowermost sequences consist mainly of unchannelized mass transport deposits (slumps, slides, debris flows), while the six upper sequences with their typical channel-levee systems as well as overbank and mass transport deposits constitute the deepsea fan complex. Correlation of fan development with the regional water level curve yields an inferred age of ca 900 ka BP for the Danube fan; development of the Dniepr fan started probably about 100 ka later. Computed average sedimentation rates range between 1.19 and 2.19 m/ka for the Danube fan and between 1.07 and 2.03 m/ka for the Dniepr fan. The corresponding rates for sediment accumulation are 68-141 t/a and 41-82 t/a. Mean denudation rates in the drainage area are computed to be 0.027-0.105 mm/a and 0.017-0.127 mm/a, respectively

Diagenesis and porosity evolution of the Upper Silurian-lowermost Devonian West Point reef limestone, eastern Gaspe Belt, Quebec Appalachians, 2001,
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Bourque Pa, Savard Mm, Chi G, Dansereau P,
Diagenetic analysis based on cathodoluminescence petrography, cement stratigraphy, carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion microthermometry was used to reconstruct the porosity history and evaluate the reservoir potential of the Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian West Point limestone in the eastern part of the Gaspe Belt. The West Point limestone was investigated in two areas: 1) In the Chaleurs Bay Synclinorium, the limestone diagenesis of the lower and middle complexes of the Silurian West Point Formation was affected by repeated subaerial exposure related to late Ludlovian third-order eustatic low-stands, which coincided with the Salinic block tilting that produced the Salinic unconformity. The Anse McInnis Member (middle bank complex) underwent freshwater dissolution, and mixed marine and freshwater cementation during deposition. Concurrently, the underlying Anse a la Barbe and Gros Morbe members (lower mound and reef complex) experienced dissolution by fresh water percolating throughout the limestone succession. Despite this early development of karst porosity, subsequent meteoric-influenced cementation rapidly occluded all remaining pore space in the Gros Morbe, Anse a la Barbe, and Anse McInnis limestones. In contrast, the overlying Colline Daniel Member limestone (upper reef complex) does not show the influence of any freshwater diagenesis. Occlusion of its primary porosity occurred during progressive burial and was completed under a maximum burial depth of 1.2 kin. 2) In the Northern Outcrop Belt, the diagenesis of the Devonian pinnacle reefs of the West Point Formation followed a progressive burial trend. The primary pores of the reef limestone were not completely occluded before the reefs were buried at a significant depth (in some cases, to 6 km). Therefore, hydrocarbon migration in subsurface buildups before primary porosity occlusion might have created reservoirs. Moreover, the presence of gaseous hydrocarbons in Acadian-related veins attests to a hydrocarbon source in the area

Das sterreichische Hhlenverzeichnis in neuem Gewand., 2002,
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Stummer, G.

A rare landform: Yerkopru travertine bridges in the Taurids Karst Range, Turkey, 2002,
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Bayari Cs,
Two examples of travertine bridges are observed at 8 to 15 in above stream level in the Lower Zamanti Basin, Eastern Taurids, Turkey. Yerkopu-1 and Yerkopru-2 bridges are currently being deposited front cool karstic groundwaters with log P-CO2 > 10(-2) atm. The surface area and the total volume of travertine in Yerkopru-1 bridge are 4350 m(2) and 40 000 m(3), whereas the values for Yerkopru-2 are 2250 m(2) and 20000 m(3), respectively. The interplay of hydrogeological Structure, local topography, calcite-saturated hanging springs, algal activity and rapid downcutting in the streambed appear to have led to the formation of travertine bridges. Aeration through cascades and algal uptake causes efficient carbon dioxide evasion that enhances travertine formation. Algal curtains aid lateral development of travertine rims across the stream. Model calculations based on a hypothetical deposit in the form of a half-pyramid implied that lateral development should have occurred from both banks of the stream in the Yerkopru-1 bridge, whereas one-sided growth has been sufficient for Yerkopru-2. The height difference between travertine springs and the main strearn appears to be a result of Pleistocene glaciation during which karstic base-level lowering was either stopped or slowed down while downcutting in the main strearn continued. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England, 2002,
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Cooper Ah, Saunders Jm,
Gypsum karst problems in the Permian and Triassic sequences of England have caused difficult conditions for bridge and road construction. In Northern England, the Ripon Bypass crosses Permian strata affected by active gypsum karst and severe subsidence problems. Here, the initial borehole site investigation for the road was supplemented by resistivity tomography studies. The roadway was reinforced with two layers of tensile membrane material within the earth embankment. This will prevent dangerous catastrophic collapse, but will allow sagging to show where problems exist. The River Ure Bridge was constructed across an area of subsidence pipes filled with alluvial deposits. It was built with extra strength, larger than normal foundations. If one pier fails, the bridge is designed for adjacent arches to span the gap without collapse. The bridge piers are also fitted with electronic load monitoring to warn of failure. In the Midlands area of England, road construction over Triassic gypsum has required a phase of ground improvement on the Derby Southern Bypass. Here, the gypsum caps a hill where it was formerly mined; it dips through a karstic dissolution zone into an area of complete dissolution and collapse. The road and an associated flyover were built across these ground conditions. A major grouting program before the earthworks began treated the cavities in the mine workings and the cavernous margin of the gypsum mass. Within the karstic dissolution zone, gypsum blocks and cavities along the route were identified by conductivity and resistivity geophysical surveys, excavated and backfilled. In the areas of complete dissolution and collapse, the road foundation was strengthened with vibrated stone columns and a reinforced concrete road deck was used. (C) 2002 S. Yamamoto. Published by Elsevier Science B.V on behalf of NERC. All rights reserved

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