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Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology

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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That oolite is a type of limestone that is composed largely or partly of ooliths. also known as oolitic limestone. the best known examples in britain, within the jurassic limestone sequence of the cotswolds, are of only moderate strength, very porous and only weakly cavernous. in contrast, oolites of early carboniferous age have hosted extensive cave development beneath mymydd llangattwg and in other parts of south wales [9].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for japan (Keyword) returned 43 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 31 to 43 of 43
Evaporites, brines and base metals: What is an evaporite? Defining the rock matrix, 1996, Warren J. K. ,
This paper, the first of three reviews on the evaporite-base-metal association, defines the characteristic features of evaporites in surface and subsurface settings. An evaporite is a rock that was originally precipitated from a saturated surface or near-surface brine in hydrological systems driven by solar evaporation. Evaporite minerals, especially the sulfates such as anhydrite and gypsum, are commonly found near base-metal deposits. Primary evaporites are defined as those salts formed directly via solar evaporation of hypersaline waters at the earth's surface. They include beds of evaporitic carbonates (laminites, pisolites, tepees, stromatolites and other organic rich sediment), bottom nucleated salts (e.g. chevron halite and swallow-tail gypsum crusts), and mechanically reworked salts (such as rafts, cumulates, cross-bedded gypsarenites, turbidites, gypsolites and halolites). Secondary evaporites encompass the diagenetically altered evaporite salts, such as sabkha anhydrites, syndepositional halite and gypsum karst, anhydritic gypsum ghosts, and more enigmatic burial associations such as mosaic halite and limpid dolomite, and nodular anhydrite formed during deep burial. The latter group, the burial salts, were precipitated under the higher temperatures of burial and form subsurface cements and replacements often in a non-evaporite matrix. Typically they formed from subsurface brines derived by dissolution of an adjacent evaporitic bed. Because of their proximity to 'true' evaporite beds, most authors consider them a form of 'true' evaporite. Under the classification of this paper they are a burial form of secondary evaporites. Tertiary evaporites form in the subsurface from saturated brines created by partial bed dissolution during re-entry into the zone of active phreatic circulation. The process is often driven by basin uplift and erosion. They include fibrous halite and gypsum often in shale hosts, as well as alabastrine gypsum and porphyroblastic gypsum crystals in an anhydritic host. In addition to these 'true' evaporites, there is another group of salts composed of CaSO4 or halite. These are the hydrothermal salts. Hydrothermal salts, especially hydrothermal anhydrite, form by the subsurface cooling or mixing of CaSO4- saturated hydrothermal waters or by the ejection of hot hydrothermal water into a standing body of seawater or brine. Hydrothermal salts are poorly studied but often intimately intermixed with sulfides in areas of base-metal accumulations such as the Kuroko ores in Japan or the exhalative brine deeps in the Red Sea. In ancient sediments and metasediments, especially in hydrothermally influenced active rifts and compressional belts, the distinction of this group of salts from 'true' evaporites is difficult and at times impossible. After a discussion of hydrologies and 'the evaporite that was' in the second review, modes and associations of the hydrothermal salts will be discussed more fully in the third review

Palaeosecular variation observed in speleothems from western China and northern Spain, PhD thesis, 1996, Openshaw, S. J.

This study has produced records of the palaeosecular variation (PSV) of the earth's magnetic field from Speleothems from China and Spain. The ultimate aim of this project was to produce contemporaneous PSV records which would show that Speleothems accurately record ambient geomagnetic field behaviour. From Sichuan Province, China, five Speleothems were collected of which four were studied for their records of PSV. Eight Spanish Speleothems from the Cantabrian coast were collected but their weak magnetisation allowed only one record of PSV to be produced.
All speleothem sub-samples were weakly magnetised and had, on average, initial intensities of <100 x 10-8 Am2kg-1. Despite this, the majority of sub-samples were stable during stepwise alternating-field and thermal demagnetisation and each displayed a single component of magnetisation after removal of any secondary overprints. Rock magnetic experiments were hampered by low mineral concentrations but suggested that the remanences of each speleothem were carried by a mixture of multi and single-domain (titano-) magnetite and also by haematite present in significant quantities. The primary method of remanence acquisition appeared to be a depositional remanence sourced from flooding. This was corroborated by a linear relationship between sub-sample intensities and weight % acid insoluble detritus.
A selection of sub-samples from each speleothem were dated using uranium-thorium disequilibrium and alpha spectrometry. For the majority of sub-samples the low concentrations of uranium, high levels of detrital contamination and initially low chemical yields raised the associated dating inaccuracies above the quoted level for alpha spectrometry of 5-10%. Two Spanish Speleothems had high uranium concentrations and little, or no, detrital contamination. Percent age errors of these Speleothems ranged from 1 to 6%. Comprehensive experiments on the efficiencies of three electrodeposition methods were also undertaken. The most efficient method was found to be a modified version of the Hallstadius method (Hallstadius, 1984), which consistently achieved chemical yields between 40 and 90% for uranium and thorium.
In order to correct more analytically for the presence of detrital contamination, the leachate/leachate method of Schwarcz and Latham (1989) was tested. The maximum likelihood estimation data treatment technique (Ludwig and Titterington, 1994) was used to calculate dates from these analyses. Tests on Mexican speleothem SSJ2 gave excellent results allowing a revised dating scheme to be adopted. Tests on some sub-samples from Chinese Speleothems were generally unsuccessful due to analytical errors.
The isotope 210Pb was used to date the top surface of one speleothem. A constant growth rate was inferred which was significantly less than that calculated from the 230Th - 234U dating method. This was thought to be due to the former techniques inability to resolve growth rates of periods of less than 200 years.
Despite the dating errors associated with each speleothem the records of PSV compare well with each other and with contemporaneous records from China, Japan and also the UK (for the Spanish record). In addition. agreement with PSV data modelled from observatory records suggested that westward drift of the non-dipole geomagnetic field was predominant during the past 10ka.


Diversit morpho-climatique et intrt des karsts japonais, 2003, Salomon, Jeannol
Morpho-climatic features of Japanese karst areas - The Japanese karsts are practically unknown in Europe because few karstologists from this continent have visited Japan, and the studies completed there have been written in Japanese. Still, Japan has numerous karstifiable terrains of various locations and ages (from the Primary era to Holocene) that are subject to significant climatic ranges. For this reason many caves exist and many have been sheltered through the ages (archeological) up until recent times (World War II). Some are sufficiently large and well decorated to have consequently generated tourist activities, added by mystic and religious aspects. The understanding of karsts has also allowed remarkable management of underground systems for surface irrigation. Finally, due to their recording abilities, karsts developed in uplifted marine terraces offer better prospects for understanding the local tectonic patterns which concern the Japanese. These reasons make the Japanese karsts interesting.

Dental morphology of the Dawenkou Neolithic population in North China: implications for the origin and distribution of Sinodonty, 2003, Manabe Y. , Oyamada J. , Kitagawa Y. , Rokutanda A. , Kato K. , Matsushita T. ,
We compare the incidence of 25 nonmetric dental traits of the people of the Neolithic Dawenkou culture (6300-4500 BP) sites in Shandong Province, North China with those of other East Asian populations. The Dawenkou teeth had an overwhelmingly greater resemblance to the Sinodont pattern typical of Northeast Asia than to the Sundadont pattern typical of Southeast Asia. Multidimensional scaling using Smith's mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistic place the Dawenkou sample near the Amur and the North China-Mongolia populations in the area of the plot indicating typical Sinodonty. The existence of the Sinodont population in Neolithic North China suggests a possible continuity of Sinodonty from the Upper Cave population at Zhoukoudian (about 34,000-10,000 BP) to the modern North Chinese. The presence of Sinodonty in Shandong Province shows that the Japan Sea and East China Sea were strong barriers to gene flow for at least 3000 years, because at this time the Jomonese of Japan were fully Sundadont. In addition, we suggest that the descendants of the Dawenkou population cannot be excluded as one of the source populations that contributed to sinodontification in Japan. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Observation of microbial weathering resulting in peculiar 'exfoliation-like' features in limestone from Hirao-dai karst, Japan, 2003, Darabos G.

Sequence boundary and related sedimentary and diagenetic facies formed on Middle Permian mid-oceanic carbonate platform: Core observation of Akiyoshi Limestone, Southwest Japan, 2004, Nakazawa Tsutomu, Ueno Katsumi,

Akiyoshi-dai Karst and Caves, Japan, 2004, Kashima N.

New palaeontological assemblage, sedimentological and chronological data from the Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave (northern Vietnam), 2006, Bacon Am, Demeter F, Rousse S, Long Vt, Duringer P, Antoine Po, Thuy Nk, Mai Bt, Huong Ntm, Dodo Y,
This paper describes recent material gathered during the second fieldwork at Ma U'Oi in November 2002 by a Vietnamese-French-Japanese team. The Ma U'Oi cave, located in the province of Hoa Binh (60 km SW from Hanoi), northern Vietnam, belongs to a karstic network developed in Triassic dark-grey limestones.The cave is filled with coarse-grained breccias containing numerous fossil remains, partially preserved at several loci inside the cave (wall, vault and ground). We describe new teeth which confirm the occurrence of mammal taxa already mentioned at Ma U'Oi (Bacon et al., 2004)[Bacon, A-M., Demeter, F., Schuster, M., Long, V.T., Thuy, N.K., Antoine, P-O., Sen, S., Nga, H.H., Huong, N.T.M., 2004. The Pleistocene Ma U'Oi cave, northern Vietnam: palaeontology, sedimentology and palaeoenvironments. Geobios 37, 305-314], while others, mainly microvertebrates, emphasize the occurrence of new species for the Pleistocene of Vietnam. We report here, for the first time, the occurrence of these microvertebrates of different groups (primates, rodents, insectivores, small reptiles and amphibians) in the faunal assemblage. Among mammal taxa, the presence of one more hominid affiliated to archaic Homo is also attested by our findings. U/Th dating carried out on 2 samples extracted from breccia speleothems confirms the biochronological estimate, with fossiliferous fillings ranging from late Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene

A redescription of Ceratophysella lucifuga (Packard) (Collembola, Hypogastruridae) from North American caves, 2007, Skar?y?ski D.
The problematic species Ceratophysella lucifuga (Packard) is redescribed based on topotypes from Wyandotte Cave and specimens from two other caves of the south-central Indiana karst area. This species is characterized by lack of body pigmentation, slightly reduced ocelli, absence of an eversible sac between antennal segments IIIIV, presence of long lateral sensilla in antennal III-organ, postantennal organ with somewhat subdivided posterior lobes, well developed furca and the absence of setae a92 on abdominal tergum V. C. lucifuga is similar to other cavernicolous species of the ceratophysellan lineage grouped in genera Ceratophysella Bo rner and Typhlogastrura Bonet, especially C. proserpinae (Yosii) and C. troglodites (Yosii) from Japan, C. pecki Christiansen and Bellinger from USA and C. kapoviensis Babenko from Russia.

Great Caves of the World, 2008, Waltham, Tony

A short general introduction, then large photographs and short texts on 28 of the world's great caves, each one selected for some special feature of its geology, geomorhology, biology or history. Sof Omar (Ethiopia); Sterkfontein (South Africa); Castleguard (Canada); Mammoth (Kentucky); Lechuguillaand Carlsbad (New Mexico); Kazumura (Hawaii); Villa Luzand Sac Actun (Mexico); Quashies River (Jamaica); Janelao (Brazil); Pinega (Russia); Krubera (Georgia); Tri Nahacu (Iran); Difeng (China); Akiyoshi (Japan); Hinboun (Laos); Perak Tong and Mulu (Malaysia); Nare (Papua New Guinea); Nullarbor (Australia); Waitomo (New Zealand); Gaping Gill (England); Chauvet and Berger (France); Alpine Ice Caves (Austria); Skocjanske and Krizna (Slovenia).


Honshu, Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 9.0 Magnitude recorded in the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio, Texas, 2011, Schindel, Geary M.

The Edwards Aquifer is a large karst aquifer located in south-central Texas USA. The Index Well J-17, in which water levels in the aquifer are continuously monitored since 1934, detected distinctly the March 11, 2011 Honshu, Japan earthquake (9.0 magnitude). The Edwards Aquifer fluctuated approximately 0.3 meters (1 foot) during the initial response and continued to oscillate for approximately two hours after the event.


Deep hydrogeology: a discussion of issues and research needs, 2013, Tsang Chinfu, Niemi Auli

In this essay, “deep hydrogeology” is somewhat arbitrarily defined as hydrogeology in the subsurface deeper than 1 km, below which the effect of residual permeability at high stresses becomes evident (Neuzil 2003; Rutqvist and Stephansson 2003; Liu et al. 2009). Studies have shown that meteoric fluids are present in the earth’s crust from land surface to at least a depth of 10–15 km (Kozlowsky 1987; Taylor Jr 1990; Zharikov et al. 2003; Ge et al. 2003). At such depths, interaction with surface water and surface events over time periods of 100 or 1,000 years may be minimal, except in areas of very deep mining activities or where deep convection is enhanced by active magmatism. Deep drilling to several kilometers in depth is often done for petroleum and geothermal reservoir exploration and exploitation. The focus of such activities is reservoir identification, capacity evaluation, and fluid and heat extractability. However, it is largely an open area of research to understand the state, structure and evolution of deep hydrogeology over time scales of tens of thousands of years or more, especially in areas lacking petroleum and geothermal resources. Interest in attaining such an understanding has emerged from the need for long-term predictions related to nuclear waste disposal and from recognition of the role that hydrogeology may play in seismicity, orogenesis and various geological processes, as well as in global fluid and chemical cycles. A number of wide-ranging questions may be asked regarding deep hydrogeology, several of which are as follows: What are the current and past states of fluid pressure, temperature and chemical composition in deep formations? How does fluid transport mass and heat? What are the fluid sources and driving mechanisms? What are the magnitude and distribution of porosity and permeability? What are the occurrence and characteristics of large-scale flow, including thermally and chemically driven convection systems? What is the nature of local anomalous fluid pressures and what are their implications? The purpose of this essay is to discuss key issues and research needs in deep hydrogeology. It is based on a workshop on the subject held at Uppsala University in Sweden, with participants from 11 countries, including the USA, Russia, Japan and a number of European countries (Tsang et al. 2012). The following discussion will be divided into sections on permeability structures, driving forces, coupled processes, borehole testing and data analysis, followed by a few concluding remarks.


Radon, carbon dioxide and fault displacements in central Europe related to the Tohoku Earthquake, 2014, Briestensky Milos, Thinova Lenka, Praksova Renata, Stemberk Josef, Rowberry Matt D. , Knejflova Zuzana

Tectonic instability may be measured directly using extensometers installed across active faults or it may be indicated by anomalous natural gas concentrations in the vicinity of active faults. This paper presents the results of fault displacement monitoring at two sites in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians. These data have been supplemented by radon monitoring in Mladec Caves and by carbon dioxide monitoring in Zbrasov Aragonite Caves. A significant period of tectonic instability is indicated by changes in the fault displacement trends and by anomalous radon and carbon dioxide concentrations. This was recorded around the time of the catastrophic MW = 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake which hit eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. It is tentatively suggested that the Tohoku Earthquake in the Pacific Ocean and the unusual geodynamic activity recorded in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians both reflect contemporaneous global tectonic changes.


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