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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That helictite is 1. generally small variety of stalactitic calcite growth that is twisted and contorted with no apparent regard for gravity. helictites form on cave walls, ceilings, and on stalactites. the growth develops as seepage water loses carbon dioxide from near its tip, having been supplied to that point by capillary action through a fine central canal. the helictite shape is created by crystal lattice distortion and crystal form changes within the calcite, but what causes these is uncertain. impurities may plan a role, and rare groups of parallel growing helictites may be wind-guided [9]. 2. irregular, twiglike, crystalline growths with varying orientations but often in crystal continuity, formed in caves by precipitation from bicarbonate solutions [20]. 3. a curved or angular twiglike lateral projection of calcium carbonate having a tiny central canal, found in caves [10]. also known as eccentric anemolite [20]; eccentric stalactite. synonyms: (french.) excentrique; (german.) exzentrisch gekrummter, tropfstein, excentriques; (greek.) stalaktits akanonistos; (italian.) stalattiti anomale, eccentiche; (spanish.) estalactita excentrica; (turkish.) duzensiz sarkit; (yugoslavian.) heliktit. related to curtain, dripstone, speleothem.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for indexes (Keyword) returned 36 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 36 of 36
Nonlinear kernel functions for karst aquifers, 2006,
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Jukic Damir, Icjukic Vesna,
SummaryThis paper presents a form of kernel function for karst aquifers derived from the time-invariant and non-anticipatory Volterra series. The shape of the kernel function depends on the current value of an index of antecedent recharge that is considered as an indicator of groundwater levels and vadose zone saturation. The proposed nonlinear form preserves specific characteristics of instantaneous unit hydrographs. By using analogies with the conceptual model of nonlinear reservoir, it is shown that the second component of the kernel function characterizes the prevailing type of groundwater flow. If the second component is positive, the free-surface flow is dominant, whereas the negative value indicates that the flow under pressure prevails. Groundwater recharge rates are calculated by using a groundwater recharge model based on the Palmer's soil-moisture balance method. The values of parameters of the groundwater recharge model are estimated by the spectral method which is modified to avoid the assumption about exponential forms of autocorrelation functions of input and output time series. This paper analyzes also the practical applicability of nonlinear kernels for the preliminary characterization of karst aquifers and the karst springs discharge modeling. The results of applications on the springs zones of the rivers Krka and Krcic are in accordance with previous assumptions that the Main Krka Spring is an ascending karst spring which aquifer is situated deeply inside the karst underground, whereas the Main Krcic Spring function as a descending karst spring

Anthropogenic CO2-flux into cave atmosphere and its environmental impact: A case study in the Cisarska Cave (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic), 2006,
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Faimon J, Stelcl J, Sas D,
The evolution of CO2 levels was studied in the ventilated and unventilated Nagel Dome chamber (the Cisarska Cave) with- and without human presence. Based on a simplified dynamic model and CO2/Rn data (222Rn considered as a conservative tracer), two types of CO2-fluxes into the chamber were distinguished: (1) the natural input of (2-4) x 10- 6[no-break space]m3 s- 1, corresponding to a flux of (8.5-17) x 10- 10[no-break space]m3 m- 2 s- 1 and (2) an anthropogenic input of (0.6-2.5) x 10- 4[no-break space]m3 s- 1, corresponding to an average partial flux of (4.8-7.7) x 10- 6[no-break space]m3 s- 1 person- 1. The chamber ventilation rates were calculated in the range from 0.033 to 0.155[no-break space]h- 1. Comparison of the chamber CO2-levels with chamber dripwater chemistry indicates that the peak CO2-concentrations during stay of persons (log pCO2 ~ - 2.97, - 2.89, and - 2.83) do not reach the theoretical values at which dripwater carbonate species and air CO2 are at equilibrium (log pCO2[DW] ~ - 2.76 to - 2.79). This means that CO2-degassing of the dripwaters will continue, increasing supersaturation with respect to calcite (dripwater saturation index defined as SIcalcite = aCa2? / 10- 8.4 varied in the range from 0.76 to 0.86). The pCO2[DW] values, however, would easily be exceeded if the period of person stay in the chamber had been slightly extended (from 2.85 to 4[no-break space]h under given conditions). In such case, the dripwater CO2-degassing would be inverted into CO2-dissolution and dripwater supersaturation would decrease. Achieving the threshold values at which water become aggressive to calcite (log pCO2[EK] ~ - 1.99, - 2.02, and - 1.84) would require extreme conditions, e.g., simultaneous presence of 100 persons in the cave chamber for 14[no-break space]h. The study should contribute to a better preservation of cave environment

Incorporation of Auxiliary Information in the Geostatistical Simulation of Soil Nitrate Nitrogen, 2006,
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Grunwald S. , Goovaerts P. , Bliss C. M. , Comerford N. B. , Lamsal S. ,
In north-central Florida the potential risk for movement of nitrate into the aquifer is high due to the large extent of well-drained marine-derived quartz sand overlying porous limestone material coupled with high precipitation rates. Our objective was to estimate spatio-seasonal distributions of soil NO3-N across the Santa Fe River Watershed in north-central Florida. We conducted spatially distributed synoptic and seasonal sampling (September 2003--wet summer/fall season, January 2004--dry winter season, May 2004--dry spring season) of soil NO3-N. Prior distributions of probability for NO3-N were inferred at each location across the watershed using ordered logistic regression. Explanatory variables included environmental spatial datasets such as land use, drainage class, and the Floridian aquifer DRASTIC index. These prior probabilities were then updated using indicator kriging, and multiple realizations of the spatial distribution of soil NO3-N were generated by sequential indicator simulation. Cross-validation indicated that smaller prediction errors are obtained when secondary information is incorporated in the analysis and when indicator kriging is used instead of ordinary kriging to analyze these datasets characterized by the presence of extreme high values and a nonnegligible number of data below the detection limit. The NO3-N values were lowest in September 2003 as a result of excessive leaching caused by large, intense tropical storms. Overall the NO3-N values in January 2004 were high and could be attributed to fertilization of crops and pastures, low plant uptake, and low microbial transformation during the winter period. Despite seasonal trends reflected by the values of observed and estimated NO3-N, we found areas that showed consistently high soil NO3-N throughout all seasons. Those areas are prime targets to implement best management practices

Interim report on a geoarchaeological project in the karstic region of the Serrana de Cuenca (central Spain), 2010,
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Benitocalvo, Alfonso And Ignacio De La Torre
The Serran?a de Cuenca (Iberian Chain, Central Spain) is dominated by calcareous plateaus and canyons with abundant karstic landforms, such as caves and rock-shelters. These features contribute to giving the Serrana de Cuenca great potential as a locality for research into the Palaeolithic. In 2008 we started a geoarchaeological project in this region, in order to investigate aspects of human settlement in Central Iberia during the Pleistocene. The first stages of the project sought to determine the karstic locations most likely to include archaeological sites, by making use of indexes and GIS map analysis. This approach produced digital maps and databases of potential locations that are now being used as a basis for follow-up field surveys. The combination of laboratory and field surveys has yielded interesting preliminary results, leading to the recognition of large rock-shelters with thick Pleistocene deposits, whose archaeological potential will be tested in the next stage of the project.

Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits, 2011,
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Pardoiguzquiza Eulogio, Duranvalsero Juan J. , Rodriguezgaliano Victor

The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.
Research highlights

Hypogene karst of Simferopol (Crimean fore-mountains) and its evolution, 2012,
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Amelichev G. N. , Dmitrieva A. Y. , Samokhin G. V.

In the limits of the urbanized territories of the fore-mountain Crimea, the amount of emergency situation caused by karst grows rapidly. At the same time indexes of intensity of modern karst processes are low, and environmental conditions are barely favourable for karst development. This disparity is settled on the basis of application of new ideas and concepts of geology, hydrogeology and speleogenesis, which have been integrated in domestic karstology relatively recently. In Simferopol, the capital of Crimea, features of relict hypogene karst are revealed, which are powerful stimulus of development of other negative exogeodynamic processes. The morfologo-genetic and age-dependent re-interpretation of karst features is performed. Superficial and underground forms are described. The article highlights main stages of karst evolution in the city. The growth of karst hazards in Simferopol is related to antropogenic activity, resulting in activation of relict hypogene karst features.

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