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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That similarity criteria is the conditions indicating under what circumstances a model and prototype are similar [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms


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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for springs (Keyword) returned 583 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 46 to 60 of 583
Le karst de la Sainte-Baume (Bouches-du-Rhne et Var). Structure et volution : l'approche hydrogologique, 1986,
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Coulier, C.
THE SAINTE BAUME KARST (Bouches du Rhne and Var, France), STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION: THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL APPROACH - The Sainte-Baume range constitutes the highest and southernmost mountain of Basse-Provence. Its complex structure is due to an Upper Eocene tectonic overthrust, however, the main karstified part has developed after the Upper Miocene. Some of the most important springs have been studied and the hydrodynamical and physico-chemical characteristics are given. These results reveal two main types of springs: 1/ springs resulting from important karstification where infiltration dominates and water transit is rapid; 2/ springs resulting from weak karstification, poorly drained, where a certain storage of water controls their action. This second type of springs appears to be related to a poorly organised deep drainage level, which partly feeds a coastal karstic system (Port-Miou).

Les Mts. de Pardailhan, tude hydrodynamique et hydro-chimique (Montagne Noire, Hrault), 1986,
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Guyot, J. L.
THE PARDAILHAN MOUNTAINS: HYDRODYNAMIC AND HYDROCHEMICAL STUDY OF KARSTIC SPRINGS OF POUSSAROU AND MALIBERT - The hydrogeological study of the Monts de Pardailhan carried out in collaboration with the Regional Service of Development Water (Montpellier), has allowed the definition of the systems of flow of the principal courses of water and sources of this region to become apparent. The hydrodynamic analysis of the two main karstic springs, Poussarou and Malibert, showed, thanks to the utilisation of different methods (sorted discharge, variograms) that these sources have different systems of flow. The hydrochemical study confirmed this difference of behavioural patterns towards the outlet.

L'accident de Tchernobyl : une retombe positive en hydrogologie, 1986,
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Sesiano J. , Bueche M.
THE TCHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: A POSITIVE HYDROGEOLOGICAL ASPECT - As a continuation of dye-tracing studies of underground waters in Haute-Savoie, France, over the last few years, we have used the radioactive elements released by the Chernobyl nuclear accident as artificial tracers. The event happened simultaneously with the onset of the spring high waters. The response of the system was thus delayed by more than two weeks, the time for the water to percolate and for the aquifer to recharge. On the third week, a very faint signal was detected by gammametry and by liquid scintillation counters at the two surveyed springs.

Premires observations morphologiques et splologiques sur le karst haut-alpin du Tennengebirge (Salzburg, Autriche), 1987,
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Audra, Ph.
THE MASSIF OF TENNENGEBIRGE (SALZBURG, AUSTRIA) - The Tennengebirge, in the Salzburg limestone Alps, are characterised by an important high alpine karst, containing some of the deepest austrian caves (Batman Hhle: -1219m, Schneeloch: 1086m, Platteneck: -937m, Gipfel Loch: -852m). The phreatic zone locates at 720m asl. The main springs are situated on the northern side of the mountain. A description of the Vordere Pitschenberg Valley has been sketched illustrating a large diversity and underground, of actual or inherited character.

Un des premiers hydrogologues du karst : l'abb Paramelle, ''hydroscope'', 1987,
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Taisne J. , Choppy J.
FATHER PARAMELLE: ONE OF FIRST KARST HYDROGEOLOGIST - Father Paramelle was born in 1790, at Felzins, Lot, France. He was humble vicar of a small parish, but his ability to indicate with astonishing precision where and how to dig up the ground and find water made him quite famous at the time. He was summoned from all parts of France and in 25 years he indicated more than 10.000 " springs " in 40 departments, at least. He was not a water diviner; his success resulted from his geological knowledge, his experience and his sense of observation. To him limestone appeared to be " unfavourable to the discovery of springs " ; but in his study of limestone, he suggested three notions, new at the time : 1) lines of dolines are a frequent feature in dry valleys ; 2) usually surface valley lie over underground streams ; 3) the sinkhole-resurgence system is a general phenomenon. He gave an account of is principles and method, and presented a vindication of his results, in " Lart de dcouvrir les sources " (" the art of discovering springs "). He died and was buried in Saint-Cr, Lot, in 1875.

Les msaventures des sources de l'Estavelle et de l'Inversac en Languedoc Mditerranen, 1987,
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Gze Bernard
The Estavelle and the Inversac are two celebrated springs in the Mediterranean Languedoc (South of France). Unfortunately, the first one has been chosen as a type for the karstic cavities alternatively absorbing or discharging the waters, according to the season, which has never been the case. On the opposite, the second one can be taken as model for this alternation as swallow hole or emergence.

Observations on the Buchan Karst During High Flow Conditions, 1987,
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Finlayson Brian, Ellaway Mark

In late July 1984 heavy rain at Buchan in East Gippsland produced widespread flooding and activated the dry valley network and vadose cave system on the Buchan limestones. The heavy rainfall was caused by the movement southwards along the New South Wales coast of a low pressure centre which originated in southeast Queensland. Intensity - frequency - duration analysis of the rainfall event indicates that while the 24 hour fall on the day the flooding occurred had a recurrence interval of only 1.75 years, the 96 hour and the 120 hour duration had recurrence intervals of 3.8 and 8.0 years respectively. The flood peak in the Buchan River had a recurrence interval of 4.3 years. These analyses indicate that the dry valleys and vadose cave systems are hydrologically active quite frequently under present climatic conditions. Water quality observations were made on surface streams and springs in the Buchan area during the flood and the results are compared with similar data collected under low flow conditions.


Deposition of Tufa on Ryans and Stockyard Creeks, Chillagoe Karst, North Queensland: The Role of Evaporation, 1987,
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Dunkerley, D. L.

A spring which feeds Ryans and Stockyard Creeks west of Cillagoe, was examined in order to understand the circumstances producing extensive deposits of tufa in the stream channels. The spring water was found to be of considerable hardness (300 ppm total carbonates) and to emerge only very slightly supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Both saturation levels rose very rapidly during the first 150 m of subaerial flow, as did pH and water temperature. In contrast to the reported behaviour of other limestone springs, carbonate hardness at this site does not decrease monotonically downstream, but rather locally undergoes significant increases. In particular, magnesium hardness at 1 km downstream is more than 4 times its value at the spring. These phenomena are explained in terms of evaporative concentration of the dissolved carbonates and in terms of possible chemical changes associated with the mixture of waters having contrasting characteristics at channel and pool sites along the streams.


A reconnaissance isotope study of waters in the karst of the Western Tatra mountains, 1988,
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Rozanski K. , Dulinski M. ,
Presented are results of isotope investigations of waters collected in the karstic area of the Western Tatra Mts. Altogether 35 groundwater samples have been analysed (tritium content, [delta]D, [delta]18O). They represent groundwaters collected on the earth surface (springs, streams, exurgences) as well as waters found in caves. Parallel, systematic isotope analyses of monthly precipitation collected at the Ornak station located in the center of the investigated area were also carried out. The results of isotope investigations fully confirm earlier suggestions that the karst system of the Western Tatra Mts consists of separate independent subsystems exhibiting weak (if any) hydraulic interconnections. Tritium data allow a semi-quantitative assessment of the mean residence time of the baseflow component in the investigated system. It is equal to at least 7/8 years. Eventual further measurements of tritium content should allow a more precise determination of this parameter. [delta]D and [delta]18O analyses of the investigated waters provide a basis for assessment of the Is/I ratio i.e. the ratio of infiltration originating from summer precipitation to the total yearly infiltration. It appears that groundwaters collected in caves exhibit on the average significantly higher D and 18O content compared to groundwaters collected on the surface. Possible reasons of this effect are discussed thoroughly in the paper

Le karst nivernais : aperu gomorphologique et hydrogologique, 1989,
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Couturaud A. , Orange A.
The Nivre karst: geomorphologic and hydrogeologic considerations - Western part of Burgundy and southern part of the Paris basin, the Nivernais karst takes from both regions their lithologic and structural features: Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonate formations, monocline structure with horsts and grabens. But its particularity is in the thick superficial formations, that are supporting a wide mantle of forest, and that determine its morphology, its hydrodynamic and its hydrochemistry. The karst area is distinguished by closed depressions and by the abundance of valleys. The penetrable cavities are scarce and of a little extension, and are principally underground streams. The study of the hydrodynamic and the chemistry of some springs have shown the complexity and the variability of the dynamic of the karstic systems that depends essentially on the superficial formations.

Les importantes mergences de Magland, dans la valle de l'Arve (Haute-Savoie) : physico-chimie et origine des eaux, 1989,
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Sesiano, J.
Dye tracing and physico-chemical analysis of two important springs in the Arve valley (Haute-Savoie, France) - Several dye-tracing experiments and physico-chemical analysis of water samples taken during 18 months were performed at two important springs in the Arve valley (Haute-Savoie, France). The water origin and the type of flow, very different from one to the other, are thus explained. The first spring collects water from both a bare high-altitude karst and a forested karst at a lower elevation. It gathers also waters from the lakes Flaine and Vernant. The drainage is superficial, with strong but short water outbursts; water storage is nevertheless important, the spring being perennial. The physico-chemistry of its water is similar to that of springs located in the Northern Prealps. The second spring is very different. The physico-chemistry variations being much smoother. It comes from a basin filled with fluvio-glacial deposits and located under the Gers Lake. Its physico-chemical properties are rather similar to those of typical springs located in Provence and Southern Provence.

COMPARISON OF THE C-14 ACTIVITY OF GROUNDWATER AND RECENT TUFA FROM KARST AREAS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1989,
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Horvatincic N. , Srdoc D. , Silar J. , Tvrdikova H. ,
C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

Qualit physico chimique et bactriologique des sources du domaine de Plat (Haute-Savoie), 1990,
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Buissonvodinh, J.
PHYSICO CHEMISTRY AND BACTERIOLOGY OF THE DOMAIN OF PLATE SPRINGS (HAUTE SAVOIE, FRANCE) - On the high alpine karst of Plat (Haute-Savoie), eight springs on four catchments have been submitted to physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. The skiing resort of Flaine is situated on one of the catchments, the others are not very frequented (mountain pasture, cattle). These springs have a good physico-chemical quality but only one is drinkable. Pathological germs contained in human and animal excrements contaminate the others. This phenomenon is amplified by the ground and earth leaching due to rainstorms. On the other hand, the skiing resort of Flaine could be responsible of a chronic pollution of the Salles spring. All traditional frequentation of this area makes the water unusable and undrinkable, and all additional development on the karst could only aggravate this situation and compromise the use of water.

Notectonique dans le karst du N-O du lac de Thoune (Suisse), 1990,
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Jeannin, P. Y.
Neotectonic in the karst north of Lake Thoune (Switzerland) - The karstic area north of Lake Thoune is part of the "Border Chain" of the Swiss Alps (Cretaceous, Helvetic). It comprises large caves coming from two catchments. The first one pours out at the Beatushhle; more than 15 km of galleries are known in this area. The second one contains the Sieben Hengste - Hohgant - Hohlaub - Schrattenfluh region, it pours out at the Btterich and Gelberbrunnen springs, by Lake Thoune. It includes the very large "Sieben Hengste - Hohgant cave System" (length: 115 km; depth: 1050 m); the Brenschacht (length: >10 km; depth: 950 m), as well as several other important caves more than 1 km length. Recent shifts along faults were mainly measured in the Sieben Hengste Cave System. Neotectonic indication were of the following types: gallery sections displaced by the fault shifts, displaced pillar structures or shifted, inclined or broken speleothems. The fault movements were placed on a time scale according to the genetic evolution of the region. It indicates that there were three phases of movement, which greatly affected the underground flows and karstification. The geometric and dynamic analysis of the measured shifts and slikken-slides also indicates three phases of movements. The strain direction, causing these movements, was determined. Thus, three plio-quaternary tectonic phases were found: an alpine compressive SSE-NNW phase, followed by an extensive SSE-NNW phase and then again by a compressive one.

Isopoda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Microcharon, Jaera, Proasellus) and other fauna in hypogean waters of southern Cyprus., 1990,
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Sket Boris
Springs and wells in SW and S part of Cyprus were briefly surveyed. Chlorinity was 0.1; 0.8 p.p.t. Some isopods were found in collecting galleries of springs and in wells in calcarenites and in gravel deposits. These were Proasellus coxalis ssp. with some depigmented specimens, the probably stygobitic P. c. nanus ssp. n., poorly pigmented Jaera italica, and Microcharon luciae n. sp.; they were accompanied by the stygobitic amphipod Bogidiella cypria, by Turbellaria (Tricladida), by Copepoda (Cyclopoida), and rarely by some other animals (Pisidium sp., Oligochaeta). Only slightly depigmented Turbellaria Tricladida (cf. Dugesia sp.) occur in wells far from surface waters. Descriptions of new taxa are given.

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