MWH Global

Enviroscan Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology


Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/template/toolbar_left.php on line 5
Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mercury column is a cylindrical bore in a manometer filled with mercury [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/template/toolbar_right.php on line 7
What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for parameters (Keyword) returned 351 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 351
The influence of bedding planes on the development of karst caves (in Slovenian and with an English summary and abstract), PhD thesis, 1996,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Knez, M.

There have been much less researchers looking for the initial water ways in karst along the bedding-planes than those who deduced the origin of cave channels from tectonic structures. The aim of my research was to focus scientific attention on the sphere where the answers within the sedimentology might be expected. The study identified that the basic idea of bedding-plane importance at the initiation of cave channels was correct but also, that the interrelation is different from how it had been supposed. Single lithological, petrological or stratigraphical parameters of the inception are only partly known, or merely guessed. My research threw light on the problem of initial channels met in Velika dolina in Skocjanske jame. Cave passages, or their fragments and other traces of the underground karstification do not appear scattered at random on the walls but they are obviously gathered along a small number of so-called bedding-planes.
The basic working method was to locate the phreatic channels or their fragments, to sample and microscope those parts of the layers adjacent to a bedding-plane. Somewhere a whole layer was considered. Other methods were: regional distribution of caves, photographing, inventarisation and classification of speleogens and complexometry, the latter providing the purity of limestones.
The original channels are practically gathered along only three formative bedding-planes (out of 62 measured); their close vicinity differs from the others in several important properties: typically damaged rock, higher level of calcium carbonate, smaller porosity and others. Consequently the mentioned concordance cannot possibly be only apparent.
From the lithological point of view, I got neither substantial argument nor explanation for selective karstification. However, it was identified that at least in respect of a concrete example from Velika dolina, the inception started along interbedded slides that without doubt pushed the beds aside leaving an interval.


The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

Influence of climatic parameters in karstic denudation, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Gombert P. ,
Karstic denudation is empirically estimated by specific dissolution or geochemical balance calculations, which need a precise knowledge of the aquifer, or by mathematical expressions which only depend upon rainfall. It is in fact known that water inflow charged with CO2 is the main karstic agent. We propose a mathematical model called << Maximal Potential Dissolution >> (DMP) and based on efficient infiltration calculation, CO2 soil productivity and knowledge of the calcocarbonic equilibrium

Strategic ground water management for the reduction of karst land collapse hazard in Tangshan, China, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Wang H. T. , Li Y. X. , Wang E. Z. , Zhao Z. Z. ,
Karst land collapse is a geological hazard caused mainly by human activities such as the pumping of ground water. The present study is aimed at determining a management strategy to minimize the risk of karst land collapse in the urban area of Tangshan, China. A method of groundwater management for multi-aquifer systems with groundwater confined and unconfined interchange properties has been developed. A groundwater simulation model and a management model are constructed for the studied area. The data used by the simulation and management models include the geometry of the aquifer systems, the parameters of hydrogeology, the distribution of recharge, and discharge in the simulation period and the historical water table elevations. The results of the model calculations show that the total balance between recharge and discharge for both Quaternary and bedrock aquifers is 4.7 x 106 m(3) in the period from November 1989 to October 1990. The optimal annual average pumping rate from the underlying bedrock aquifer is some 25.8 x 10(6) m(3), which is 54.4% of that which was pumped out of the aquifer in the hydrological year of 1990. If the management plan is carried out, the groundwater level in the bedrock aquifer will recover its confined state in most of the areas at risk of land collapse. This is the most resistant state to collapse in terms of groundwater flow.

Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .2. Solute-transport modeling, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Field Ms,
Ground-water flow and solute-transport simulation modeling are major components of most exposure and risk assessments of contaminated aquifers. Model simulations provide information on the spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants in subsurface media but are difficult to apply to karst aquifers in which conduit flow is important. Ground-water flow and solute transport in karst conduits typically display rapid-flow velocities, turbulent-flow regimes, concentrated pollutant-mass discharge, and exhibit open-channel or closed-conduit how Conventional groundwater models, dependent on the applicability of Darcy's law, are inappropriate when applied to karst aquifers because of the (1) nonapplicability of Darcian-flow parameters, (2) typically nonlaminar flow regime, and (3) inability to locate the karst conduits through which most flow and contaminant transport occurs. Surface-water flow and solute-transport models conditioned on a set of parameters determined empirically from quantitative ground-water tracing studies may be effectively used to render fate-and-transport values of contaminants in karst conduits. Hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters developed in a companion paper were used in the surface-water model, TOXI5, to simulate hypothetical slug and continuous-source releases of ethylbenzene in a karst conduit. TOXI5 simulation results showed considerable improvement for predicted ethylbenzene-transport rates and concentrations over qualitative tracing and analytical ground-water model results. Ethylbenzene concentrations predicted by TOXI5 simulations were evaluated in exposure and risk assessment models

Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .1. Estimating karst conduit-flow parameters, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Field Ms, Nash Sg,
Quantitative ground-water tracing of conduit-dominated karst aquifers allows for reliable and practical interpretation of karst ground-water flow. Insights into the hydraulic geometry of the karst aquifer may be acquired that otherwise could not be obtained by such conventional methods as potentiometric-surface mapping and aquifer testing. Contamination of karst aquifers requires that a comprehensive tracer budget be performed so that karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters be obtained. Acquisition of these parameters is necessary for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport. A FORTRAN computer program for estimating total tracer recovery from tracer-breakthrough curves is proposed as a standard method. Estimated hydraulic-flow parameters include mean residence time, mean flow velocity, longitudinal dispersivity, Peclet number, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Estimated geometric parameters include karst conduit sinuous distance, conduit volume, cross-sectional area, diameter, and hydraulic depth. These parameters may be used to (1) develop structural models of the aquifer, (2) improve aquifer resource management, (3) improve ground-water monitoring systems design, (4) improve aquifer remediation, and (5) assess contaminant fate-and-transport. A companion paper demonstrates the use of these hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters in a surface-water model for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport in a karst conduit. Two ground-water tracing studies demonstrate the utility of this program for reliable estimation of necessary karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters

RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR KARST AQUIFERS: (1) ESTIMATING KARST CONDUIT-FLOW PARAMETERS, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Field Ms, Nash Sg,

The problem of modeling limestone springs: The case of Bagnara (north Apennines, Italy), 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Angelini P, Dragoni W,
The Bagnara spring (Central Italy), fed by a fractured, carbonate, and, in some areas, karstic aquifer, was examined. The available information is derived from geological mapping and daily flows over a period of 20 consecutive years. There are no data on the hydrogeological parameters nor on the aquifer hydraulic head, which is known only at the elevation of the spring. The objective of the work was to construct an appropriate mathematical model for the spring despite the scarcity of available information. The MODFLOW code was used to simulate the system following the equivalent porous media approach. The hydraulic conductivity and the specific yield equivalents were estimated by calibrating the model on the master depletion curve and taking into consideration the topographic elevation of the system's surface. The size of the protection area around the spring was investigated on the basis of the isochrons constructed from the results of the model

Particle size distributions in waters from a karstic aquifer: from particles to colloids, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Atteia O, Kozel R,
Waters from the surface hydrologic network and the spring of a karstic aquifer in Switzerland were sampled to analyse their colloidal content. The measurements were done weekly with a single particle counter and were verified by other techniques. The particle size distribution (PSD) was modelled in two portions, below and above 5 mu m, using two types of equation: a power law (Pareto distribution) and an exponential law. The model results matched well with the entire PSD data set by varying the parameter values. The parameters obtained from fitting the measured PSD curves were then interpreted in relation to environmental factors. It appears that the two parts of the curves vary independently. The first part of the PSD curve, relating to the smallest particles, is dependent on the pH value of the spring or the temperature of the surface brook. In contrast, the second part of the curve depends mostly on the spring discharge volume. During high flow events, the major effect of the discharge on particle size occurs during the rising limb of the hydrograph, interpreted as clays deposited in the aquifer and resuspended due to high water velocity. The contrasted behaviour of the two parts of the PSD curves suggested that the break point in the curves represents the limit between colloidal and particulate behaviour. Knowing these dependencies, and the characteristics of the particulate matter, allowed the estimation of the role of the colloids in contaminant transport. Large fluxes of suspended matter, specific to karstic aquifers, demonstrate the critical role of colloids in contaminant transport, which is markedly different from what typically occurs in porous media.

A parsimonious model for simulating flow in a karst aquifer, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Barrett Me, Charbeneau Rj,
This paper describes the hydrologic system associated with the Barton Springs portion of the Edwards aquifer and presents a lumped parameter model capable of reproducing general historical trends for measured water levels and spring discharge. Recharge to the aquifer was calculated based on flow loss studies of the creeks crossing the recharge zone and on estimates of the rate of diffuse infiltration of rainfall. Flow measurements on each creek above and below the recharge zone were used to develop a relationship between how above the recharge zone and the rate of recharge. The five-cell groundwater model, each cell corresponding to one of the watersheds of the five main creeks crossing the recharge zone, was developed to support the management objectives of the City of Austin. The model differs from previous models in that the aquifer properties within cells are allowed to vary vertically. Each cell was treated as a tank with an apparent area and the water level of a single well in each cell was used to characterize the conditions in that cell. The simple representation of the hydrologic system produced results comparable to traditional groundwater models with fewer data requirements and calibration parameters. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Numerical versus statistical modelling of natural response of a karst hydrogeological system, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Eisenlohr L, Bouzelboudjen M, Kiraly L, Rossier Y,
Structural and hydrodynamic characteristics of karst aquifers are mostly deduced from studies of global responses of karst springs (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition). In this case, global response is often used to make inferences with respect to infiltration and ground water How processes as well as on the hydrodynamic parameters. Obviously, the direct verification of these inferences is very difficult. We have used an indirect method of verification, introducing well defined theoretical karst structures into a finite element model and then analysing the simulated global response according to the currently accepted interpretation schemes. As we know what we are introducing into the numeric model, the consistency of the interpretation may be checked immediately. The results obtained in the hydrogeological study of two karst basins in the Swiss Jura and from 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations show the difficulty of finding structural parameters and hydrodynamic behaviour from statistical methods alone, i.e. correlation analyses discharge-discharge and precipitation-discharge. In effect, our first results show that the form of the correlograms depends on several factors besides the structure of the karst aquifer: (i) on the form of the floods. in other words the contrast between quick Row and base How, (ii) on the frequency of hydrological events during the period analysed and (iii) on the type of infiltration processes, in other words the ratio of diffuse infiltration to concentrated information. Obviously, the variability of a karst hydrograph is a result of a combination of these factors. Distinction between them is not always possible on hydrographs, and therefore on correlations (discharge-discharge and precipitation-discharge). (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Numerical simulation as a tool for checking the interpretation of karst spring hydrographs, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Eisenlohr L, Kiraly L, Bouzelboudjen M, Rossier Y,
A schematic representation of karst aquifers may be that of a high hydraulic conductivity channel network with kilometre-wide intervals, surrounded by a low hydraulic conductivity fractured limestone volume and connected to a local discharge area, the karst spring, The behaviour of the karst spring (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition, etc.) represents the global response of the karst aquifer to input events. The available data an karst aquifer hydraulic parameters are limited, Global response is therefore more easily obtained and is commonly used to make inferences on the recharge and groundwater How processes, as well as on the hydraulic parameter fields. Direct verification of these interpretations is, obviously, very difficult. We have used an indirect method of verification, consisting of introducing well-defined theoretical karst structures into a finite element model and then analysing the simulated global response according to presently accepted interpretation schemes. As we know what we put into the numerical model, the validity of any interpretation may be checked. The first results indicate that some of the generally accepted interpretations are not necessarily true. In particular: (i) separation of simulated recession hydrographs into several components shows that different exponential components do not necessarily correspond to aquifer volumes with different hydraulic conductivities: (ii) non-exponential parts of recession hydrographs do not always give information about the infiltration process: and (iii) the recession coefficient of the baseflow (i.e. the last, nearly exponential part of the recession hydrograph) depends on the global configuration of the whole karst aquifer, not just on the hydraulic properties of the low hydraulic conductivity volumes. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

Role of Speleology in Karst Hydrology and Hydrogeology., 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Bonacci O.
Technology of speleological investigations enables special measurements of features of underground conduits, caves, pits, jamas, shafts and the other solutional sculpturings such as scallops and cave rocky relief. Speleologic investigations can reveal the positions, dimensions and interactions of underground and surface karst features and water flow in the karst and on its surface. Speleologists are capable of investigating the hydraulic conditions under which laminar or turbulent flows occur in conduits and small and narrow karst fractures. From such investigations crucial parameters for hydraulic, hydrologic and hydrogeologic modelling such as dissolution-bedform and hydraulically-transported sediment, can be obtained. For these reasons, the role of speleology in karst hydrology and hydrogeology should (and undoubtedly will) in future be given much more importance. This paper briefly explains the main theoretical aspects and gives some practical examples and experiences from Dinaric and others karst regions.

Results of a study about tracing tests transfer functions variability in karst environment, 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Doerfliger N.
Artificial tracing tests are often used to simulate migration of a point-source contaminant under various hydrological conditions in karst hydrogeological impact assessment or to define groundwater protection zones. Due to economic reasons, it is rather difficult to carry out adequate tracing tests to determine what are the possible recovery curves over range of discharges at the outlet, are the tracer test results representative of the spring watercatchment being protected ? Our objective was to characterize the tracing-systems in a karst environment by a mean transfer function; such transfer function may be used to predict the breakthrough curve of a point-source contaminant taking into account an error factor. A Jura mean transfer function with + and -95% interval confidence functions can be established and differentiated from the Alps mean transfer function. The use of this transfer function to predict the response of a point-source contaminant requires considerations of water catchment size, thickness or the aquifer and discharge at the outlet. The results of this variability analysis confirm that the transfer functions by themselves may not be used to protect the whole karst spring water catchment, as this one is affected by the heterogeneity of the physical parameters. At the scale of a water catchment, transfer functions are not the major tool to protect the groundwater. But with a multiattribute approach of vulnerability mapping, transfer functions contribute to the development of groundwater protection strategy.

Parameter identification in double-continuum models applied to karst aquifers., 1997,
Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /home/isthin5/public_html/addon-domains/speleogenesis.info/include/functions1.php on line 943
Mohrlok U. , Kienie J. , Teutsch G.
One modelling approach which proved successful in describing the groundwater flow within karst terraines is based on the double-continuum concept. This concept was first introduced by Teutsch (1988) and subsequently used by Teutsch & Sauter (1991), Sauter (1992), Lang (1995), Mohrlok (1996) and others to describe the ambivalent characteristics of karst aquifers. However, the approach has the drawback that the double-continuum model parameters can be determined only through model calibration (inverse approach), i.e. so far the model parameters cannot be related directly to physical field measurements. Therefore, in order to develop a better understanding of the physical significance of hydraulic parameters within double-continuum systems, a detailed numerical modeling study was conducted. For this purpose a number of synthetic but realistic karst aquifer network geometries were generated and analysed. The response of the karst network to recharge events was simulated using a detailed discrete fracture flow model with the resulting head and spring flow variographs being subsequently assumed as field measurements. This 'measured' data was then used for the calibration of a double-continuum model and the resulting parameters were compared to the original karst network geometry data. This comparison was used to develop mathematical/physical relationships between the discrete karst network geometry representing reality and the double-continuum parameter representation of it.

Results 46 to 60 of 351
You probably didn't submit anything to search for