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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That shield; cave shield is 1. a thin circular disc of calcite projecting from a cave wall at any upward inclination, commonly a meter or more in diameter and with the underside draped with stalactites and curtains. the shield is actually a double disc with a thin central crack that acts as the continuation of a wallrock fracture. it grows by water moving up the crack under pressure and depositing calcite on both sides of its outer rim. shields are rare, but lehman cave, nevada, has more than a hundred of them [9]. 2. a disk-shaped speleothem standing edgewise at a high angle [10]. 3. a geologically stable and undisturbed continental block [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for minerals (Keyword) returned 289 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 45 of 289
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Rouchy J. M. , Groessens E. , Laumondais A. ,
Within the Franco-Belgian segment of the Hercynian orogen, two thick Dinantian anhydritic formations are known, respectively in the Saint-Ghislain (765 m) and Epinoy 1 (904 m) wells. Nevertheless, occurrences of widespread extended breccias and of numerous pseudomorphs of gypsum/anhydrite in stratigraphically equivalent carbonate deposits (boreholes and outcrops), suggest a larger extent of the evaporitic conditions (fig. 1, 2). The present distribution of evaporites is controlled by palaeogeographical differentiation and post-depositional parameters such as tectonics and dissolution. These latter have dissected the deposits formerly present in all the structural units. By using depositional, diagenetic and deformational characters of these formations, the article provides a model for the reconstruction of a dislocated evaporitic basin. This segment of the Hercynian chain is schematically composed of two main units (fig. 1, 3) : (1) the autochthonous or parautochthonous deposits of the Namur synclinorium, (2) the Dinant nappe thrusted northward over the synclinorium of Namur. The major thrust surface is underlined by a complex fault bundle (faille du Midi) seismically recognized over more than 100 km. A complex system of thrust slices occurs at the Hercynian front. Except for local Cretaceous deposits, most of the studied area has been submitted to a long period of denudation since the Permian. Sedimentary, faunistic and geochemical data argue for a marine origin of the brines which have generated the evaporites interbedded with marine limestones. Sedimentary structures. - The thick evaporitic formations are composed of calcium-sulfates without any clear evidence of the former presence of more soluble salts (with the exception of a possible carbonate-sulfate breccia in the upper part of the Saint-Ghislain formation). As in all the deeply buried evaporitic formations, the anhydrite is the main sulfate component which displays all the usual facies : pseudomorphs after gypsum (fig. 4A, B), nodular and mosaic (fig. 4C), laminated. The gypsum was probably an important component during the depositional phase despite the predominant nodular pattern of the anhydrite. Early diagenetic nodular anhydrite may have grown during temporary emersion of the carbonates (sabkha environments), but this mechanism cannot explain the formation of the whole anhydrite. So, most of the anhydrite structures result from burial-controlled gypsum --> anhydrite conversion and from mechanical deformations. Moreover, a complex set of diagenetic processes leads to various authigenic minerals (celestite, fluorite, albite, native sulfur, quartz and fibrous silica) and to multistaged carbonate <> sulfate replacements (calcite and dolomite after sulfate, replacive anhydrite as idiomorphic poeciloblasts, veinlets, domino-like or stairstep monocrystals...). These mineral transformations observed ill boreholes and in outcrops have diversely been controlled during the complex evolution of the series as : depositional and diagenetic pore-fluid composition, pressure and temperature changes with burial, bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction, deep circulations favored by mechanical brecciation, mechanical stresses, role of groundwater during exhumation of the series. Deformational structures. - A great variety of deformational structures as rotational elongation, stretching, lamination, isoclinal microfolding, augen-like and mylonitic structures are generated by compressive tectonic stresses (fig. 4D to J). The similarities between tectonic-generated structures and sedimentary (lamination) or diagenetic (pseudo-nodules) features could lead lo misinterpretations. The calcareous interbeds have undergone brittle deformation the style and the importance of which depend of their relative thickness. Stretching, boudins, microfolds and augen structures F, H. I) affect the thin layers while thicker beds may be broken as large fractured blocks dragged within flown anhydrite leading to a mylonitic-like structure (fig, 4G). In such an inhomogeneous formation made of interlayered ductile (anhydrite) and brittle (carbonate) beds, the style and the intensity of the deformation vary with respect to the relative thickness of each of these components. Such deformational features of anhydrite may have an ubiquitous significance and can result either from compressive constraints or geostatic movements (halokinesis). Nevertheless, some data evidence a relation with regional tangential stresses: (1) increase of the deformation toward the bottom of the Saint-Ghislain Formation which is marked by a deep karst suggesting the presence of a mechanical discontinuity used as a drain for dissolving solutions (fig. 3, 4); (2) structural setting (reversed series, internal slidings) of the Epinoy 1 formation under the Midi thrust. However, tectonic stresses also induce flowing deformations which have contributed to cause their present discontinuity. It can be assumed that the evaporites played an active role for the buckling of the regional structure as detachment or gliding layers and more specifically for the genesis of duplex structures. Breccia genesis. - Great breccia horizons are widely distributed in outcrops as well as in the subsurface throughout the greater part of the Dinant and Namur units (fig. 2). The wide distribution of pseudomorphosed sulfates in outcrops and the stratigraphical correlation between breccia and Saint-Ghislain evaporitic masses (fig. 2) suggest that some breccia (although not all) have been originated from collapse after evaporites solution. Although some breccia may result from synsedimentary dissolution, studied occurrences show that most of dissolution processes started after the Hercynian deformation and, in some cases, were active until recently : elements made of lithified and fractured limestones (Llandelies quarries) (fig. 5A), preservation of pseudomorphs of late replacive anhydrite (Yves-Gomezee) (fig. 5B, C), deep karst associated with breccia (Douvrain, Saint Ghislain, Ghlin boreholes) (fig. 3, 4, 5D)). Locally, the final brecciation may have been favored by a mechanical fragmentation which controlled water circulations (fig. 5E). As postulated by De Magnee et al. [19861, the dissolution started mostly after the Permian denudation and continued until now in relation with deep circulations and surface weathering (fig. 6). So, the above-mentioned occurrences of the breccia are logically explained by collapse after dissolution of calcium-sulfates interbeds of significant thickness (the presence of salt is not yet demonstrated), but other Visean breccia may have a different origin (fig. 5F). So, these data prove the extension of thick evaporitic beds in all the structural units including the Dinant nappe, before dissolution and deformation. Implications. - Distribution of Visean evaporites in northern France and Belgium is inherited from a complicated paleogeographic, tectonic and post-tectonic history which has strongly modified their former facies, thicknesses and limits (fig. IA, 6). Diversified environments of deposition controlled by both a palaeogeographical differentiation and water level fluctuations led to the deposition of subaqueous (gypsum) or interstitial (gypsum, anhydrite) crystallization. Nevertheless, most of the anhydrite structures can be interpreted as resulting from burial conversion of gypsum to anhydrite rather than a generalized early diagenesis in sabkha-like conditions. Deformation of anhydrite caused by Hercynian tangential stresses and subsequent flow mechanisms, have completed the destruction of depositional and diagenetic features. The tectonic deformations allow us to consider the role of the evaporites in the Hercynian deformations. The evaporites supplied detachment and gliding planes as suggested for the base of the Saint-Ghislain Formation and demonstrated by the structural setting of Epinoy 1 evaporites in reverse position and in a multi-system of thrust-slices below the Midi overthrust (fig. 7). So, although the area in which evaporation and precipitation took place cannot be exactly delineated in geographic extent, all the data evidence that the isolated thick anhydritic deposits represent relics of more widespread evaporites extending more or less throughout the different structural units of this Hercynian segment (fig. 1B). Their present discontinuity results from the combination of a depositional differentiation, mechanical deformations and/or dissolution

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Stoessell R. K. , Moore Y. H. , Coke J. G. ,
Dissolution of carbonate minerals in the coastal halocline is taking place in the karst terrain along the northeastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The dissolution is being accelerated in cenotes (sinkholes) where sulfate reduction and oxidation of the produced sulfide is occurring. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 4 mmolal within the halocline in two sinkholes. Relative to concentrations expected by conservative mixing, fluids with high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with low sulfate concentrations, high alkalinities, low pH values, and heavy sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were less than those predicted from sulfate reduction, calculated from deficiencies in measured sulfate concentrations, indicating mobility and loss of aqueous sulfide. Fluids with low hydrogen-sulfide concentrations were correlated with very high calcium concentrations, high strontium and sulfate concentrations, slightly elevated alkalinities, low pH values, and sea-water sulfur isotope values for sulfate. Gypsum dissolution is supported by the sulfur isotopes as the major process producing high sulfate concentrations. However, oxidation of aqueous sulfide to sulfuric acid, resulting in carbonate-mineral dissolution is needed to explain the calcium concentrations, low pH values, and only slightly elevated alkalinities. The halocline may trap hydrogen sulfide that has been stripped from the underlying anoxic salt water. The halocline can act as a stable, physical boundary, holding some of the hydrogen sulfide until it is oxidized back to sulfuric acid through interaction with the overlying, oxygenated fresh water or through the activity of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria

Alpine karsts. Genesis of large subterranean networks. Examples : the Tennengebirge (Austria) - the Ile de Crémieu, the Chartreuse and the Vercors (France), PhD Thesis, 1993,
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Audra, Philippe

This work, based on the study of several underground alpine networks, aims to propose some milestone in the history of these karstic regions.

The first part of the work is made up of three regional studies.

The Tennengebirge mountains are a massif of the limestone High Alps in the region of Salzburg in Austria. A cone karst close to the base level developed in the Neogene. Streams from the Alps fed the karst, resulting in the huge horizontal networks of which the Eisriesenwelt provides evidence. During the successive phases of upthrust, the levels of karstification, whether on the surface or deeper down, settled into a tier pattern, thus descending in stages from the base level. From the Pliocene era onwards, thanks to an increase in potential, alpine shafts replace the horizontal networks. The formation of these shafts is more pronounced during glaciation. The study of the Cosa Nostra - Bergerhöhle system developing 30 km of conduits on a gradient reaching almost 1 500 m provides a fairly full view of the karstification of this massif. It includes the horizontal levels developed in the Miocene and the Plio-Pleistocene, joined together by vertical sections. The most noteworthy features of the Tennengebirge, as in the neighboring massifs, lie first and foremost in the extreme thickness of the limestone which has recorded and immunized the differents steps of karstification. Secondly, the size of the networks can be, for the most part, accounted for by the contribution of allogenous waters from the streams of the Neogene and the glaciers of the Pleistocene. Generally sudden and unexpected, these flows of water engendered heavy loads (up to 600 m), simultaneously flooding several levels. To a lesser extent, the situation is similar today.

The Ile de Cremieu is a low limestone plateau on the western edge of the Jura. Due to its location in the foothills, the lobes of the Rhône glacier have covered it up, obliterating the surface karst. However, widespread evidence of anteglacial morphologies remains : paleokarst, cone karst, polygenic surface. Because of glacial plugging, access to the underground karst is limited. The main cavity is the cave of La Balme. Its initial development dates back to an early period. The morphological study has permitted the identification of several phases which go back to the Pleistocene and which are related to the Rhône glacier. The latter brought about modifications in the base level by supplying its merging waters as well as moraine material. These variations in the base level shaped the drainage structure. The underground glacial polishes are one of the noteworthy aspects recorded.

The massives of the Moucherotte and dent de Crolles belong to the northern French Prealps. They conceal large networks, respectively the Vallier cave and the Dent de Crolles. They were formed in the early Pliocene after the final orogenic phase and are in the form of horizontal conduits. The upthrust, which brought about the embanking of the Isère valley, left them in a perched position by taking away the basin which fed them. They were later, however, able to take advantage of waters from the Isère glacier during a part of the Pleistocene. The Vallier cave contains particularly glacio-karstic sediments of the lower Pleistocene, representing unique evidence of glaciation during this period. The vertical networks were put in place at the end of the Pliocene with the increase in karstification potential ; they underwent changes in the Pleistocene due to the effect of autochton and allogenous glaciers.

The second part of the work deals in general with the various forms and processes of karstification, sometimes going beyond the Alps. The study of cave deposits is a privileged tool in the understanding and reconstruction not only of the history of the networks but also the regional environment. The dating of speleothems by the U / Th method has very ofen given an age of over 350 000 years. The age of the networks is confirmed by the use of paleomagnetism which has yielded evidence of speleothems and glacio-karstic sediments anterior to 780 000 years. Anisotropic measurements of magnetic susceptibility have been used to distinguish the putting into place of glacio-karstic deposits by decantation.

Measurements of calcite rates lead to a typology of sediments based on their nature and carbonate content (rehandled weathered rocks, fluvial sands, carbonated varves, decantation clays). Granulometry confirms this differenciation by supplying precise details of transport and sedimentation modes : suspension and abrupt precipitation of clay, suspension and slow decantation of carbonated varves, suspension and rolling together with a variable sorting of sand and gravel. Mineralogical analyses oppose two types of detrital deposits. On the one hand, the rehandling of antequaternary weathered rocks extracted by the karst as a result of scouring during environmental destabilization and on the other hand, sediments characteristic of the ice age of the Pleistocene. The latter are not highly developed and their arrival in the karst is always later. Examination of heavy minerals, the morphoscopy of quartz grains and study of micromorphologies on thin blades provide precise details of conditions of evolution. The use of these methods of investigation allows for an accurate definition of the features of the evolution of the differents types of fillings, particularly speleothems, rehandled weathered rocks as well as carbonated varves. This wealth and complexity are emphasized by a detailed study of the sedimentary sequences of the Vallier cave and of the Bergerhöhle.
Speleogenesis is approached last of all in the light of above study. Emphasis is placed on the major part played by corrosion in the temporarily phreatic zone and on its many consequences (multi-level concept, simultaneous evolution of levels, origin of deep waterlogged karsts…).
Varia tions in the base level have induced karstification in contexts in which the potential was weak. These were followed by periods of increased potential to which were added the effects of glaciation. Perched horizontal levels belong to the first stages which ended in the early Pliocene, whereas alpine shafts developed in the second context. The role of structure and the parameters governing the shape of conduits (pits, meanders, canyons) are also dealt with. The different parts of the karst are borne in mind when dealing with the strength of karstic erosion during the ice age. It notably appears that it is weak on the crests and more or less non-existent in the deep parts of the karst which are liable to flooding. Finally, a preliminary analysis of an observation of neotectonic traces is presented.

The ''Saalfelder Feengrotten'': a show mine with cave features, 1994,
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Lochner Bernd
The well known "Saalfelder Feengrotten" originated from an old aluminium mine called "Jeremiasglck". The mine has been working from 1943 to 1945; the oldest formations have an age of about 350 years. Such formations were formed by an oxidation process which explains the rather fast growth rate in comparison to the growth rate of calcite formations. In the "Feengrotten" rare minerals can be found: the most common is a soft unstable compound, the diadochite (iron(III) phosphate). The control of the lampenflora is rather complicate and it is obtained with some compounds normally used in caves. The "Feengrotten" are visited yearly by about 250,000 persons and the global number of visitors up to now is more than 15 millions of persons.

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Kendall C. G. S. , Sadd J. L. , Alsharhan A. ,
Marine carbonate cements, which are superficially like travertines from meteoric caves, are coating and binding some intertidal sedimentary rock surfaces occurring in coastal Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates, (UAE). Near Jebel Dhana these surficial cements can be up to 3 cm thick and envelope beach rock surfaces and fossils. They are also present both as thin coats and a fracture-fill cement in the intertidal hard grounds associated with the Khor Al Bazam algal flats. The thickness, microscopic characteristics, and morphology of the marine cement coatings from Jebel Dhana indicates incremental deposition of aragonite in conjunction with traces of sulfate minerals. Most of these cement coatings are micritic, but the layers which encrust the hard grounds from the algae flat of the Khor al Bazam have a more radial and fibrous micro-structure and are composed solely of aragonite. The stable isotopic composition of coatings from Jebel Dhana (delta(18)O = .35, delta(13)C = .00) falls within the compositional range for modem marine non skeletal aragonite and suggests that the marine travertine-like cements precipitate from the agitated slightly hypersaline Arabian Gulf sea water during repeated cycles of exposure, evaporation and immersion. Similar cement coatings and microfabrics are present in the tepee structured and brecciated sediments of the Guadalupe Mountains (Permian) and the Italian Alps (Triassic), in Holocene algal head cements from the Great Salt Lace, and in similar Tertiary algal heads in the Green River Formation of the western US. The petrographic similarity of these ancient ''flow stone'' like cements with Recent hypersaline marine cement coatings suggests that high rates of carbonate cementation and hypersaline conditions contribute to tepee formation and cavity fill

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Plumlee G. S. , Leach D. L. , Hofstra A. H. , Landis G. P. , Rowan E. L. , Viets J. G. ,
The Ozark region of the U.S. midcontinent is host to a number of Mississippi Valley-type districts, including the world-class Viburnum Trend, Old Lead Belt, and Tri-State districts and the smaller Southeast Missouri barite, Northern Arkansas, and Central Missouri districts. There is increasing evidence that the Ozark Mississippi Valley-type districts formed locally within a large, interconnected hydrothermal system that also produced broad fringing areas of trace mineralization, extensive subtle hydrothermal alteration, broad thermal anomalies, and regional deposition of hydrothermal dolomite cement. The fluid drive was provided by gravity flow accompanying uplift of foreland thrust belts during the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Ouachita orogeny. In this study, we use chemical speciation and reaction path calculations, based on quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions, to constrain likely hydrothermal brine compositions and to determine which precipitation mechanisms are consistent with the hydrothermal mineral assemblages observed regionally and locally within each Mississippi Valley-type district in the Ozark region. Deposition of the regional hydrothermal dolomite cement with trace sulfides likely occurred in response to near-isothermal effervescence of CO2 from basinal brines as they migrated to shallower crustal levels and lower confining pressures. In contrast, our calculations indicate that no one depositional process can reproduce the mineral assemblages and proportions of minerals observed in each Ozark ore district; rather, individual districts require specific depositional mechanisms that reflect the local host-rock composition, structural setting, and hydrology. Both the Northern Arkansas and Tri-State districts are localized by normal faults that likely allowed brines to rise from deeper Cambrian-Ordovician dolostone aquifers into shallower carbonate sequences dominated by limestones. In the Northern Arkansas district, jasperoid preferentially replaced limestones in the mixed dolostone-limestone sedimentary packages. Modeling results indicate that the ore and alteration assemblages in the Tri-State and Northern Arkansas districts resulted from the flow of initially dolomite-saturated brines into cooler limestones. Adjacent to fluid conduits where water/rock ratios were the highest, the limestone was replaced by dolomite. As the fluids moved outward into cooler limestone, jasperoid and sulfide replaced limestone. Isothermal boiling of the ore fluids may have produced open-space filling of hydrothermal dolomite with minor sulfides in breccia and fault zones. Local mixing of the regional brine with locally derived sulfur undoubtedly played a role in the development of sulfide-rich ore runs. Sulfide ores of the Central Missouri district are largely open-space filling of sphalerite plus minor galena in dolostone karst features localized along a broad anticline. Hydrothermal solution collapse during ore deposition was a minor process, indicating dolomite was slightly undersaturated during ore deposition. No silicification and only minor hydrothermal dolomite is present in the ore deposits. The reaction path that best explains the features of the Central Missouri sulfide deposits is the near-isothermal mixing of two dolomite-saturated fluids with different H2S and metal contents. Paleokarst features may have allowed the regional brine to rise stratigraphically and mix with locally derived, H2S-rich fluids

The classification of cave minerals and speleothems., 1995,
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Forti Paolo, Hill Caroll Ann
The classification scheme of Hill and Forti, as used in the second edition of Cave Minerals of the World, is presented as a practical' solution to the classification of cave minerals and speleothems. Classification and naming of cave minerals is by crystal class and follows nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association. Classification of speleothems is based on morphology and whatever is known about origin, with division of speleothems into types, subtypes, and varieties. It is proposed that new speleothem types, subtypes, and names be approved by a UIS Commission of cave mineralogists.

On some cave minerals from Northern Norway., 1995,
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Lauritzen Steinerik, Onac Bogdan Petroniu
The present paper aims to point out the results of 31 samples from some Norwegian caves that have been analysed with respect to their mineralogical composition. Identification of the minerals was done by X-ray diffraction, thermal, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Seventeen minerals were identified belonging to 4 groups: carbonates, sulphates, oxides-hydroxides and silicates.

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Worthington S. R. H. , Ford D. C. ,
Major ion concentrations in 404 springs in carbonate strata were found to exhibit a wide range in sulfate values. Sulfate concentrations are often much larger than would be expected from the analysis of samples from surface outcrops. Springs in the Sierra Madre Oriental (Mexico), the Rocky Mountains Front Range (Canada), and the Peak District (England) show similarities in sulfate concentration and in spatial distribution. Springs with high sulfate concentrations are found close to base level and are thermal. Springs with low sulfate concentration are found at higher elevations above base level and are not thermal. There is a direct relationship between sulfate concentration and spring temperature, and an inverse relationship with discharge. The results from the three areas described support a model of local and regional flow patterns, with deep regional flow providing the warm sulfate-rich water. The initial fracture porosity development in these aquifers may owe as much to the removal of sulfur minerals as to the removal of carbonate minerals. High sulfate values are frequently found in carbonate aquifers, so this model may be of widespread applicability

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Ng K. C. , Jones B. ,
Groundwater in the dolostone aquifers of the Bluff Group (Oligocene-Miocene) on Grand Cayman is divided into fresh, lightly and highly brackish, and saline (Type I and II) zones according to chemical characteristics that were determined during a 3 year (1985-1988) monitoring program. Brackish and Type I saline waters display the greatest variation in chemical properties whereas the Type II saline water has the most stable chemical characteristics. Most groundwaters from these dolostone aquifers are thermodynamically capable of precipitating calcite and/or dolomite. The saturation indices for these minerals, however, vary through time and space even in the context of small water lens. Simple mixing of fresh and sea water cannot explain the chemistry of the water found in the joint and karst controlled dolostone aquifers of Grand Cayman. Deviation from a simple mixing model is due to variations caused by tidal fluctuation, the rate of rain water recharge, influx of Ca-rich groundwater from the surrounding limestone aquifers, influx of CO2-rich surface water from sinkholes and swamps, and water-rock interactions (dissolution and precipitation of calcite and dolomite). Sustained groundwater abstraction from a lens can significantly alter the hydrochemistry of the water lens. This suggests that hydrochemical characterization of small fresh water lenses, like those on Grand Cayman, cannot be based on spot or short-term sampling. Interpretation of such fluids in terms of calcite-dolomite precipitation and/or dissolution must be treated with caution if the data base has not been derived from long-term monitoring

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Martini J. E. J. , Eriksson P. G. , Snyman C. P. ,
Pb-Zn-F deposits occur in the very late Archaean (2.55 Ga) shallow marine dolostone of the relatively undeformed Campbellrand and Malmani Sub-groups, which are overlain unconformably by the lower Proterozoic Postmasburg and Pretoria Group siliciclastics. They consist of stratiform deposits formed by replacement and porosity-filling, as well as pipes, ring-shaped and irregular bodies associated with collapse breccia. In the Transvaal basin the latter were generated during the karst denudation period between the deposition of the Chuniespoort Group (ending at similar to 2.4 Ga) and of the Pretoria Group (starting at 2.35 Ga). A part of these mineralisations were overprinted by the metamorphism of the Bushveld Complex intrusion at 2.06 Ga. In the Transvaal basin, the age of the mineralisation is constrained between the start of the Pretoria Group deposition and the Bushveld intrusion. It is concluded that, although most of the mineralisations are characteristic of the Mississippi Valley-type, some of the northernmost occurrences, rich in siderite, are less typical. A classic genetic model is proposed. In an environment characterised by tensional tectonics and basin development, brines of basinal origin were heated by circulation into pre-Chuniespoort rocks, leached metals from the rocks they permeated, and rose as hydrothermal plumes. At relatively shallow depth they deposited minerals after mixing with water of surficial origin

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Vonplehweleisen E. , Klemm D. D. ,
The Postmasburg Mn/Fe-ores occur exclusively in dolomitic Precambrian sinkhole structures with siliceous breccias and shales as hostrocks. The main manganese minerals are braunite and bixbyite, apart from secondary alteration products of the psilomelane-manganomelane family. Various generations of ore minerals could be identified. The ore mineralization is subdivided into three different genetic types. They are classified either as pure karst deposits or as combined formations of karst origin and shallow marine sedimentation due to the transgression of the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) sea. Post-sedimentary metamorphism is identified as very low grade. The development of the different ore types is illustrated schematically

Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology of Gunung Tempurung, Perak, Malaysia, 1995,
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Gilleson David , Holland Ernst , Davies Gareth

Gunung Tempurung is a 600-metre high limestone tower in the Kinta Valley located to the south of the city of Ipoh, Malaysia. The tower contains at least one extensive cave system, Gua Tempurung, which has a length of approximately 4800 metres and a vertical range of about 200 metres. The tower is an erosional remnant of a thick sequence of Silurian - Permian Limestones initially formed as a shelf deposit near an ancient coastline. The carbonate rocks lie adjacent to, and are laterally bounded by, Late Mesozoic granite plutoniic rocks emplaced by activity related to the Late Triassic uplift from plate boundary stresses along the western edge of the Malay Peninsular. The limestones have been folded and compressed between the granites and have been altered by contact metamorphism to marbles and skarn. Hydrothermal mineralisation of the limestone host rock has yeilded deposits of tin, with some tungsten minerals and other minor ores. In the central part of the karst tower a river-cave system, Gua Tempurung, developed from local damming of the north and south outlets of a small catchment derived from the granite upland area to the east. In several locations inside the dry upper chambers of the cave, vein deposits of tin (cassiterite) are evident in walls and ceilings. Additionally alluvial tin deposits derived from the Old Alluvium are present in the cave.

Karst et mines en France et en Europe : gtes, grottes-mines et gotechnique, 1996,
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Nicod, J.
Many ores have been extracted in the karst areas since the proto-historic times. The ores have been trapped in the paleokarsts, according to various processes whose origin is still much debated. Certain metal-rich minerals have been excavated in caves or "mine-caves". Many polymetallic ores in paleokarstic deposits were in exploitation in SW Sardinia, Sierra of Carthagena, Montagne Noire, Peak District, and Upper Silesia... The mercury mines of Idrija (Slovenia) and the uranium deposits of Tyuya Muyun (Kirgizia) are of particular interest. Recent studies have clearly shown the historic importance of numerous pockets of pisolitic iron (Siderolithic, Bohnerz) in the European steel metallurgy, since the Celts and Romans and up to the middle of the 19th century. The siderite ores raise special problems. Most bauxite deposits were found in karstic pockets and paleo-poljes (mediterranean type of bauxites). The studies of the old mines give a better insight into paleokarsts. Both the ancient and modern mines have created artificial karsts, and raise many geotechnical and environmental problems.

Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development., 1996,
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Andrejchuk Vjacheslav, Klimchouk Alexander
The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m), or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China), form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

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