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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That wave karren is wavy karren surfaces that appear similar to corrugated tin. when denuded they are a disposition for the formation of rinnenkarren [3]. see also covered karren; rinnenkarren; root karren.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for coal (Keyword) returned 84 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 16 to 30 of 84
Natural and artificial cavities as ground engineering hazards, 1987,
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Culshaw Mg, Waltham Ac,
The occurrences of natural and artificial cavities are reviewed and their causes are assessed. Natural cavities are found principally in carbonate rocks and the processes of sinkhole formation are described. Solution cavities in non-carbonate rocks and cavities in insoluble rocks are also considered. Extraction methods for coal, metalliferous minerals and salts are described in relation to the creation of underground cavities. An outline procedure for locating cavities emphasizes the importance of the desk study in this type of investigation and the difficulty of proving the absence of cavities beneath a site

Civil engineering difficulties in the karst of China, 1988,
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Waltham A. C. , Smart P. L. ,
Karst landscapes, developed by solutional erosion of massive limestones, are characterized by underground drainage and the development of closed depressions. In tropical areas, with high solution rates, long uninterrupted periods of erosion and a lack of glacial planation, the expansion and deepening of these closed depressions creates a rugged relief dominated by either conical hills or steeper-sided towers. The form of the cones and towers is a function of both the carbonate lithology and the erosional history; the towers develop only in massive, mechanically strong, compact limestones where erosional planation and tectonic uplift have kept pace over a long period of time (Smart et al 1986). These karst landscapes are characteristic of huge areas of southern China, largely in the provinces of Guangxi and Guizhou (Fig. 1) and the spectacular scenery of the limestone has often been represented in classical Chinese painting. They are now also becoming a major tourist attraction, with Guilin, in Guangxi, frequently visited by Westerners. These terrains do, however, pose serious difficulties to the civil engineer. Where relief is not great, or where rates of uplift have been low, corridors of flatter ground have often been created by lateral planation at the water table. These corridors may be lithologically or structurally controlled, and form obvious routes through the karst. Where the relief is higher and the regional water table is not intersected, coalescence of the depressions to form flatter ground is rare, and road and rail development is more problematic. In order to avoid excessive and ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Paleokarst - a Systematic and Regional Review, 1989,
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Prepared by some of the world's leading experts in the field, this book is the first summarizing work on the origin, importance and exploitation of paleokarst. It offers an extensive regional survey, mainly concerning the Northern Hemisphere, as well as a thorough analysis of the problems of research into paleokarst phenomena, with particular emphasis on theoretical contributions and practical exploitation. By concentrating on phenomena which have appeared in the course of geological history, the book represents a substantial development in the general theory of paleokarst and demonstrates the advantages of a comprehensive approach to the problem. Considerable emphasis is put on the economic importance of paleokarst phenomena, from the point of view of exploiting significant deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as from a civil engineering and hydrological point of view. Since the publication deals with a boundary scientific discipline, it is intended for specialists from various branches of science: geologists, paleontologists, economic geologists, geographers, mining engineers and hydrogeologists.

List of Contributors. Foreword.

Part I. Introduction.
Introduction (P. Bosák et al.). Paleokarst as a problem (J. Głazek, P. Bosák, D.C. Ford). Terminology (P. Bosák, D.C. Ford, J. Głazek).

Part II. Regional Review.
Paleokarst of Belgium (Y. Quinif). Paleokarst of Britain (T.D. Ford). Paleokarst of Norway (S.-E. Lauritzen). Paleokarst of Poland (J. Głazek). Paleokarst of Czechoslovakia (P. Bosák, I. Horáček, V. Panoš). Paleokarst of Hungary (G. Bárdossy, L. Kordos). Hydrothermal paleokarst of Hungary (P. Müller). Paleokarst of Italy. Selected examples from Cambrian to Miocene (M. Boni, B. D'Argenio). Paleokarst-related ore deposits of the Maghreb, North Africa (Y. Fuchs, B. Touahri). Paleokarst of Yugoslavia (D. Gavrilović). Paleokarst of Bulgaria (I. Stanev, S. Trashliev). Paleokarst of Romania (M. Bleahu). Paleokarst of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (R.A. Tsykin). Paleokarst of China (Zhang Shouyue). Paleokarst of Canada (D.C. Ford). Paleokarst of the United States (M.V. Palmer, A.N. Palmer).

Part III. Mineral Deposits Connected With Karst.
An introduction to karst-related mineral deposits (P. Bosák). Pb-Zn ores (S. Dżułyński, M. Sass-Gustkiewicz). Bauxites (G. Bárdossy). Iron ore deposits in paleokarst (G. Bárdossy, Y. Fuchs, J. Głazek). Clays and sands in paleokarst (P. Bosák). The oceanic karst: modern bauxite and phosphate ore deposits on the high carbonate islands (so-called ``Uplifted Atolls'') of the Pacific Ocean (F.G. Bourrouilh-le Jan). Paleokarst-related uranium deposits (Y. Fuchs).

Part IV. Hydrogeology and Engineering Hazards in Paleokarst Areas.
Paleokarst as an important hydrogeological factor (J. Zötl). Hydrogeological problems of opencast and underground mining of mineral deposits encountered during their exploration, development and exploitation stages (P. Bosák). Hydrogeological problems of the Cracow-Silesia Zn-Pb ore deposits (Z. Wilk). Hydrogeological problems of Hungarian bauxite and coal deposits (T. Böcker, B. Vizy). Paleokarst in civil engineering (A. Eraso). Interaction between engineering and environment in the presence of paleokarst: some case histories (J. Głazek).

Part V. Paleokarst as a Scientific Subject.
Special characteristics of paleokarst studies (I. Horáček, P. Bosák). Tectonic conditions for karst origin and preservation (J. Głazek). Problems of the origin and fossilization of karst forms (P. Bosák). Biostratigraphic investigations in paleokarst (I. Horáček, L. Kordos).

Part VI. Conclusions. Part VII. References. Part VIII. Indexes.
Author Index. Geographical Index. Subject Index.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-98874-2, 726 pages, publication date: 1989

Speleogenesis in the Limestone Outcrop North of the South Wales Coalfield : The Role of Micro-organisms in the Oxidation of Sulphides and Hydrocarbons, 1990,
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Ball T. K. , Jones J. C.

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Mueller M. ,
Upper Ordovician Arthur Marble and Oligocene Takaka Limestone contain extensive phreatic cave systems beneath the Takaka valley and Golden Bay. Half of all water flows in the Takaka valley pass through subterranean drainage conduits in carbonate rock. New Zealand's largest freshwater springs, the Waikoropupu Springs, are one surface expression of these karst systems. Other characteristics are dolines and submarine springs. A paleocave system developed in the Arthur Marble during the formation of the northwest Nelson peneplain in the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Subsequent subsidence of the peneplain, and deposition of Motupipi Coal Measures, Takaka Limestone, and Tarakohe Mudstone, was followed by folding and faulting of the sequence in the Kaikoura Orogeny. Uplift and erosion in the Pleistocene brought the two carbonate rock formations within reach of groundwater movements. The paleocave system in Arthur Marble was reactivated during periods of glacial, low sea levels, and a smaller cave system formed in the overlying Takaka Limestone. Both systems interact and extend to more than 100 m below present sea level, forming the Arthur Marble - Takaka Limestone aquifer

Traages en bordure du systme karstique de Vaucluse, 1992,
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Couturaud A. , Puig J. M.
TRACING AT THE EDGE OF THE KARST SYSTEM OF THE VAUCLUSE - A double tracing was carried out in 1989 at the edge of the large karst system of the Vaucluse: 25 kg of fluorescein were poured into the trou du Vent, 1335m up on the north side of mont Ventoux and 20kg of sulforhodamin into the sinkhole of a stream at Mthamis, at an altitude of 280m, during high water. Some 20 outlets or boreholes were watched for 6 months (9 months at the Fontaine de Vaucluse). 2000 analyses were carried out on 400 charcoal detectors and 700 samples. Only the fluorescein showed up at the Fontaine de Vaucluse, involving a part of the north side of mont Ventoux in the catchment area. The maximum speed is of about 20m/h over a distance of 31km and a relief difference of 1250m. The experiment was carried out at exceptionally low water.

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Platt N. H. , Wright V. P. ,
Palustrine carbonates are shallow fresh-water deposits showing evidence of subaqueous deposition and subaerial exposure. These facies are common in the geological record. The intensity of modification is highly variable depending on the climate and the length of emergence. Palustrine limestones have previously been interpreted as marginal lacustrine deposits from fluctuating, low-salinity carbonate lakes, but several problems remain with existing facies models: 1) palustrine carbonates possess a lacustrine biota but commonly display fabrics similar to those of calcretes and peritidal carbonates; 2) the co-occurrence of calcrete horizons and karst-like cavities is somewhat unusual and appears to indicate contemporaneous carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the vadose zone; 3) the dominance of gray colors indicates water-saturation, apparently inconsistent with the evidence for strong desiccation overprint; 4) profundal lake deposits are generally absent from palustrine sequences, and sublittoral facies commonly make up only a small proportion of total thicknesses; 5) no good modem analogue has been identified for the palustrine environment. Analogy with the Florida Everglades suggests a re-interpretation of palustrine limestones, not as pedogenically modified lake margin facies but as the deposits of extensive, very shallow carbonate marshes. The distribution of environments in the Everglades is determined by the local hydrology, reflecting the control of seasonal water-level fluctuations and topography. Climate and topography were the main controls on deposition of ancient palustrine carbonates. As in peritidal sequences, aggradational cycles are capped by a range of lithologies (evaporites, desiccation and microkarst breccias, calcretes, lignite or coal horizons etc.), permitting interpretation of the climate. Careful analysis of lateral facies variations may permit reconstruction of subtle topography. Consideration of the Florida Everglades as a modem analogue for the palustrine environment has suggested the development of an exposure index for fresh-water carbonates

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Dehon Ra,
Hrad Vallis is located in the transition zone between Elysium Mons and Utopia Planitia. Near its origin, at the northern edge of Elysium lavas, Hrad Vallis is characterized by a low-sinuousity channel within a north-northwest-trending, broad, flat-floored valley. A nearby flat-floored valley is parallel to the Hrad trend and parallel to elongate depressions, fissures, and faults in the region. An apparent hierarchy of landforms provides insight into the origin of the features associated with Hrad Vallis. The sequence leading to the development of Hrad Vallis consists of the following (1) formation of isolated depressions as either karst depressions or thermokarst valleys along faults and fissures in response to circulating ground water; (2) expansion of depressions along structural trends to coalesce as composite valleys, and (3) incision of a channel on the floor of Hrad valley by continued discharge of water from the subsurface after its initial formation by nonfluvial processes. Mud flows, polygonally fractured terrain, and chaotic terrain near the head of the major valleys suggest thixotropic behavior of saturated, clay-rich materials. An extended period of time is indicated during which freely circulating water existed on id beneath the surface of Mars. Karst and thermokarst processes imply very different climatic regimes and different host materials. The presence of karst topography implies extensive deposition of carbonates or other soluble rocks, whereas the presence of thermokarst basins implies the existence of porous, water/ice-saturated clastic or volcaniclastic materials

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Hawk K. , Stieglitz R. D. , Norman J. C. ,
A statewide survey by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services with U.S.E.P.A. assistance reported an anomalously high percentage of homes in Door County with radon concentrations in excess of 20 pCi/L. The results were of interest because the county is underlain by marine sedimentary rocks rather than the igneous and metamorphic crystalline types usually associated with elevated radon concentrations. A voluntary population of 55 homes was tested for radon using activated charcoal canisters. This population was also asked to provide questionnaire response data on family, home, and socioeconomic aspects. The data were separated into socioeconomic, energy efficiency, radon access, and karst level categories and statistically analyzed. A subpopulation was selected from the larger population for detailed site investigation, which included additional in-home air testing and, at some sites, water supply analysis and in-ground testing for radon. The field investigations collected information on the geology, soil, topography, and home construction and use. The results of the investigation verified and characterized the radon occurrences iu Door County. The presence or absence of karst features is shown to be statistically significant to radon levels

Le puits de Flenu : la plus grande structure endokarstique du monde (1200 m) et la problmatique des puits du Houiller (Belgique), 1994,
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Quinif, Y.
In the Hainaut province, in Belgium, great vertical and cylindrical structures pass through the productive Westphalian. They are several coal-miners. They contain rocks from the lower Cretaceous cover, for example die Wealdian formations (clays, lignites and sands). Those pits result from deep karst in the dinantian limestones under the Namuro--Westphalian.

Gypsum karst in China., 1996,
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Cooper Anthony, Yaoru Lu
The Peoples Republic of China has the largest gypsum resources in the world and a long history of their exploitation. The gypsum deposits range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary and their genesis includes marine, lacustrine, thermal (volcanic and metasomatic), metamorphic and secondary deposits. The gypsum is commonly associated with other soluble rocks such as carbonates and salt. These geological conditions, regional climate differences and tectonic setting strongly influence the karstification process resulting in several karst types in China. Well developed gypsum palaeokarst and some modem gypsum karst is present in the Fengfeng Formation (Ordovician) gypsum of the Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. Collapse columns filled with breccia emanate upwards from this karst and affect the overlying coalfields causing difficult and hazardous mining conditions. Gypsum karst is also recorded in the middle Cambrian strata of Guizhou Province and the Triassic strata of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces. Gypsum-salt lake karst has developed in the Pleistocene to Recent enclosed basin deposits within the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau.

New geometric organization of the chalk karst drainage: The weathering mesh-network of the Mansonniere cave system (Bellou-sur-Huisne, Orne, France), 1996,
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Rodet J. ,
The Mansonniere karst system presents a labyrinthic network opened on a tectonic pattern near the fault of Belleme. It is the first known chalk karst system of over 1 km explored galleries in the world. This is also the standard model of a karst system set on a tectonic mesh, developed in a chalk plateau without a detritic cover, showing specific processes. The great karst maze is in fact a poorly drained network but still a functional one which progresses by coalescent weathering fronts, in the tectonic network. This kind of pattern is specific of a primitive degree of karstification

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea, 1996,
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Robinson A. G. , Rudat J. H. , Banks C. J. , Wiles R. L. F. ,
The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the Western Pontides of Turkey) began to rift and move away to the south-east. The Eastern Black Sea probably formed by separation of the Mid-Black Sea High from the Shatsky Ridge during the Palaeocene to Eocene. Subsequent to rifting, the basins were the sites of mainly deep water deposition; only during the Late Miocene was there a major sea-level fall, leading to the development of a relatively shallow lake. Most of the margins of the Black Sea have been extensively modified by Late Eocene to recent compression associated with closure of the Tethys Ocean. Gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and carbon isotope analysis of petroleum and rock extracts suggest that most petroleum occurrences around the Black Sea can be explained by generation from an oil-prone source rock of most probably Late Eocene age (although a wider age range is possible in the basin centres). Burial history modelling and source kitchen mapping indicate that this unit is currently generating both oil and gas in the post-rift basin. A Palaeozoic source rock may have generated gas condensate in the Gulf of Odessa. In Bulgarian waters, the main plays are associated with the development of an Eocene foreland basin (Kamchia Trough) and in extensional structures related to Western Black Sea rifting. The latter continue into the Romanian shelf where there is also potential in rollover anticlines due to gravity sliding of Neogene sediments. In the Gulf of Odessa gas condensate has been discovered in several compressional anticlines and there is potential in older extensional structures. Small gas and oil discoveries around the Sea of Azov point to further potential offshore around the Central Azov High. In offshore Russia and Georgia there are large culminations on the Shatsky Ridge, but these are mainly in deep water and may have poor reservoirs. There are small compressional structures off the northern Turkish coast related to the Pontide deformation; these may include Eocene turbidite reservoirs. The extensional fault blocks of the Andrusov Ridge (Mid-Black Sea High) are seen as having the best potential for large hydrocarbon volumes, but in 2200 m of water

Chapter 11 Southern Svalbard:Bjornoya and submarine geology, 1997,
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Harland W. Brian, Geddes Isobel, Doubleday Paul A. ,
The area south of Spitsbergen (about 76{degrees}31'N) to latitude 74{degrees}N, and between longitudes 10{degrees}E and 35{degrees}E, by which Svalbard was first defined, contains the small island of Bjornoya (Bear Island, Baren Insel) and the rest is sea (Fig. 11.1). The 500 m isobath conveniently separates the edge of the Barents shelf from the Norwegian Sea Basin which runs south from Spitsbergen between 14{degrees} and 16{degrees}30'E. To the east, the large shallow area, Spitsbergenbanken, less than 100 m deep, supports Bjornoya at its southwestern end, extends northeast to Hopen and joins Edge{degrees}ya. It is separated from Spitsbergen to the north by the Storfjordyrenna and to the east by Hopendjupet. These submarine valleys appear to drain westwards into the ocean deep with deltaic fronts convex westward. This chapter focuses first on Bjornoya which though small is a key outcrop in the Barents Sea and distinct in many respects from Spitsbergen being about 250 km distant. The chapter then surveys a little of what is known of the surrounding sub-sea area. Bjornoya (20 km N-S and 15 km E-W), as the southern outpost of Svalbard, has long been a key to Svalbard geology since it is generally free all year from tight sea ice. But though its location is convenient, its cliffs generally bar access. Indeed there are very few places where landing by other than inflatable dinghy are feasible. After the island had been claimed by a Norwegian syndicate in 1915 mining of Tournaisian coal began in 1916 and exported over 116000 ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Controls on the evolution of the Namurian paralic basin, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, 1997,
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Kumpera O. ,
The Namurian A paralic molasse deposits of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin form erosion remnants of an extensive foreland basin located in the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif. This basin represents the latest stage of development of the Moravian-Silesian Paleozoic Basin (Devonian-Westphalian). The paralic molasse stage of the foreland basin evolved from foreland basins with flysch and with marine molasse. The deposition of the thick paralic molasse (Ostrava Formation) started in the Namurian A. In comparison with other coal-bearing foreland basins situated along the Variscan margin in Europe, this is characterized not only by earlier deposition, but also by a different tectonic setting. It is located in the Moravian-Silesian branch of the Variscan orocline striking NNE-SSW, i.e. perpendicularly to the strikes of more western European foreland basins. In the Visean and Namurian, the foreland basin developed rapidly under the influence of the western thrustfold belt in the collision zone. The deposition was influenced by contrasting subsidence activities of the youngest and most external trough -- Variscan foredeep -- and the platform. The Upper Silesian Basin shows therefore a distinct W-E lithological and structural polarity and zonation

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